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Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Link Beam Rear Suspension for Front-Wheel-Drive Cars

1995-02-01
950585
Research into stability at high speed shows that rear suspension characteristics play an important role in vehicle control and stability. In order to improve the cornering limit steering performance and traction of front-wheel-drive vehicles, where the front wheels bear a large proportion of the load and transmit the driving force, and to maintain vehicle stability when decelerating while cornering, rear suspension characteristics are needed that will fully draw out the cornering force capacity of the rear tires. This requirement continues to grow every year, along with demands for higher levels of comfort in passenger cars, including improved ride quality and quietness. It was against this background that the new multi-link beam rear suspension, which is installed in the new Maxima and Sentra models, was developed. This paper describes the aims, construction, characteristics and effects of this new suspension, with focus on vehicle control and stability.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Performance Dash Silencer Made of a Novel Shaped Fiber Sound-Absorbing Material

1996-02-01
960192
Interior quietness has been improved year by year until it has now become one of the basic performance requirements of vehicles. Traditional approaches to assuring quietness have been to increase the weight of sound insulation barriers or to enlarge sound insulation space. Such methods run counter to the aims of reducing vehicle weight and providing a more spacious interior. In this research, an attempt was made to overcome this trade-off by adopting a new material for the sound-absorbing material used in vehicles. The newly developed-sound absorbing material consists mainly of modified cross-section polyester fabric. It provides noticeably higher sound-absorbing performance than traditional material like shoddy or formed urethane. This is attributed to increased friction between the fibers and air, owing to the greater surface aria of the modified cross-section polyester fiber compare with that of the circular cross-section of ordinary fibers at an identical weight.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

1997-10-01
972837
Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Technical Paper

Research on Crankshaft System Behavior Based on Coupled Crankshaft-Block Analysis

1997-10-01
972922
Achieving a multi-cylinder engine with excellent noise/vibration character sties and low friction at the main bearings requires an optimal design not only for the crankshaft construction but also for the bearing support system of the cylinder block. To accomplish that, it is necessary to understand crankshaft system behavior and the bearing load distribution for each of the main bearings. Crankshaft system behavior has traditionally been evaluated experimentally because of the difficulty in performing calculations to predict resonance behavior over the entire engine speed range. A coupled crankshaft-block analysis method has been developed to calculate crankshaft system behavior by treating vibration and lubrication in a systematic manner. This method has the feature that the coupled behavior of the crankshaft and the cylinder block is analyzed by means of main bearing lubrication calculations. This paper presents the results obtained with this method.
Technical Paper

Research and Development Work on Navigation Systems at Nissan

1993-11-01
931921
Nissan is offering navigation systems in some domestic production models. These systems, which show drivers the vehicle's present location on a CRT map display, free them from anxiety about getting lost when traveling in an unfamiliar area. It is expected that future navigation systems will incorporate two key capabilities. One will be a route guidance capability, which will not only indicate the present location but also select the optimal route to the intended destination and guide drivers there by indicating which direction to take at each intersection along the way. The second capability will be a communications link with the roadside infrastructure for receiving outside information such as traffic congestion data and incorporating that information into route guidance. Nissan has established the core technologies of these navigation capabilities in the past ten years through the development of conceptual prototypes and experimental systems in government-sponsored projects.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Practical Numerical Analysis Method for Heat Flow Distribution in the Engine Compartment

1993-04-01
931081
The thermal environment in the automotive engine compartment is expected to become increasingly severe in the years ahead owing to the installation of a large-size manifold catalyst to reduce exhaust emissions, among other factors. This will make it even more important to analyze the engine compartment layout in terms of heat flow considerations at the design conceptualization stage of a new vehicle. In this research, a flow analysis program called DRAG4D was applied to find the flow velocity distribution and ambient air temperature distribution in the engine compartment during driving, idling and after the engine was turned off. This original program developed at Nissan takes into account the effects of the energy balance and buoyancy, and provides a practical level of prediction accuracy. The time required to create an analytical model and perform the computations has been shortened by using an automatic grid generation function, based on a solid model, and experimental equations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Disc Brake Squeal, 1992

1992-02-01
920553
Eliminating squeal noise generated during braking is an important task for the improvement of vehicle passengers' comfort. Considerable amount of research and development works have been done on the problem to date. In this study, we focused on the analyses of friction self-excited vibration and brake part resonance during high frequency brake squeal. Friction self-excited vibration is caused by the dry friction between pads and rotor, and occurs as a function of their relative sliding velocities. Its vibration frequency can be calculated in relation to the mass and stiffness of the pad sliding surface. Frequency responses of the brake assembly were measured and the vibration modes of the pad, disc and caliper during squeal were identified through modal analysis. Further study led to the development of a computer simulation method for analyzing the vibration modes of brake parts. Analytical results obtained using the method agreed well with the corresponding experimental data.
Technical Paper

Development of a Ball Bearing Turbocharger

1990-02-01
900125
Nissan has added ball bearings to its “High-flow Ceramic Turbocharger”(1) (introduced in 1987) to improve acceleration response by reducing friction loss. The following programs were carried out in applying ball bearings to the turbocharger: Optimum bearing size and material were selected to assure long life; lubrication techniques were employed to achieve compatibility between acceleration response and durability; a thrust support system was designed to assure that the ball bearings endure thrust load which varies in direction and magnitude during engine operation; and the squeeze film damper was optimized to keep the turbocharger silent. These innovations have resulted in a practical ball-bearing turbocharger, which has been installed in Nissan's most recent Skyline model(released in May 1989). This is the first time a ball-bearing turbocharger has been applied to a passenger car.
Technical Paper

Driver’s Sight Point and Dynamics of the Driver-Vehicle-System Related to It

1968-02-01
680104
Since the motor vehicle is controlled by the driver, dynamic consideration of the driver-vehicle system is necessary. In this sytem, eye sight is the most important sense with which the driver gets information from the course. In the present research, first, sighting distance in steady straight running was measured by the “slit method”. Next, sighting distance and sighting angle in various curvilinear runnings were measured by use of a “sight point camera” devised by the authors. Introducing the conception of sighting distance and sighting angle, dynamics of the driver-vehicle system is contrived. Theoretical calculation showed that sighting distance should be longer than a certain critical value to make the system stable.
Technical Paper

Small Engine - Concept Emission Vehicles

1971-02-01
710296
Three Japanese automobile manufacturers-Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., and Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd.-have been making efforts over the past three years to design and develop effective thermal reactor-exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter systems suitable for small engines. The work is being done by members participating in the IIEC (Inter-Industry Emission Control) Program, and the exhaust emission levels of the concept vehicles developed by these companies have met the goal established by the IIEC Program at low mileage. Each system, however, has a characteristic relationship between exhaust emission level and loss of fuel economy. Much investigation is required, particularly with respect to durability, before any system that will fully satisfy all service requirements can be completed. This paper reports the progress of research and development of the individual concept vehicles.
Technical Paper

Spot-weld Layout Optimization for Body Stiffness by Topology Optimization

2008-04-14
2008-01-0878
In general, the improvement of vehicle body stiffness involves a trade-off with the body weight. The objective of this research is to derive the lightest-weight solution from the original vehicle model by finding the optimized spot-weld layout and body panel thickness, while keeping the body stiffness and number of spot welds constant. As the first step, a method of deriving the optimal layout of spot welds for maximizing body stiffness was developed by applying the topology optimization method. While this method is generally used in shape optimization of continuous solid structures, it was applied to discontinuous spot-weld positions in this work. As a result, the effect of the spot-weld layout on body stiffness was clarified. In the case of the body used for this research, body stiffness was improved by about 10% with respect to torsion and vertical and lateral bending.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Analysis Technology Development for Impact Noise

2014-04-01
2014-01-0895
In order to enhance product attraction, it is important to reduce the impact noise when a vehicle go over bumps such as bridge joints. Vehicle performance to transitional noise phenomena is not yet analyzed well. In this paper, a prediction method is established by vector composition and inverse Fourier transform with the combination of Multibody Dynamics (MBD) and FEM. Also, a root cause analysis method is established with the following three mechanism analysis methods; transfer path analysis, mode contribution analysis, and panel contribution analysis.
Technical Paper

Method of Fatigue Life Estimation for Arc–Welded Structures

2000-03-06
2000-01-0781
Two working groups in the JSAE Committee of Fatigue–Reliability Section1 are currently researching the issue of fatigue life by both experimental and the CAE approach. Information regarding frequent critical problems on arc–welded structures were sought from auto–manufacturers, vehicle component suppliers, and material suppliers. The method for anti–fatigue design on arc–welded structures was established not only by a database created by physical test results in accordance with the collected information but also with design procedure taking Fracture–Mechanics into consideration. This method will be applied to vehicle development as one of the virtual laboratories in the digital prototype phase. In this paper, both the database from bench–test results on arc welded structures and FEA algorithm unique to JSAE are proposed some of the analysis results associated with the latter proposal are also reported.
Technical Paper

Noise Detection Technology Development for Car Cabin

2008-04-14
2008-01-0272
Recently, it has been very important to reduce the noise, especially the Squeak and Rattle noise, for improving customer appeal of passenger vehicles. The Squeak and Rattle noise occurring inside the car cabin during vehicle operation is an especially large problem. This paper describes a newly developed measurement technology that uses the developed signal processing using the Beam-forming method and vibration sensor to identify the Squeak and Rattle noise sources, making it possible to determine effective countermeasures quickly. This new technology is used to identify all Squeak and Rattle noises at a time among many different noises, for example Wind noise, Engine noise and Road noise occurring during vehicle operation, and is expected to shorten substantially the time needed for noise analysis and contribute to quality improvements.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Test Procedure for Evaluation of Tripped Rollover Crashes

2002-03-04
2002-01-0693
Rollover crashes have continued to be a source of extensive research into determining both vehicle performance, and occupant restraint capabilities. Prior research has utilized various test procedures, including the FMVSS 208 dolly fixture, as a basis for evaluating vehicle and restraint performance. This research, using 2001 Nissan Pathfinder sport utility vehicles (SUVs), was conducted to update the status of passenger vehicle rollover testing, and evaluate dynamic test repeatability with a new test procedure. A series of eight rollover tests was conducted using these SUV vehicles, mounted on a modified FMVSS 208 rollover dolly fixture, with instrumented dummies in both front seat positions. This test protocol involved launching the vehicles horizontally, after snubbing the dolly fixture, and having the leading-side tires contact curbing for a trip mechanism.
Technical Paper

Research on a Braking System for Reducing Collision Speed

2003-03-03
2003-01-0251
An investigation was made of the relationship between the driving speed at the time of impact and the injury levels suffered in accidents. The results showed that a 5 km/h or more reduction in collision speed tends to mitigate injury severity. Using sensors and brake actuators already in practical use, we have started to research a braking system aimed at reducing the collision speed by at least 5 km/h in rear-end collisions. The system estimates the risk of a collision with the vehicle ahead. If it judges there is a very high possibility of a collision, it applies the brakes.
Technical Paper

Automatic Transmission Shift Schedule Control Using Fuzzy Logic

1993-03-01
930674
The use of automatic transmissions is continually increasing because of their ease of operation. Transmission performance requirements that have become more important in recent years include smooth shift quality and a shift schedule that matches the driver's intentions. An electronically controlled automatic gearbox, which sets the shift schedule according to the vehicle speed and throttle valve opening, provides a dramatic improvement in shift quality over its hydraulically controlled counterpart. However, even with an electronically controlled automatic transmission, shift hunting occurs when driving uphill or towing an object Based on the use of fuzzy logic, a technique has been developed for estimating running resistance, represented by the road gradient. This technique has been incorporated in a new shift schedule control method that eliminates shin hunting Research is now under way on a fuzzy logic technique for inferring the driver's intention to accelerate
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
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