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Technical Paper

Turbulence and Cycle-by-Cycle Variation of Mean Velocity Generated by Swirl and Tumble Flow and Their Effects on Combustion

1995-02-01
950813
Combinations of swirl flow and tumble flow generated by 13 types of swirl control valve were tested by using both impulse steady flow rig and LDV. Comparison between the steady flow characteristics and the result of LDV measurement under motoring condition shows that tumble flow generates turbulence in combustion chamber more effectively than swirl flow does, and that swirling motion reduces the cycle by cycle variation of mean velocity in combustion chamber which tends to be generated by tumbling motion. Performance tests are also carried out under the condition of homogeneous charge. Tumble flow promotes the combustion speed more strongly than expected from its turbulence intensity measured by LDV. It is also shown that lean limit air fuel ratio does not have a strong relation with cycle variation of mean velocity but with turbulence intensity.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Design/Control Parameters and Emission Control Systems on Specific Reactivity of S.I. Engine Exhaust Gases

1995-02-01
950807
In 1994, the California Air Resources Board implemented low-emission vehicle (LEV) standards with the aim of improving urban air quality. One feature of the LEV standards is the increasingly tighter regulation of non-methane organic gases (NMOG), taking into account ozone formation, in addition to the existing control of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Hydrocarbons and other organic gases emitted by S.I. engines have been identified as a cause of atmospheric ozone formation. Since the reactivity of each chemical species in exhaust emissions differs, the effect on ozone formation varies depending on the composition of the exhaust gas components. This study examined the effect of different engine types, fuel atomization conditions, turbulence and emission control systems on emission species and specific reactivity. This was done using gas chromatographs and a high-performance liquid chromatograph to analyze exhaust emission species that affect ozone formation.
Technical Paper

Engine-Out and Tail-Pipe Emission Reduction Technologies of V-6 LEVs

1998-02-23
980674
Compared with in-line 4-cylinder engines, V-6 engines show a slower rise in exhaust gas temperature, requiring a longer time for catalysts to become active, and they also emit higher levels of engine-out emissions. In this study, The combination of a new type of catalyst, and optimized ignition timing and air-fuel ratio control achieved quicker catalyst light-off. Additionally, engine-out emissions were substantially reduced by using a swirl control valve to strengthen in-cylinder gas flow, adopting electronically controlled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and reducing the crevice volume by decreasing the top land height of the pistons. A vehicle incorporating these emission reduction technologies reduced the emission level through the first phase of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) by 60-70% compared with the Tier 1 vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Compound Fuel and Fluorescent Tracer Combination for Use with Laser Induced Fluorescence

1995-10-01
952465
Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a useful method for visualizing the distribution of the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber. The way this method is applied mainly depends on the fluorescent tracer used, such as biacetyl, toluene, various aldehydes, fluoranthene or diethylketone, among others. Gasoline strongly absorbs light in the UV region, for example, at the 248-nm wavelength of broadband KrF excimer laser radiation. Therefore, when using this type of laser, iso-octane is employed as the fuel because it is transparent to 248-nm UV light. However, since the distillation curves of iso-octane and gasoline are different, it can be expected that their vaporization characteristics in the intake port and cylinder would also be different. The aim of this study was to find a better fuel for use with LIF at a broadband wavelength of 248 nm. Three tasks were undertaken in this study.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Lambda Control Based on an Exhaust Emission Simulation Model that Takes into Account Fuel Transportation in the Intake Manifold

1990-02-01
900612
This paper presents an improved exhaust emission simulation model that takes into account fuel transportation behavior in order to obtain more precise air-fuel ratio control, which is needed to meet stringent exhaust emission standards. This simulation model is based on experimental formulas for air and fuel behavior in the intake manifold, especially during transient engine operation. Fuel behavior, including the effect of wall flow on the air-fuel ratio, is obtained analytically. Predictions are then made of the exhaust emissions from a car operated under official driving schedules. The new simulation model is a useful tool in the design and development of fuel supply control systems. An outline of the new model is presented first along with a comparison of the calculated and experimental results. The air-fuel ratio control strategy derived with this model is then described.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline Composition on Engine Performance

1993-03-01
930375
In order to clarify the effect of each gasoline component on engine performance during warm-up, changes in the air-fuel ratio and quantity of wall flow (liquid gasoline on the induction port) were measured using ordinary gasolines and model gasolines consisting of a blend of several hydrocarbons and MTBE (methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether). The unburned air-fuel mixture in a combustion chamber was sampled via a solenoid valve and analyzed by gas chromatography to investigate the vaporization rate of each component. The results show that MTBE has an important effect on driveability because it contains oxygen and easily vaporizes, resulting in a lean mixture in the transient state. The popular driveability index, T50 (50% distillation temperature), does not provide an adequate means of evaluating MTBE-blended gasoline.
Technical Paper

Development of the Nissan Electronically Controlled Carburetor System

1978-02-01
780204
An electronically controlled closed-loop carburetor system has been developed. This system's air-fuel ratio control is characterized by the air bleeds being controlled by turning the solenoid valves on and off at a constant frequency. The frequency above 30 Hz was desirable for practical performances. Some improvements and developments were made to the carburetor, the solenoid valve and the control unit. In application of this system to a three-way catalytic system with O2 sensor, the emissions met the 1978 Japanese standards.
Technical Paper

A Portable Fast Response Air-Fuel Ratio Meter Using an Extended Range Oxygen Sensor

1988-02-01
880559
The method for measuring air-fuel ratio is generally based on analysis of the exhaust gas components and its calculations. A new instrument has been developed which uses this method, but it attaches an oxygen sensor for exhaust gas analysis to the exhaust pipe and calculates the air-fuel ratio directly from the sensor output using a microprocessor. The response time of this instrument is 100 milliseconds and because it does not require an exhaust gas sampling system its weight is only 2.5 kg. This paper describes the operation theory, construction and characteristics of this instrument, as well as the results of air-fuel ratio of measurements on engines and vehicles using this instrument in a transient state.
Technical Paper

New Fuel Injection Method for Better Driveability

1988-02-01
880420
In our new fuel injection method, the injector for each cylinder is triggered twice per combustion cycle. The first injection is triggered as early as possible to obtain a good fuel mixture quality. The second injection is triggered as late as possible and as close to the intake valve opening so as to obtain a constant air-fuel ratio even during rapid acceleration. Furthermore, in order to prevent, misfire, timing is calculated based on the fuel amount when the fuel injection occurs. Driveability is improved over a wider range of driving conditions while maintaining good fuel economy and omission control.
Technical Paper

Swirl Controlled 4-Valve Engine Improves in Combustion under Lean Air-Fuel Ratio

1987-11-08
871172
Since a 4-valve engine is less flexible in the design and location of the intake ports as compared with a conventional 2-valve engine, there are some difficulties in strengthening the air motion, including swirl and turbulence, in order to achieve stable combustion under lean mixture operation. This study examined air motion imporvements of 4-valve engine that result in a stable combustion with a lean mixture. These improvements are brought about by the installation of a swirl control valve in each intake port. The results of this study have clarified that the lean stable limit was extended from an air-fuel ratio of 21.5 to 26.3 under a partial load, by optimizing the location and diameter of aperture of the swirl control valve.
Technical Paper

Analysis on Idle Speed Stability in Port Fuel Injection Engines

1986-10-01
861389
It has been reported by several researchers that the L-jetronic fuel injection system offers better idle speed stability than the D-jetronic one in port fuel injection engines. However, the volume between the throttle valve and the intake valves in the L-jetronic system acts as a first order lag element in the system and causes air-fuel ratio fluctuation which, in turn, induces idle speed hunting under certain conditions. This study employs computer simulation to determine the influence of three parameters on idle speed stability: (1) flywheel inertia, (2) intake manifold volume, and (3) air-fuel ratio calibration. It also explores means of improving idle speed stability by controlling the air-fuel ratio and ignition timing. The use of actual engine torque data to estimate the generated torque from the amount of air and fuel in each combustion cycle was the unique feature of this study.
Technical Paper

Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Air-fuel Ratio, Temperature, and Liquid Fuel Droplet Scattering in a Direct-injection Gasoline Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2246
Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.
Technical Paper

Development of New Technologies Targeting Zero Emissions for Gasoline Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0890
This paper describes new technologies for achieving exhaust emission levels much below the SULEV standards in California, which are the most stringent among the currently proposed regulations in the world. Catalyst light-off time, for example, has been significantly reduced through the adoption of a catalyst substrate with an ultra-thin wall thickness of 2 mil and a catalyst coating specifically designed for quicker light-off. A highly-efficient HC trap system has been realized by combining a two-stage HC trap design with an improved HC trap catalyst. The cold-start HC emission level has been greatly reduced by an electronically actuated swirl control valve with a high-speed starter. Further, an improved Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) control method has achieved much higher catalyst HC and NOx conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of a Gasoline-Fueled Vehicle with Zero Evaporative Emissions

2000-10-16
2000-01-2926
…Technologies for reducing evaporative emissions generated from gasoline vapors have been developed. To reduce evaporative emissions, both permeation from fuel and vapor lines and breakthrough from the evaporative canister need to be diminished. Fewer fuel line connections are used and hose and valve materials have been modified to reduce permeation. Component test results confirm that permeation is substantially reduced from the level of previous parts. A new type of activated charcoal, which has a high specific heat characteristic and improves adsorption and desorption performance, has been applied to reduce canister breakthrough. Additionally, the amount of purge air has been increased by applying purge control using an air-fuel ratio sensor. The problem of canister breakthrough has thus been resolved by the new evaporative canister combined with increased purge flow to the engine.
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