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Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0986
Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gas Flow and Mixture Properties on Engine-Out HC Emissions

1996-10-01
961952
The geometry and area of the notch in the swirl control valve installed in the intake port were varied to analyze the effects on HC emissions. A swirl control valve functions to promote the formation of a homogeneous mixture, enabling the amount of liquid fuel supplied to the cylinder to be reduced. For this reason, it is difficult to obtain an added effect through the combined use of a swirl control valve and an auxiliary-air type of injector for assisting fuel atomization. Tumble (vertical swirl) flow fields are effective in shortening the combustion period. This results in a higher exhaust gas temperature at an equivalent level of combustion stability. It was thought that swirl flow fields produce residual gas flow in the cylinder after the completion of the main combustion period. It is surmised that the residual gas flow functions to diffuse and promote after-burning of the unburned HC layer.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Performance TiA1 Exhaust Valve

1996-02-01
960303
A new high-performance and lightweight TiA1 intermetallic compound exhaust valve has been developed. The TiA1 valve can improve power output and fuel economy by contributing higher engine speeds and a reduction in valvetrain friction. It was achieved by developing a Ti-33.5A1-0.5Si-1Nb-0.5Cr (mass%) intermetallic compound, a precision casting method for TiA1 that provides a low-cost, high-quality process, and a plasma carburizing technique for assuring good wear resistance on the valve stem end, stem and face.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

1997-10-01
972837
Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Speed Steel Based Sintered Material for High Performance Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts

1998-02-23
980328
The demands on valve seat insert materials, in terms of providing greater wear-resistance at higher temperatures, enhanced machinability and using non-environmentally hazardous materials at a reasonably low cost have intensified in recent years. Due therefore to these strong demands in the market, research was made into the possibility of producing a new valve seat insert material. As a result a high speed steel based new improved material was developed, which satisfies the necessary required demands and the evaluation trials, using actual gasoline engine endurance tests, were found to be very successful.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Attainment of Low Fuel Consumption High Output Power and Low Exhaust Emissions in Direct Injection SI Engines

1998-02-01
980149
This paper describes simultaneous attainment in improving fuel consumption, output power and reducing HC emissions with a direct injection S.I. engine newly developed in Nissan. Straight intake port is adopted to increase discharge coefficient under WOT operation and horizontal swirl flow is generated by a swirl control valve to provide stable stratified charge combustion under part load conditions. As a result, fuel consumption is reduced by more than 20% and power output is improved by approximately 10%. Moreover, unburned HC is reduced by equivalently 30% in engine cold start condition. An application of diagnostic and numerical simulation tools to investigate and optimize various factors are also introduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Four Cylinder SR Engine

1990-09-01
901714
The SR engine is a new medium-size, all aluminum (cylinder block, head, rocker cover and oil pan) in-line 4-cylinder gasoline powerplant developed as a replacement for CA engine in Nissan's compact passenger cars. The development aim set for this engine was to achieve excellent power output and ample torque in the middle-and high-speed ranges, as well as a clear, linear engine sound up to the red zone. These performance targets have been achieved through the use of the 4-valve-per-cylinder DOHC design featuring a Y-shaped valve rocker arm system. This system allows a straight intake port for high power output and a narrow valve angle for a compact combustion chamber. The result is ample torque output as well as good fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Strength Valve Spring

1989-02-01
890220
Development of a high strength valve spring for automotive engines achieves higher power output and better fuel economy. New material which consists of finely structure and subjected to advanced shot peening, has been developed. Stress analysis of the valve spring moving edge, using the finite element method, has been done for effective application. The merits of this new spring have been confirmed by engine experiments.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Deposits and Gasoline Composition on S.I. Engine Performance

1992-10-01
922263
Valve deposits in gasoline engines increase with time, absorbing fuel during acceleration and releasing fuel during deceleration. Valve deposits insulate the heat release from the cylinder and this phenomenon is the cause of bad fuel vaporization. In this way, the deposits greatly affect the driveability and exhaust emissions. Using a 3.OL MPI(Multipoint Injection) engine, we measured the quantity of fuel that deposits at the intake port, and the throttle response (using a wall-flow meter made by Nissan Motor Co.1), 2) to study the deposits effect on driveability and exhaust emissions at a low temperature. The deposits were formed on the intake valve surface (about 8.0 on the CRC deposit rating scale) through 200 hours of laboratory engine stand operation. At low temperature, C9 and C10 hydrocarbons tend to stick to the intake port surface and intake valve as “wall-flow”; this is one cause of bad driveability.
Technical Paper

Development of the Nissan Electronically Controlled Carburetor System

1978-02-01
780204
An electronically controlled closed-loop carburetor system has been developed. This system's air-fuel ratio control is characterized by the air bleeds being controlled by turning the solenoid valves on and off at a constant frequency. The frequency above 30 Hz was desirable for practical performances. Some improvements and developments were made to the carburetor, the solenoid valve and the control unit. In application of this system to a three-way catalytic system with O2 sensor, the emissions met the 1978 Japanese standards.
Technical Paper

Development of the N-Type Runflat Tire and Its Evaluation in Vehicle Dynamics

1979-02-01
790668
Judging from viewpoint of automotive safety and more space by eliminating a spare tire, the development of the run-flat tires is important. Many problems relating to weight increase and usability had to be solved in the course of the development of such tires. The “ N ” type run-flat tire, described in this paper, has a simple structure with reinforced side walls and additional beads to fit the rim flanges. Though this tire system brought about a small amount of weight increase, it needs no special part, therefore the conventional road wheels, air valves and tire changers may be used. We have tested and evaluated this tire system equipped with passenger cars as well as on the test machines. Especially vehicle dynamics such as steering, stability and so forth were tested. The test results indicated that this tire system is practical enough.
Technical Paper

Swirl Controlled 4-Valve Engine Improves in Combustion under Lean Air-Fuel Ratio

1987-11-08
871172
Since a 4-valve engine is less flexible in the design and location of the intake ports as compared with a conventional 2-valve engine, there are some difficulties in strengthening the air motion, including swirl and turbulence, in order to achieve stable combustion under lean mixture operation. This study examined air motion imporvements of 4-valve engine that result in a stable combustion with a lean mixture. These improvements are brought about by the installation of a swirl control valve in each intake port. The results of this study have clarified that the lean stable limit was extended from an air-fuel ratio of 21.5 to 26.3 under a partial load, by optimizing the location and diameter of aperture of the swirl control valve.
Technical Paper

New PM Valve Seat Insert Materials for High Performance Engines

1992-02-01
920570
Internal combustion engines experience severe valve train wear and the reduction of valve seat and seat insert wear has been a long-standing issue. In this work, worn valve seats and inserts were examined to obtain a fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms and the results were applied in developing new valve seat insert materials. The new exhaust valve insert material for gasoline engines is a sintered alloy steel containing Co-base hard particles, with lead infiltrated only for inserts used in unleaded gasoline engines. The new intake valve insert material for gasoline engines is a high-Mo sintered steel, obtained through transient liquid phase sintering and with copper precipitated uniformly. This material can be used for both leaded and unleaded gasoline engines. Valve and valve seat insert wear has long been an issue of concern to engine designers and manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Development of Nissan Variable Geometry JET Turbocharger

1986-02-01
860105
Turbocharged engines exhibit poor transient response, especially when accelerating from low speeds at low loads, due to the inertia of the turbocharger rotating mechanism. In looking for ways to overcome this disadvantage, we investigated the possibilities of variable geometry turbochargers, and evaluated the performance characteristics of several types. We decided on the single flap type, and established a control method using compressor outlet pressure to control the flap and waste gate valves. Based on the results of experiments with this method, we developed an electronic pressure feedback system which greatly improves transient engine response and, at the same time, engine performance over a wide range of engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronically-controlled Power Steering System

1984-09-01
841198
This Paper describes a computer-controlled power steering system that has been developed and applied to production vehicles. The system provides full power assist at parking speeds, and gradually decreases assistance with increasing vehicle speed to give a normal unassisted “road feel” at highway speeds. The system enables a driver to choose one assistance characteristic among three choices at the flick of a switch, according to the driver's preference and road conditions. A solenoid-operated bypass valve is used to reduce the hydraulic fluid supply to the steering gear, which results in a heavier steering effort. The most suitable valve characteristic curve which corresponds to the increased pressure in the system due to the applied torque is discussed in this study. It is shown that detection of the velocity of steering wheel rotation and extension of the range of characteristics possible are effective ways to ensure good control over the power assistance.
Technical Paper

Development of GF-5 0W-20 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil for DLC-Coated Valve Lifters

2014-04-01
2014-01-1478
A suitable GF-5 engine oil formulation is investigated to improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines with hydrogen-free DLC-coated valve lifters. Molybdenum dithocarbamate (MoDTC) is shown to be a suitable friction modifier for low viscosity grade engine oils like 0W-20. A suitable Ca salicylate detergent is also determined from several types examined for maximizing the friction reduction effects of MoDTC. The most suitable Ca salicylate has a chemical structure capable of forming a borophosphate glass film on metal surfaces, which is known to improve the effects of MoDTC. A high viscosity index Group III base oil (VI>140) is also effective in improving fuel efficiency. It is further clarified that the structural design of the polymethacrylate viscosity modifier is another important factor in reducing engine friction.
Technical Paper

New Copper Alloy Powder for Laser-Clad Valve Seat Used in Aluminum Cylinder Heads

2000-03-06
2000-01-0396
A copper alloy powder composed of Cu-14Ni-3Si-2V-2Cr-1.5Fe-1Al-0.5P has been developed for application to laser-clad valve seats. Laser-clad valve seats offer several advantages such as higher engine output and improved fuel economy owing to lower valve head temperature and an increased intake throat diameter compared with conventional press-fit valve inserts made of ferro-based powder metal. Previously, a material having a principal chemical composition of Cu-12Ni-10Co-3Si-2V-2Nb-1.5Fe-1Al was developed to obtain large hard intermetallic compounds. The microstructure of this material is formed by a two-liquid separation reaction, which has been applied to powders of different chemical compositions for laser-clad valve seats of production engines. Although this material shows superior valve seat wear resistance, it has certain drawbacks, including the high cost of the powder, high probability of microcrack formation and low machinability of the laser-clad layer.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 5.6 L V8 Gasoline Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1320
This paper describes the new VK56VD engine, which was developed in response to growing demand for cleaner automobiles, better fuel economy, and improved engine performance. A 5.6 L V8 engine, the VK56VD will go into the new Infiniti M56 premium sport luxury sedan. To boost power and efficiency and lessen its environmental impact, this engine will utilize key technologies such as Continuous Variable Valve Event and Lift (VVEL) and Direct Injection Gasoline (DIG). Details of the VK56VD are presented here along with highlights of the applied technologies and the development means.
Technical Paper

Research on a Variable Swirl Intake Port for 4-Valve High-Speed DI Diesel Engines

1998-10-19
982680
A variable swirl intake port system for 4 valves/cylinder direct injection diesel engines was developed. This system combines two mutually independent intake ports, one of which is a helical port for generating an ultra-high swirl ratio and the other is a tangential port for generating a low swirl ratio. The tangential port incorporates a swirl control valve that controls the swirl ratio by varying the flow rate. To investigate the performance of the intake port system, steady-state flow tests were conducted in parallel with three-dimensional computations. In conducting the steady-state flow tests, it was found that a paddle wheel flow sensor was not suitable for evaluating the characteristics of the high-swirl port and that it was necessary to use an impulse swirl flow meter.
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