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Technical Paper

Technologies for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions of V6 ULEVs

1997-02-24
971022
New technologies are needed to reduce cold-start emissions in order to meet the more stringent regulations that will go into effect in Europe (EC2000 or EC2005) and in California (ULEV), especially for larger engines such as 6- and 8-cylinder units. One new technology in this regard is the electrically heated catalyst (EHC). However, the use of EHCs alone is not sufficient to achieve the necessary reduction in emissions. This paper discusses techniques for effectively combining the elements of an EHC system, including the introduction of secondary air into the exhaust, improved control of the air/fuel ratio, and an electric power supply method for EHCs. It is shown that it is more effective to promote exothermic reactions in the exhaust manifold than at the EHC. A suitable method for this purpose is to introduce secondary air into the exhaust near the exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Gasoline-Fueled Near-Zero-Emission Vehicle Using an Improved Emission Measurement System

1998-10-19
982555
This paper concerns research on an emission control system aimed at reducing emission levels to well below the ULEV standards. As emission levels are further reduced in the coming years, it is projected that measurement error will increase substantially. Therefore, an analysis was made of the conventional measurement system, which revealed the following major problems. 1. The conventional analyzer, having a minimum full-scale THC range of 10 ppmC, cannot measure lower concentration emissions with high accuracy. 2. Hydrocarbons are produced in various components of the measurement system, increasing measurement error. 3. Even if an analyzer with a minimum full-scale THC range of 1 ppmC is used in an effort to measure low concentrations, the 1 ppmC measurement range cannot be applied when the dilution air contains a high THC concentration. This makes it impossible to obtain highly accurate measurements. 4.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Design/Control Parameters and Emission Control Systems on Specific Reactivity of S.I. Engine Exhaust Gases

1995-02-01
950807
In 1994, the California Air Resources Board implemented low-emission vehicle (LEV) standards with the aim of improving urban air quality. One feature of the LEV standards is the increasingly tighter regulation of non-methane organic gases (NMOG), taking into account ozone formation, in addition to the existing control of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Hydrocarbons and other organic gases emitted by S.I. engines have been identified as a cause of atmospheric ozone formation. Since the reactivity of each chemical species in exhaust emissions differs, the effect on ozone formation varies depending on the composition of the exhaust gas components. This study examined the effect of different engine types, fuel atomization conditions, turbulence and emission control systems on emission species and specific reactivity. This was done using gas chromatographs and a high-performance liquid chromatograph to analyze exhaust emission species that affect ozone formation.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study on the Effect of Introducing Low-Emission Vehicles on Air Quality Improvement

1996-05-01
961209
The effect of the introduction of low-emission vehicles on potential air quality improvement in the Los Angeles area was predicted using a three-dimensional airshed simulation model. The simulations were based on ozone concentration estimates made on the basis of data released by the California Air Resources Board concerning projected quantities of emissions from various sources in 2010. Analyses were made of three scenarios. One assumed that LEV, ULEV and ZEV regulations were enforced as planned, a second assumed that these planned regulations were modified; and a third assumed that emission levels from various sources were reduced in line with the goals of the Air Quality Management Plan formulated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District.
Technical Paper

Engine-Out and Tail-Pipe Emission Reduction Technologies of V-6 LEVs

1998-02-23
980674
Compared with in-line 4-cylinder engines, V-6 engines show a slower rise in exhaust gas temperature, requiring a longer time for catalysts to become active, and they also emit higher levels of engine-out emissions. In this study, The combination of a new type of catalyst, and optimized ignition timing and air-fuel ratio control achieved quicker catalyst light-off. Additionally, engine-out emissions were substantially reduced by using a swirl control valve to strengthen in-cylinder gas flow, adopting electronically controlled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and reducing the crevice volume by decreasing the top land height of the pistons. A vehicle incorporating these emission reduction technologies reduced the emission level through the first phase of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) by 60-70% compared with the Tier 1 vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Clean Fuels (Reformulated Gasolines, M85, and CNG) on Automotive Emissions

1992-10-01
922380
With the aim of improving the air quality in large cities, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) has stipulated that non-methane organic gas (NMOG) composed of carbon numbers from C1 to C12 must be reduced for vehicle categories designated as Transitional Low Emission Vehicles (TLEVs), Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs), Ultra low Emission Vehicles (ULEVs), and Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs). Although considerable research work has been done on this issue to date, the entire picture is still not clear. Studies done by the authors have been aimed at providing a better understanding of the potential for reducing automotive tailpipe emissions by using several clean fuel candidates. The major questions of concern are the extent to which emissions of certain species can actually be reduced and what fuel can provide the best performance under a reduced NMOG condition.
Technical Paper

Effect of Catalyst Systems on Characteristics of Exhaust Hydrocarbon Species

1993-10-01
932718
The California Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) standards mandate a reduction in non-methane organic gases (NMOG). With the aim of analyzing NMOG emissions, a comparison was made of the hydrocarbon species found in the exhaust gas when different types of catalyst systems and fuel specifications were used. NMOG emissions are usually measured by removing methane from the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions and adding aldehyde and ketone emissions. The NMOG level found in this way is thus influenced by the rate of methane in THC emissions. Another important factor in the LEV standards is specific reactivity (SR), indicating the formation potential of ozone, which is one cause of photochemical smog. Specific reactivity is expressed by the amount of ozone generated per unit weight of NMOG emissions, and is affected by the respective proportion of hydrocarbon species in the total NMOG emissions.
Technical Paper

In-line Hydrocarbon (HC) Adsorber System for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

2000-03-06
2000-01-0892
An adsorber system for reducing cold-start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions has been developed combining existing catalyst technologies with a zeolite-based HC adsorber. The series flow in-line concept offers a passive and simplified alternative to other technologies by incorporating one additional adsorber substrate into existing converters without any additional valving, purging lines, secondary air, or special substrates. Major technical issues to be resolved for practical use of this system are 1) the ability to adsorb a wide range of HC molecular sizes in the cold exhaust gas and 2) the temperature difference between HC desorption from the adsorber and activation of the catalyst to convert desorbed HCs. This paper describes the current development status of hydrocarbon adsorber aftertreatment technologies. We report results obtained with a variety of adsorber properties, washcoat structures of adsorber catalyst and start-up and underfloor catalyst system combinations.
Technical Paper

Development of New Technologies Targeting Zero Emissions for Gasoline Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0890
This paper describes new technologies for achieving exhaust emission levels much below the SULEV standards in California, which are the most stringent among the currently proposed regulations in the world. Catalyst light-off time, for example, has been significantly reduced through the adoption of a catalyst substrate with an ultra-thin wall thickness of 2 mil and a catalyst coating specifically designed for quicker light-off. A highly-efficient HC trap system has been realized by combining a two-stage HC trap design with an improved HC trap catalyst. The cold-start HC emission level has been greatly reduced by an electronically actuated swirl control valve with a high-speed starter. Further, an improved Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) control method has achieved much higher catalyst HC and NOx conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Nissan's Gasoline SULEV Technology

2000-04-02
2000-01-1583
A new gasoline-fueled Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) technology has been developed that meets the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) most stringent tailpipe emission levels and zero evaporative emissions, while fulfilling all On-Board Diagnostic II (OBD II) requirements. This paper will describe the various new technologies used in achieving the SULEV standards, such as the HC trap system with an ultra-thin wall substrate for the improvement of catalyst light-off time, and an electrically actuated swirl control valve for reducing cold-start emissions. In addition, a control approach to stabilizing NOx emissions will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

A Study of an Analysis Method for Trace Substances in Vehicle Exhaust Gas

2007-04-16
2007-01-0306
A new method for measuring unregulated substances in the exhaust gas is being investigated to clarify the influence of the vehicles' exhaust emissions into the environment. This paper explains our work on developing an analysis method for detecting and quantifying trace substances in the exhaust gas. A new analysis method was examined that uses thermal desorption to analyze trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vehicle exhaust gas. This technique is faster than conventional methods and does not require any preconditioning of the samples before analysis. While lead and chloromethane were detected in the exhaust gas samples, it was made clear that these substances did not originate in the engine system. Accordingly, the results of this study indicate that careful attention must be paid to the test environment and the presence of measurement interfering substances in exhaust samples when measuring trace constituents in the exhaust gas from low-emission vehicles.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Clean Combustion Technology Combining a Low-Temperature and Premixed Combustion Concept for Meeting Future Emission Standards

2001-03-05
2001-01-0200
Experimental investigations were conducted with a direct-injection diesel engine to improve exhaust emission, especially nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), without increasing fuel consumption. As a result of this work, a new combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK) combustion, has been developed that reduces NOx and smoke simultaneously through low-temperature combustion and premixed combustion, respectively. The characteristics of a new combustion concept were investigated using a single cylinder DI diesel engine and combustion photographs. The low compression ratio, EGR cooling and high injection pressure was applied with a multi-cylinder test engine to accomplish premixed combustion at high load region. Combustion chamber specifications have been optimized to avoid the increase of cold-start HC emissions due to a low compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies Adopted for Japan U-LEV Certified Vehicles

2003-05-19
2003-01-1872
This paper describes the emission reduction technologies applied to 4- and 6-cylinder engines used on Japanese market models certified as ultra-low emission vehicles (U-LEVs) in Japan. To qualify for this rigorous U-LEV certification, a vehicle must reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by an additional 75% from the levels mandated by Japan's 2000 exhaust emission regulations. Nearly all Nissan Japanese models fitted with a gasoline engine, ranging from in-line 4-cylinder engines to V6 engines, have now been certified as U-LEVs. This has been accomplished by further improving the emission reduction technologies that were developed for the Sentra CA, which was launched in the U.S. market in 2000 as the world's first gasoline-fueled vehicle to qualify for Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (P-ZEV) credits from the California Air Resources Board. The specific new technologies involved are as follows.
Technical Paper

Combination of Combustion Concept and Fuel Property for Ultra-Clean DI Diesel

2004-06-08
2004-01-1868
Experimental investigations were previously conducted with a direct-injection diesel engine with the aim of reducing exhaust emissions, especially nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). As a result of that work, a combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK) combustion, was developed that reduces NOx and smoke simultaneously through low-temperature combustion and premixed combustion to achieve a cleaner diesel engine. In subsequent work, it was found that applying a low compression ratio was effective in expanding the MK combustion region on the high-load side. The MK concept was then combined with an exhaust after-treatment system and applied to a test vehicle. The results indicated the attainment of ULEV emission levels, albeit in laboratory evaluations. In the present work, the combination of the MK combustion concept and certain fuel properties has been experimentally investigated with the aim of reducing exhaust emissions further.
Technical Paper

Development of Third Generation of Gasoline P-ZEV Technology

2003-03-03
2003-01-0816
This paper describes the third generation of the partial zero emission vehicle (P-ZEV) technology originally adopted on the Nissan Sentra CA sold in California. The 2000 Nissan Sentra CA became the world's first gasoline-fueled car to qualify for P-ZEV credits from the California Air Resources Board (CARB). The third-generation P-ZEV system has been substantially reduced in size and cost, compared with the Sentra CA system, enabling it to be used on high-volume models. This system complies with the P-ZEV requirements, including those for zero evaporative emissions and Onboard Diagnostics II (OBD-II). To achieve a more compact and lower-cost system, an ultra-thin-walled catalyst substrate, the world's first to attain a 1.8-mil wall thickness, has been adopted along with catalysts that display excellent low-temperature activity. As a result, low-temperature catalyst activity has been significantly improved.
Technical Paper

Study on Parameters Affecting NMOG Measurements and a Method to Improve its Accuracy

1993-03-01
930387
Nissan has developed a non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission measuring method based on California Air Resources Board (CARB) procedures.1) In addition, a system to analyze the chemical species present in the exhaust gases at Low Emission Vehicles (LEV) and Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (ULEV) levels has been created. It was found that when using an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) to achieve the low emissions for LEV and ULEV levels, the interference between exhaust HC species and the contamination of the analyzing system are a serious problem for the measurement of speciated emissions. The methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) contained in reformulated gasoline can interfere with HC speciation in the Chromatogram, requiring that the automatically speciated results be checked by a trained operator. The low exhaust HC emissions of bags 2 and 3 in the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) are nearly equal to that of the background air utilized in the constant volume sampler (CVS) dilution.
Journal Article

Development of a Diesel Emission Catalyst System for Meeting US SULEV Standards

2008-04-14
2008-01-0449
In recent years, catalyst systems such as a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst system and a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system have been developed to obtain cleaner diesel emissions. At Nissan, we developed an emission control system for meeting Tier 2 Bin 5 requirements in 2003. On the basis of that technology, a new HC-NOx trap catalyst system has now been developed that complies with the SULEV standards without increasing the catalyst volume and precious metal loading. Compliance with the SULEV standards requires a further reduction of HC (NMHC) emissions by 84% and NOx by 60% compared with the emission performance Tier 2 Bin 5 compliant catalyst system. Consequently high conversion performance for both HCs and NOx is needed. An investigation of HC emission behavior under the FTP75 mode showed that a reduction of cold-phase HCs was critical for meeting the standard. Large quantities of HCs above C4 are emitted in the cold state.
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