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Technical Paper

Effects of Gas Flow and Mixture Properties on Engine-Out HC Emissions

The geometry and area of the notch in the swirl control valve installed in the intake port were varied to analyze the effects on HC emissions. A swirl control valve functions to promote the formation of a homogeneous mixture, enabling the amount of liquid fuel supplied to the cylinder to be reduced. For this reason, it is difficult to obtain an added effect through the combined use of a swirl control valve and an auxiliary-air type of injector for assisting fuel atomization. Tumble (vertical swirl) flow fields are effective in shortening the combustion period. This results in a higher exhaust gas temperature at an equivalent level of combustion stability. It was thought that swirl flow fields produce residual gas flow in the cylinder after the completion of the main combustion period. It is surmised that the residual gas flow functions to diffuse and promote after-burning of the unburned HC layer.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions of V6 ULEVs

New technologies are needed to reduce cold-start emissions in order to meet the more stringent regulations that will go into effect in Europe (EC2000 or EC2005) and in California (ULEV), especially for larger engines such as 6- and 8-cylinder units. One new technology in this regard is the electrically heated catalyst (EHC). However, the use of EHCs alone is not sufficient to achieve the necessary reduction in emissions. This paper discusses techniques for effectively combining the elements of an EHC system, including the introduction of secondary air into the exhaust, improved control of the air/fuel ratio, and an electric power supply method for EHCs. It is shown that it is more effective to promote exothermic reactions in the exhaust manifold than at the EHC. A suitable method for this purpose is to introduce secondary air into the exhaust near the exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Gasoline-Fueled Near-Zero-Emission Vehicle Using an Improved Emission Measurement System

This paper concerns research on an emission control system aimed at reducing emission levels to well below the ULEV standards. As emission levels are further reduced in the coming years, it is projected that measurement error will increase substantially. Therefore, an analysis was made of the conventional measurement system, which revealed the following major problems. 1. The conventional analyzer, having a minimum full-scale THC range of 10 ppmC, cannot measure lower concentration emissions with high accuracy. 2. Hydrocarbons are produced in various components of the measurement system, increasing measurement error. 3. Even if an analyzer with a minimum full-scale THC range of 1 ppmC is used in an effort to measure low concentrations, the 1 ppmC measurement range cannot be applied when the dilution air contains a high THC concentration. This makes it impossible to obtain highly accurate measurements. 4.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Design/Control Parameters and Emission Control Systems on Specific Reactivity of S.I. Engine Exhaust Gases

In 1994, the California Air Resources Board implemented low-emission vehicle (LEV) standards with the aim of improving urban air quality. One feature of the LEV standards is the increasingly tighter regulation of non-methane organic gases (NMOG), taking into account ozone formation, in addition to the existing control of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Hydrocarbons and other organic gases emitted by S.I. engines have been identified as a cause of atmospheric ozone formation. Since the reactivity of each chemical species in exhaust emissions differs, the effect on ozone formation varies depending on the composition of the exhaust gas components. This study examined the effect of different engine types, fuel atomization conditions, turbulence and emission control systems on emission species and specific reactivity. This was done using gas chromatographs and a high-performance liquid chromatograph to analyze exhaust emission species that affect ozone formation.
Technical Paper

The Development of Driveability Index and the Effects of Gasoline Volatility on Engine Performance

To reduce engine exhaust emissions, we have had to deal with this global environmental problem from the fuel side by introducing oxygenated fuels, reducing the RVP and using low aromatics. But when we change the fuel components and distillation, we must take note about how these affect the engine driveability. We have used T50, T90, RVP and so on as the fuel index up to the present. It is possible to characterize the fuel from one aspect, but these indexes don't always represent the real feature of the fuel. In this paper we propose a New Driveability Index (here in after referred to as NDI) that is more realistic and accurate than the other fuel indexes. We used a 1600cc DOHC L4 MPI type engine. We used Model Gasolines and Market Gasolines, see Appendix(1), (2) and (3), and tested them according to the Excess Air Ratio Response Test Method (here in after referred to as λ-R Test) that was suggested in SAE paper #930375, and we calculated the NDI statistically.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study on the Effect of Introducing Low-Emission Vehicles on Air Quality Improvement

The effect of the introduction of low-emission vehicles on potential air quality improvement in the Los Angeles area was predicted using a three-dimensional airshed simulation model. The simulations were based on ozone concentration estimates made on the basis of data released by the California Air Resources Board concerning projected quantities of emissions from various sources in 2010. Analyses were made of three scenarios. One assumed that LEV, ULEV and ZEV regulations were enforced as planned, a second assumed that these planned regulations were modified; and a third assumed that emission levels from various sources were reduced in line with the goals of the Air Quality Management Plan formulated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Computation of the Effects of the Swirl Ratio in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines on NOx and Soot Emissions

Three-dimensional computation has been applied to analyze combustion and emission characteristics in direct-injection diesel engines. A computational code called TurboKIVA was used to investigate the effects of the swirl ratio, one of the fundamental factors related to combustion control, on combustion characteristics and NOx and soot emissions. The code was first modified to calculate soot formation and oxidation and the precise behavior of fuel drops on the combustion chamber wall. As a result of improving calculation accuracy, good agreement was obtained between the measured and predicted pressure, heat release rate and NOx and soot emissions. Using this modified version of TurboKIVA, the effects of the swirl ratio on NOx and soot emissions were investigated. The computational results showed that soot emissions were reduced with a higher swirl ratio. However, a further increase in the swirl ratio produced greater soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Valve Train Wear Test Procedure for Gasoline Engine Oil

An analysis was made of wear factors by investigating the effect of engine operating conditions on valve train wear. It was found that cam nose wear increased as larger amounts of combustion products, including nitrogen oxides and unburned gasoline, became intermixed with the engine oil. Based on these results, a valve train wear test procedure has been developed for evaluating cam nose and rocker arm wear under engine firing conditions. It has been confirmed that this test procedure correlates will with ASTM Sequence VE test and CCMC TU-3 test.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gas Chromatography-Based Methods of Analyzing Hydrocarbon Species

Gas chromatographic methods for analyzing hydrocarbon species in vehicle exhaust emissions were compared in terms of their collection efficiency, detection limit, repeatability and number of species detected using cylinder gas and tailpipe emission samples. The main methods compared were a Tenax cold trap injection (TCT) method (C5-C12 HCs) and a cold trap injection (CTI) method (C2-C4 HCs; C5-C12 HCs). Our own direct (DIR) method was used to confirm the collection efficiencies. Both methods yielded good results, but the CTI method showed low collection efficiency for some C2-C4 HCs. Measurement of individual species is needed with this method for accurate analysis of tailpipe emissions. Both the CTI method and the TCT method combined with the DIR method for determining C2-C4 HCs yielded nearly the same ozone specific reactivity values for the NMHC species analyzed.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Attainment of Low Fuel Consumption High Output Power and Low Exhaust Emissions in Direct Injection SI Engines

This paper describes simultaneous attainment in improving fuel consumption, output power and reducing HC emissions with a direct injection S.I. engine newly developed in Nissan. Straight intake port is adopted to increase discharge coefficient under WOT operation and horizontal swirl flow is generated by a swirl control valve to provide stable stratified charge combustion under part load conditions. As a result, fuel consumption is reduced by more than 20% and power output is improved by approximately 10%. Moreover, unburned HC is reduced by equivalently 30% in engine cold start condition. An application of diagnostic and numerical simulation tools to investigate and optimize various factors are also introduced.
Technical Paper

Engine-Out and Tail-Pipe Emission Reduction Technologies of V-6 LEVs

Compared with in-line 4-cylinder engines, V-6 engines show a slower rise in exhaust gas temperature, requiring a longer time for catalysts to become active, and they also emit higher levels of engine-out emissions. In this study, The combination of a new type of catalyst, and optimized ignition timing and air-fuel ratio control achieved quicker catalyst light-off. Additionally, engine-out emissions were substantially reduced by using a swirl control valve to strengthen in-cylinder gas flow, adopting electronically controlled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and reducing the crevice volume by decreasing the top land height of the pistons. A vehicle incorporating these emission reduction technologies reduced the emission level through the first phase of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) by 60-70% compared with the Tier 1 vehicle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies on a Natural Gas Vehicle

This paper presents the results of several studies conducted on a natural gas vehicle. In one study of engine-out emissions performance, the exhaust emissions of the CNG engine were lower than those of the base gasoline engine. In another study of the conversion characteristics of three-way catalysts, it was found that the conversion efficiency of total hydrocarbons (THCs) was much lower in the lean-mixture region for the NGV. The reduced efficiency was traced to lower conversion and poor reactivity of low-end hydrocarbons and to a higher concentration of H2O.
Technical Paper

Development of Improved Metal-Supported Catalyst

A compact, high-performance and durable metal-supported catalyst has been developed by using the properties of the metal support effectively. The advantages of the metal-surpported catalyst against the ceramic-supported one are higher geometrical surface area, higher heat conductivity and thinner wall thickness. Higher geometlical surface area and higher heat conductivity lead to higher conversion efficiency after durability test and it allows reduction in catalyst volume. And the thinner wall thickness lowers gas flow resistance. But also, the metal-supported catalyst has the disadvantage of larger heat expansion and it requires special structure and material.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Lambda Control Based on an Exhaust Emission Simulation Model that Takes into Account Fuel Transportation in the Intake Manifold

This paper presents an improved exhaust emission simulation model that takes into account fuel transportation behavior in order to obtain more precise air-fuel ratio control, which is needed to meet stringent exhaust emission standards. This simulation model is based on experimental formulas for air and fuel behavior in the intake manifold, especially during transient engine operation. Fuel behavior, including the effect of wall flow on the air-fuel ratio, is obtained analytically. Predictions are then made of the exhaust emissions from a car operated under official driving schedules. The new simulation model is a useful tool in the design and development of fuel supply control systems. An outline of the new model is presented first along with a comparison of the calculated and experimental results. The air-fuel ratio control strategy derived with this model is then described.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Wall Thickness of Ceramic Substrates for Automotive Catalysts

Ceramic honeycombs have been used as automotive catalyst supports in US, Japan, Europe and other highly urbanized countries. Now, engine output is a great concern for automanufacturers, and reduction of the wall thickness of honeycomb substrates became indespensable for maintenance of gas flow restriction to a certain low level. To reduce wall thickness, material should be strong to maintain canning strength of substrates. Mechanical strength was improved with high density cordierite. However, isostatic strength of whole substrates was still insufficient with reduced thin walls for canning in spite of the material's high mecanical strength. Discussion is carried out on further possibility of improving canning performance of thin wall substrates as well as flow restriction, and warm up characteristics.
Technical Paper

Warm-Up Characteristics of Thin Wall Honeycomb Catalysts

HC emission standards will be tightened during the 1990's in the US. A key issue in reducing HC emission is improving the warm-up characteristics of catalysts during the cold start of engines. For this purpose, studies are under way on reduction of heat mass of ceramic substrates. Reduction of cell walls in substrates to thickness smaller than the current thickness of 12mil or 6mil has resulted in reduced heat mass, and also reduced flow restriction of substrates. The warm-up characteristics of low bulk density catalysts are better than those of high bulk density, i.e., the warm-up characteristics of thinner wall or lower cell density catalysts are better than those of thicker wall or higher cell density catalysts. A relationship between geometric surface area and warm-up characteristics is observed.
Technical Paper

Effects of NOx and Unburned Gasoline on Low Temperature Sludge Formation in Engine Oil

It is generally known that NOx reacts with unburned gasoline, olefins in particular, to form sludge precursors. In this study, the authors investigated the process by which NOx and unburned gasoline mix into the engine oil and analyzed the mechanism whereby stop and go driving accelerates sludge formation. It has been found that NOx detected in the engine oil as nitrite ions mixes into the oil in the crankcase. The NOx concentration in the engine oil increases rapidly when the crankcase gas temperature is nearly equal to the dew point of the water vapor in the crankcase. Unburned gasoline is mainly absorbed into the oil through the oil film on the cylinder walls and the oil in the ring grooves. During low-temperature engine operation in stop-go driving (i.e., when the vehicle is stopped), NOx and unburned gasoline are absorbed into the engine oil and, in high-temperature engine operation (i.e., when the vehicle is moving), NOx and unburned gasoline are released from the oil.
Technical Paper

Effects of Clean Fuels (Reformulated Gasolines, M85, and CNG) on Automotive Emissions

With the aim of improving the air quality in large cities, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) has stipulated that non-methane organic gas (NMOG) composed of carbon numbers from C1 to C12 must be reduced for vehicle categories designated as Transitional Low Emission Vehicles (TLEVs), Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs), Ultra low Emission Vehicles (ULEVs), and Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs). Although considerable research work has been done on this issue to date, the entire picture is still not clear. Studies done by the authors have been aimed at providing a better understanding of the potential for reducing automotive tailpipe emissions by using several clean fuel candidates. The major questions of concern are the extent to which emissions of certain species can actually be reduced and what fuel can provide the best performance under a reduced NMOG condition.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Deposits and Gasoline Composition on S.I. Engine Performance

Valve deposits in gasoline engines increase with time, absorbing fuel during acceleration and releasing fuel during deceleration. Valve deposits insulate the heat release from the cylinder and this phenomenon is the cause of bad fuel vaporization. In this way, the deposits greatly affect the driveability and exhaust emissions. Using a 3.OL MPI(Multipoint Injection) engine, we measured the quantity of fuel that deposits at the intake port, and the throttle response (using a wall-flow meter made by Nissan Motor Co.1), 2) to study the deposits effect on driveability and exhaust emissions at a low temperature. The deposits were formed on the intake valve surface (about 8.0 on the CRC deposit rating scale) through 200 hours of laboratory engine stand operation. At low temperature, C9 and C10 hydrocarbons tend to stick to the intake port surface and intake valve as “wall-flow”; this is one cause of bad driveability.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Emission Control Devices and Fuel Composition on Speciated Emissions of S.I. Engines

Hydrocarbons and other organic materials emitted from S.I. engines cause ozone to form in the air. Since each species of organic materials has a different reactivity, exhaust components affect ozone formation in different ways. The effects of exhaust emission control devices and fuel properties on speciated emissions and ozone formation were examined by measuring speciated emissions with a gas chromatograph and a high-performance liquid chromatograph. In the case of gasoline fuels, catalyst systems with higher conversion rates such as close-coupled catalyst systems are effective in reducing alkenes and aromatics which show high reactivities to ozone formation. With deterioration of the catalyst, non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission increases, but the specific reactivity of ozone formation tends to decrease because of the increase in alkane contents having low MIR values.