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Technical Paper

Development of an Adaptive Cruise Control System with Stop-and-Go Capability

2001-03-05
2001-01-0798
An Adaptive Cruise Control system with stop-and-go capability has been developed to reduce the driver's workload in traffic jams on expressways. Based on an analysis of driving behavior characteristics in expressway traffic jams, a control system capable of modeling those characteristics accurately has been constructed to provide natural vehicle behavior in low-speed driving. The effectiveness of the system was evaluated with an experimental vehicle, and the results confirmed that it reduces the driver's workload. This paper presents an outline of the system and its effectiveness along with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Road Configuration and Vehicle Attitude by Lane Detection for a Lane-Keeping System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0799
This paper describes an image processing system for tracking a traffic lane by recognizing white lines on the road ahead. The system utilizes the features of the white lines and the Hough transformation to detect white line candidate points in images taken with a CCD camera. The parameters of the road configuration and vehicle attitude are estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This system has been applied to achieve a lane-keeping assistance system that provides steering control based on the host vehicle’s lateral position in its lane.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

1997-10-01
972837
Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Road Recognition Using Ar-Model

1998-10-19
98C022
This paper describes an image processing method for recognizing white lines on the road ahead to accomplish automatic lane tracking. The behavior of detected points on the white lines can be regarded as multi-channel time-series data. The stochastic behavior of each point correlates with not only its own past behavior but also the behavior of other points around it. Behavior is identified by using a multi-variable auto-regressive (AR) model. This method can estimate the road configuration ahead logically even if the points cannot be detected clearly because a line is discontinuous or is hidden by a forward vehicle.
Technical Paper

Interactive Information Delivery Navigation System

1998-10-19
98C029
In the past few years, car navigation and cellular phone system are rapidly increased in Japan and vehicle information and communication system (VICS), the public traffic information service started in 1996, accelerates realization of ITS world. This rapid movement causes drivers to want more information on not only traffic jam but also other versatile items like parking availability, weather report and the latest news, etc. via cellular phone network. This paper describes the on-demand information service with the interactive human interface by operators and the development of the information center and the in-vehicle system to realize it.
Technical Paper

Development of a Headway Distance Control System

1998-02-01
980616
This paper describes a headway distance control system for platoon driving on an automated highway system (AHS). The system implemented on a test vehicle is described first, followed by a description of a vehicle control method based on the use of throttle and brake actuators. This method makes it possible to obtain the target acceleration and deceleration regardless of the vehicle speed range and the rate of acceleration or deceleration. Experimental and simulation results obtained with this method are presented. A control method is then described that uses inter-vehicle communication and laser radar to maintain a constant headway between vehicles. The results of simulations and driving tests conducted with three vehicles are presented to illustrate that the use of inter-vehicle communication is highly effective in improving headway control performance.
Technical Paper

A Study of Technology for Assembling Vehicle Endurance Reliability

1991-09-01
911924
The ways in which vehicles are used in the field are continually becoming more diverse. In order to provide the optimum solution with respect to performance and weight, it is necessary to be able to assure vehicle endurance reliability with a high degree of accuracy in relation to the manner of use in each market. This situation has increased the importance of accurately quantifying the ways in which vehicles are used in the field and of designing vehicles with sufficient endurance reliability to match the usage requirements. This report presents a “market model” by which the manner of usage in the field can be treated quantitatively using combinations of environmental factors that influence the road load, drive load and corrosion load, representing typical loads vehicles must withstand.
Technical Paper

Development of Practical Heads-Up Display for Production Vehicle Application

1989-02-01
890559
THIS PAPER presents an advanced heads-up display which has been newly developed for use in 88 Nissan Silvia model. The HUD consists of a projector with a newly developed high brightness VFD and light-selective film used as a combiner which is coated on the windshield. This combination provides good display legibility even under bright sunlight. The display shows the vehicle speed in a three-digit reading at distance of more than one meter from the driver's eyes. The windshield-coated combiner conforms to U.S. safety standards concerning light transmittance, abrasion and other performance requirements. Experimental data are also presented which substantiate the HUD's high legibility and confirm its effect in enhancing the driver's attention toward the road ahead
Technical Paper

Research and Development Work on Navigation Systems at Nissan

1993-11-01
931921
Nissan is offering navigation systems in some domestic production models. These systems, which show drivers the vehicle's present location on a CRT map display, free them from anxiety about getting lost when traveling in an unfamiliar area. It is expected that future navigation systems will incorporate two key capabilities. One will be a route guidance capability, which will not only indicate the present location but also select the optimal route to the intended destination and guide drivers there by indicating which direction to take at each intersection along the way. The second capability will be a communications link with the roadside infrastructure for receiving outside information such as traffic congestion data and incorporating that information into route guidance. Nissan has established the core technologies of these navigation capabilities in the past ten years through the development of conceptual prototypes and experimental systems in government-sponsored projects.
Technical Paper

Optimization Analysis for Vehicle Vibration mode Control

1986-04-22
860809
The occurrence of various vibrations and noises in an automobile, such as idling vibration, boom noise and road noise, is greatly affected by the natural vibration modes and could be developed for controlling the body strength and weight these problems could be solved and a high-performance vehicle realised. This paper presents an analytical method developed by the authors to solve these problems and gives examples of its application. In developing this method, the problems of natural vibration mode and static stiffness control were addressed. Perturbation and sensitivity analysis methods have already been proposed for mode control. Four typical methods were examined and the best one was chosen in terms of accuracy and calculation time when handling large-scale problems. For static sensitivity analysis, we proposed a nevi method which is like natural mode sensitivity analysis.
Technical Paper

Electronically Controlled Shock Absorber System Used as a Road Sensor Which Utilizes Super Sonic Waves

1985-10-01
851652
An important factor in the development of vehicle suspensions has been how to get higher performance from both ride and stability, which are normally in conflict. In addressing this problem, we analyzed the optimum damping forces of shock absorbers for various driving conditions and developed an electronically controlled shock absorber system, which we call “Super Sonic Suspension” based on the results. Through this microcomputer-controlled system, we achieved a great improvement in riding comfort by being able to the damping force much lower than before, based on the results of said analysis. At the same time, stability of the vehicle was also improved by optimumly controlling the damping force for various driving conditions through signals from a newly developed road sensor, which utilizes supersonic waves, and other sensors.
Technical Paper

Development of an FCV with a New FC Stack for Improved Cold Start Capability

2010-04-12
2010-01-1093
To promote widespread use of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), further improvement of cold start capability is required for operation in various extreme temperature regions all over the world. Sub-freezing, cold start issues of fuel cells must be resolved through gaining a better understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in a cell during cold start and by elucidating the mechanisms hindering cold startup. Nissan has improved its understanding of the physical phenomena occurring in a fuel cell (FC) during cold startup by a laboratory-scale FC experiment at subfreezing temperatures and a numerical calculation that expresses various transport processes in a fuel cell, including those of the reactant gases, water, electrons and heat. The results have identified several necessary conditions for mass transport in a cell during cold startup and the factors that limit and govern the phenomena involved.
Technical Paper

Challenges of Widespread Marketplace Acceptance of Electric Vehicles -- Towards a Zero-Emission Mobility Society

2010-10-19
2010-01-2312
Curbing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is believed by many scientists to be a major contributor to global warming, is one of the top priority issues that must be addressed by automobile manufacturers. Automakers have set their own strategies to improve fuel economy and to reduce CO₂ emissions. Some of them include integrated approaches, focusing on not only improvement of vehicle technology, but also human factors (eco-driving support for drivers) and social and transportation factors (traffic management by intelligent transportation systems [ITS]). Among them, electric vehicles (EVs) will be a key contributor to attaining the challenging goal of CO₂ reduction. Mass deployment of EVs is required to achieve a zero-emission society. To accomplish that, new advanced technologies, new business schemes, and new partnerships are required.
Technical Paper

The Progress of SKY Project. - Cooperative ITS Safety Support -

2010-04-12
2010-01-0460
The SKY Project (Start ITS from Kanagawa, Yokohama) was launched in October 2004 in Yokohama, Japan in order to contribute to the local community by reducing traffic accidents and congestion. SKY is a private sector collaboration between Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., NTT DoCoMo, Inc., Panasonic Corporation, and Xanavi Informatics Corporation (now Clarion Ltd.). Support has also been provided from the public sector, namely the National Police Agency of Japan (NPA) and the Kanagawa Prefectural Police. Through the use of in-vehicle technology and an Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) that communicates with the infrastructure, information on nearby vehicles and the surrounding traffic environment can be utilized to reduce traffic accidents, shorten travel times, and increase fuel savings. These are the goals of the SKY project. This paper shows the results of early stage testing and the introduction of newly started trials.
Technical Paper

All Round Blind Spot Detection by Lens Condition Adaptation based on Rearview Camera Images

2013-04-08
2013-01-0622
This paper deals with a vehicle detection method for realizing a blind spot warning function, under various environmental conditions. We introduced a method that is capable of discriminating the target object vehicles, under poor lighting conditions and in cases where the lens may be exposed to splashes in wet, snow and dirt roads. The image sensing of the vehicle detection consists of four functional components: obstacle detection, velocity estimation, vertical edge detection, and final classification. Such componets allow robust performances resembling geometry based approaches, with low calculation power as an apperance based approach. This paper describes the functional components, and furthermore methods to enhance the performances under low contrast conditions and also suppress false detections caused by residue on the lens, which becomes essential for installation on vehicles driven in actual road conditions.
Technical Paper

An Exploratory Study of the Driver Workload Assessment by Brain Functional Imaging Using Onboard fNIRS

2011-04-12
2011-01-0592
In making driver workload assessments, it is important to evaluate the driver's level of brain activity because the operation of a motor vehicle presumably involves higher-order brain functions. Driving on narrow roads in particular probably imposes a load on the driver's brain functions because of the need to be cognizant of the tight space and to pay close attention to the surroundings. Test vehicles were fitted with a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system for measuring bloodstream concentrations at 32 locations in the frontal lobe of the participating drivers in order to evaluate their levels of mental activity while driving on narrow roads. The results revealed significant increases in cerebral blood flow corresponding to the perceived workload. This suggests that increases in cerebral blood flow can be used as an effective index for estimating mental workloads.
Technical Paper

Launch of ITS in Yokohama, Japan- Progress of an ITS Field Operational Test for Traffic Safety and Congestion -

2008-10-20
2008-21-0011
In order to reduce traffic accidents and ease traffic congestion utilizing ITS (Intelligent Transportation System), a large-scale FOT (Field Operational Test) involving 2,000 ordinary drivers was launched in October 2006 in the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa, Japan. The test is slated to continue through March 2009. Target applications include Intersection Collision Avoidance using V-I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) communication, ISA (Intelligent Speed Advisory) using digital maps in the vehicle navigation system, and the probe system, which provides detailed traffic information. In this paper, the progress of this FOT will be introduced.
Technical Paper

Low-cost FC Stack Concept with Increased Power Density and Simplified Configuration: Utilizing an Advanced MEA with Integrated Molded Frame

2011-05-17
2011-39-7260
In 2006, Nissan began limited leasing of the X-TRAIL FCV equipped with their in-house developed Fuel Cell (FC) stack. Since then, the FC stack has been improved in durability, cold start-up capability, cost and size with the aim of promoting full-scale commercialization of FCVs. However, reduction of cost and size has remained a significant challenge because limited mass transport through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) has made it difficult to increase the rated current density of the FC. Furthermore, it has been difficult to reduce the variety of FC stack components due to the complex stack configuration. In this study, improvements have been achieved mainly by adopting an advanced MEA to overcome these difficulties. First, the adoption of a new MEA and separators has improved mass transport through the MEA for increased rated current density. Second, an integrated molded frame (IMF) has been adopted as the MEA support.
Technical Paper

Reciprocal Measurements of the Vehicle Transfer Function for Road Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2241
Road Noise is generated by the change of random displacement input inside the tire contact patch. Since the existing 3 or 6 directional electromagnetic shakers have a flat surface at the tire contact patch, these shakers cannot excite the vehicle in a manner representative of actual on-road road noise input. Therefore, this paper proposes a new experimental method to measure the road noise vehicle transfer function. This method is based on the reciprocity between the tire contact patch and the driver's ear location. The reaction force sensor of the tire contact patch is newly developed for the reciprocal loud speaker excitation at the passenger ear location. In addition, with this equipment, it is possible to extract the dominant structural mode shapes creating high sound pressure in the automotive interior acoustic field. This method is referred to as experimental structure mode participation to the noise of the acoustic field in the vibro-acoustic coupling analysis.
Technical Paper

Research on a Brake Assist System with a Preview Function

2001-03-05
2001-01-0357
Traffic accidents in Japan claim some 10,000 precious lives every year, and there is seemingly no end to the problem. In an effort to overcome this situation, vehicle manufacturers have been pushing ahead with the development of a variety of advanced safety technologies. Joint public-private sector projects related to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are also proceeding vigorously. Most accidents can be attributed to driver error in recognition, judgment or vehicle operation. This paper presents an analysis of driver behavior characteristics in emergency situations that lead to an accident, focusing in particular on operation of the brake pedal. Based on the insights gained so far, we have developed a Brake Assist System with a Preview Function (BAP) designed to prevent accidents by helping drivers with braking actions. Experimental results have confirmed that BAP is effective in reducing the impact speed and the frequency of accidents in emergency situations.
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