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Technical Paper

Design of Lane-Keeping Control with Steering Torque Input for a Lane-Keeping Support System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0480
This paper describes the method used to design the basic control algorithm of a lane-keeping support system that is intended to assist the driver's steering action. Lane-keeping control has been designed with steering torque as the control input without providing a minor loop for the steering angle. This approach was taken in order to achieve an optimum balance of lane-keeping control, ease of steering intervention by the driver and robustness. The servo control system was designed on the basis of H2 control theory. Robustness against disturbances, vehicle nonlinearity and parameter variation was confirmed by μ - analysis. The results of computer simulations and driving tests have confirmed that the control system designed with this method provides the intended performance.
Technical Paper

Development of an Adaptive Cruise Control System with Stop-and-Go Capability

2001-03-05
2001-01-0798
An Adaptive Cruise Control system with stop-and-go capability has been developed to reduce the driver's workload in traffic jams on expressways. Based on an analysis of driving behavior characteristics in expressway traffic jams, a control system capable of modeling those characteristics accurately has been constructed to provide natural vehicle behavior in low-speed driving. The effectiveness of the system was evaluated with an experimental vehicle, and the results confirmed that it reduces the driver's workload. This paper presents an outline of the system and its effectiveness along with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Sensing System to Infer DriverS Intention

2000-11-01
2000-01-C056
An approach to designing an intelligent vehicle controller for partially supporting driver operation of a vehicle is proposed. Vehicle behavior is regarded as a system performed by the interaction between the driving environment, vehicle as a machine and driver expectations for the vehicle movements. Driver intention to accelerate or decelerate is mainly generated by the perception of the driving environment. The model we propose involves information on the driving environment affecting driver intention taking driver differences in perceiving the driving environment into account. An engineering model for installing the vehicle controller is expressed by a multipurpose decision-maker allowing explicit treatment of the driving environment, vehicle action, and driver intention. A reasoning engine deals with differences in individual driver traits for generating intention to decelerate by using fuzzy integrals and fuzzy measures.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method for Reducing the Driver's Work Load Using a Human Body Model Based on Biomechanisms

1996-02-01
960948
A human body model has been developed for conducting personal computer simulations to evaluate physical work loads, especially muscle loads, associated with the driving position and arm and leg motions. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparing estimated work loads with electromyographic measurements. Correlation analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the estimated loads and subjective evaluations. The results indicated the regions of the body where loads had the largest impact on the perceived sensation of physical effort and were used to derive an index for evaluating the overall work load of the entire body. The simulation method was used to evaluate control switch positions, driving position and vehicle entry/exit motions.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 4WD System: All-Mode 4WD

1997-02-24
970684
This paper presents a new electronic torque split four-wheel-drive system called All-Mode 4WD, which has been adopted in the latest generation of sport-utility vehicles (SUVs). As a torque split system designed specifically for SUV use, it provides stable driving performance matching the driver's intentions under all sorts of operating conditions, from a completely natural on-road driving feel to powerful traction for off-road travel.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Improvement of Vehicle Roll Behavior

1997-02-24
970093
Vehicle roll behavior has a large influence on how drivers evaluate handling performance. This paper describes an approach to quantifying roll behavior experimentally and presents a method for designing suspension properties to improve the sensation of roll. In this study, it was found that using pitch motion as an evaluation index results in good correspondence with subjective evaluations. To obtain acceptable roll behavior, it is important to control pitch motion during roll to a lower mode at the front end relative to the rear. This desirable behavior can be achieved by designing suitable roll center characteristics, nonlinear load changes and damping force coefficients.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Car Navigation System Providing a Bird's-Eye View Map Display

1996-02-01
961007
A new map display technique has been developed for car navigation systems that presents a bird's-eye view of three-dimensional map images. This view allows both detailed and wide-area information to be presented simultaneously in a single screen display. It provides drivers with a reassuring feeling while driving along their route because the two types of information can guide them accurately to their destination. The results of evaluation tests have confirmed the effectiveness of this technique. On the other hand, some aspects requiring further improvement were also identified. This paper discusses how the technique was developed and describes the tests conducted to evaluate its effectiveness along with the results obtained.
Technical Paper

Development of the New Generation Ergonomic Seat Based on Occupant Posture Analysis

1995-02-01
950140
In this study, the functions required of automotive seats were analyzed from the standpoint of occupant posture. The results have been incorporated in the development of the New Generation Ergonomic Seat, which better fits the contours of the human body and prevents a stooped posture that places a greater load on the lumbar region, thereby reducing fatigue during long hours of driving. The new seat adopts the concept of “combined pelvic and lumbar support,” based on an analysis of the muscular and skeletal structure of the human body, sitting posture and body pressure distribution.
Technical Paper

Trends in Vehicle Information Displays in the Multimedia Era

1998-10-19
98C035
Flat panel displays for automobiles are facing a new era with the development of navigation systems. As navigation systems become more important as driver's assistance devices, development of birds-eye-view and 3D displays continues, as well as improvements for larger display screens and higher mounting positions. In response to the progress of mobile multimedia technologies, demands for larger display screens and larger aspect ratios have been increasing. Significance for improvements to anti-glare features or view angles has increased as they provide better visibility and the increase layout options. The use of human machine information interaction, which interfaces visual, audio and tactile senses, makes it possible to realize safer, more convenient and comfortable multimedia era vehicle
Technical Paper

Development of Side Impact Air Bag System for Head and Chest Protection

1998-05-31
986165
Most of the side impact air bag systems in the current market are designed to protect the thorax area only. The new Head and Thorax SRS Side Impact Air Bag system, which Nissan recently introduced into the market, was designed to help provide additional protection for the head in certain side impacts. The system may help protect occupant head contacts when the vehicle collides into a tree, or the high hood of a large striking vehicle. This paper introduces the additional features and function of the new Head and Thorax SRS Side Impact Air Bag system, and some evaluation results in laboratory testing.
Technical Paper

Interactive Information Delivery Navigation System

1998-10-19
98C029
In the past few years, car navigation and cellular phone system are rapidly increased in Japan and vehicle information and communication system (VICS), the public traffic information service started in 1996, accelerates realization of ITS world. This rapid movement causes drivers to want more information on not only traffic jam but also other versatile items like parking availability, weather report and the latest news, etc. via cellular phone network. This paper describes the on-demand information service with the interactive human interface by operators and the development of the information center and the in-vehicle system to realize it.
Technical Paper

Development of Practical Heads-Up Display for Production Vehicle Application

1989-02-01
890559
THIS PAPER presents an advanced heads-up display which has been newly developed for use in 88 Nissan Silvia model. The HUD consists of a projector with a newly developed high brightness VFD and light-selective film used as a combiner which is coated on the windshield. This combination provides good display legibility even under bright sunlight. The display shows the vehicle speed in a three-digit reading at distance of more than one meter from the driver's eyes. The windshield-coated combiner conforms to U.S. safety standards concerning light transmittance, abrasion and other performance requirements. Experimental data are also presented which substantiate the HUD's high legibility and confirm its effect in enhancing the driver's attention toward the road ahead
Technical Paper

Development of a Method for Predicting Comfortable Airflow in the Passenger Compartment

1992-09-01
922131
Indexes of thermal comfort, such as PMV (Predicted Mean Vote: ISO-7730), which have traditionally been applied to houses or buildings, are difficult to be applied to the automotive passenger compartment because of the large thermal differences that exist around vehicle occupants. In this work, the effects of temperature, airflow and solar radiation on passenger comfort in an air-conditioned vehicle interior were analyzed. Based on the results obtained, a method was devised for predicting the feeling of comfort passengers get from the thermal atmosphere in the vehicle interior. This paper explains the necessity of providing a diffused airflow in an air-conditioned passenger compartment, based on the effects of airflow on the feeling of comfort. Further, a new airflow control procedure is proposed which combines both diffused and concentrated airflow patterns to create a new variable airflow system.
Technical Paper

Research and Development Work on Navigation Systems at Nissan

1993-11-01
931921
Nissan is offering navigation systems in some domestic production models. These systems, which show drivers the vehicle's present location on a CRT map display, free them from anxiety about getting lost when traveling in an unfamiliar area. It is expected that future navigation systems will incorporate two key capabilities. One will be a route guidance capability, which will not only indicate the present location but also select the optimal route to the intended destination and guide drivers there by indicating which direction to take at each intersection along the way. The second capability will be a communications link with the roadside infrastructure for receiving outside information such as traffic congestion data and incorporating that information into route guidance. Nissan has established the core technologies of these navigation capabilities in the past ten years through the development of conceptual prototypes and experimental systems in government-sponsored projects.
Technical Paper

Study of Comfortable Sitting Posture

1988-02-01
880054
By nature, the driver's seat should be designed for work, while the passenger's seat should be built for comfort. This means that the functions of the seats are inherently different. Although many studies have been done on the driver's seat, the design and use of the passenger's seat have received little attention. This study examined a comfortable sitting posture in the passenger's seat. The results obtained have led to the development of two new devices. One device makes it possible for the seat cushion to move upward and forward as the seat tilts backward. The other device allows the upper portion of the seat back to tilt forward from the top of the lower seat back. These devices thus function to provide a comfortable sitting posture. This paper describes the new devices and presents the results of an investigation into a comfortable sitting posture for the occupant of the front passenger's seat.
Technical Paper

A Robotic Driver on Roller Dynamometer with Vehicle Performance Self Learning Algorithm

1991-02-01
910036
A robotic driver has been designed on the basis of an analysis of a human driver's action in following a given driving schedule. The self-learning algorithm enables the robot to learn the vehicle characteristics without human intervention. Based on learned relationships, the robotic driver can determine an appropriate accelerator position and execute other operations through sophisticated calculations using the future scheduled vehicle speed and vehicle characteristics data. Compensation is also provided to minimize vehicle speed error. The robotic driver can reproduce the same types of exhaust emission and fuel economy data obtained with human drivers with good repeatability. It doesn't require long preparation time. Thereby making it possible to reduce experimentation work in the vehicle development process while providing good accuracy and reliability.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Steering Column Collapse Behavior Using Finite Element Analysis

1992-02-01
920391
For the purpose of protecting the driver from injury in a crash, a safety standard has been established that specifies the allowable impact force when the driver hits the steering wheel as a result of an impact. In this work, an investigation was lade of steering column collapse behavior in which the steering column was constructed such that the crash energy was absorbed by the bending and tearing of a thin steel plate. As a result, a finite element analysis method has been developed for conducting an impact analysis using a ductile fracture model of the thin plate. This method makes it possible to predict the collapse behavior of the steering column and the deceleration that develops on the body block of the safety standard test model.
Technical Paper

Driver’s Sight Point and Dynamics of the Driver-Vehicle-System Related to It

1968-02-01
680104
Since the motor vehicle is controlled by the driver, dynamic consideration of the driver-vehicle system is necessary. In this sytem, eye sight is the most important sense with which the driver gets information from the course. In the present research, first, sighting distance in steady straight running was measured by the “slit method”. Next, sighting distance and sighting angle in various curvilinear runnings were measured by use of a “sight point camera” devised by the authors. Introducing the conception of sighting distance and sighting angle, dynamics of the driver-vehicle system is contrived. Theoretical calculation showed that sighting distance should be longer than a certain critical value to make the system stable.
Technical Paper

Automatic Falling Occupant Protecting Net - Preliminary Study

1970-02-01
700452
An automatic, falling, occupant-protecting net is being developed for spreading in front of automobile occupants in the time interval between vehicle impact and occupant collision. The device is designed to counteract forward body acceleration and minimize head, neck, and chest injuries. This device was investigated by sled and barrier tests using anthropomorphic dummies. Significant improvements in occupant kinematics and remarkable reduction in head and chest impact force has been observed. Some problems such as whiplash injury await solution but continuing investigation of proposed measures of correction show that they are not insurmountable.
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