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Technical Paper

A Study of a Gasoline-Fueled Near-Zero-Emission Vehicle Using an Improved Emission Measurement System

This paper concerns research on an emission control system aimed at reducing emission levels to well below the ULEV standards. As emission levels are further reduced in the coming years, it is projected that measurement error will increase substantially. Therefore, an analysis was made of the conventional measurement system, which revealed the following major problems. 1. The conventional analyzer, having a minimum full-scale THC range of 10 ppmC, cannot measure lower concentration emissions with high accuracy. 2. Hydrocarbons are produced in various components of the measurement system, increasing measurement error. 3. Even if an analyzer with a minimum full-scale THC range of 1 ppmC is used in an effort to measure low concentrations, the 1 ppmC measurement range cannot be applied when the dilution air contains a high THC concentration. This makes it impossible to obtain highly accurate measurements. 4.
Technical Paper

The Development of Driveability Index and the Effects of Gasoline Volatility on Engine Performance

To reduce engine exhaust emissions, we have had to deal with this global environmental problem from the fuel side by introducing oxygenated fuels, reducing the RVP and using low aromatics. But when we change the fuel components and distillation, we must take note about how these affect the engine driveability. We have used T50, T90, RVP and so on as the fuel index up to the present. It is possible to characterize the fuel from one aspect, but these indexes don't always represent the real feature of the fuel. In this paper we propose a New Driveability Index (here in after referred to as NDI) that is more realistic and accurate than the other fuel indexes. We used a 1600cc DOHC L4 MPI type engine. We used Model Gasolines and Market Gasolines, see Appendix(1), (2) and (3), and tested them according to the Excess Air Ratio Response Test Method (here in after referred to as λ-R Test) that was suggested in SAE paper #930375, and we calculated the NDI statistically.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gas Chromatography-Based Methods of Analyzing Hydrocarbon Species

Gas chromatographic methods for analyzing hydrocarbon species in vehicle exhaust emissions were compared in terms of their collection efficiency, detection limit, repeatability and number of species detected using cylinder gas and tailpipe emission samples. The main methods compared were a Tenax cold trap injection (TCT) method (C5-C12 HCs) and a cold trap injection (CTI) method (C2-C4 HCs; C5-C12 HCs). Our own direct (DIR) method was used to confirm the collection efficiencies. Both methods yielded good results, but the CTI method showed low collection efficiency for some C2-C4 HCs. Measurement of individual species is needed with this method for accurate analysis of tailpipe emissions. Both the CTI method and the TCT method combined with the DIR method for determining C2-C4 HCs yielded nearly the same ozone specific reactivity values for the NMHC species analyzed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies on a Natural Gas Vehicle

This paper presents the results of several studies conducted on a natural gas vehicle. In one study of engine-out emissions performance, the exhaust emissions of the CNG engine were lower than those of the base gasoline engine. In another study of the conversion characteristics of three-way catalysts, it was found that the conversion efficiency of total hydrocarbons (THCs) was much lower in the lean-mixture region for the NGV. The reduced efficiency was traced to lower conversion and poor reactivity of low-end hydrocarbons and to a higher concentration of H2O.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Deposits and Gasoline Composition on S.I. Engine Performance

Valve deposits in gasoline engines increase with time, absorbing fuel during acceleration and releasing fuel during deceleration. Valve deposits insulate the heat release from the cylinder and this phenomenon is the cause of bad fuel vaporization. In this way, the deposits greatly affect the driveability and exhaust emissions. Using a 3.OL MPI(Multipoint Injection) engine, we measured the quantity of fuel that deposits at the intake port, and the throttle response (using a wall-flow meter made by Nissan Motor Co.1), 2) to study the deposits effect on driveability and exhaust emissions at a low temperature. The deposits were formed on the intake valve surface (about 8.0 on the CRC deposit rating scale) through 200 hours of laboratory engine stand operation. At low temperature, C9 and C10 hydrocarbons tend to stick to the intake port surface and intake valve as “wall-flow”; this is one cause of bad driveability.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Emission Control Devices and Fuel Composition on Speciated Emissions of S.I. Engines

Hydrocarbons and other organic materials emitted from S.I. engines cause ozone to form in the air. Since each species of organic materials has a different reactivity, exhaust components affect ozone formation in different ways. The effects of exhaust emission control devices and fuel properties on speciated emissions and ozone formation were examined by measuring speciated emissions with a gas chromatograph and a high-performance liquid chromatograph. In the case of gasoline fuels, catalyst systems with higher conversion rates such as close-coupled catalyst systems are effective in reducing alkenes and aromatics which show high reactivities to ozone formation. With deterioration of the catalyst, non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission increases, but the specific reactivity of ozone formation tends to decrease because of the increase in alkane contents having low MIR values.
Technical Paper

Effect of Catalyst Systems on Characteristics of Exhaust Hydrocarbon Species

The California Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) standards mandate a reduction in non-methane organic gases (NMOG). With the aim of analyzing NMOG emissions, a comparison was made of the hydrocarbon species found in the exhaust gas when different types of catalyst systems and fuel specifications were used. NMOG emissions are usually measured by removing methane from the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions and adding aldehyde and ketone emissions. The NMOG level found in this way is thus influenced by the rate of methane in THC emissions. Another important factor in the LEV standards is specific reactivity (SR), indicating the formation potential of ozone, which is one cause of photochemical smog. Specific reactivity is expressed by the amount of ozone generated per unit weight of NMOG emissions, and is affected by the respective proportion of hydrocarbon species in the total NMOG emissions.
Technical Paper

Sources of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Direct Injection Diesel Engine

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the mechanisms of unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a small direct - injection (DI) diesel engine. HC emission levels of small DI diesel engines are considerably higher than those of corresponding indirect - injection (IDI) diesel engines, even when sacless injection nozzles that are effective in reducing HC emissions are installed on them. In this study, analytical engine tests were performed to evaluate the relative significance of various potential sources of HC emissions from a small DI diesel engine equipped with sacless type injectors.
Technical Paper

Ignition, Combustion, and Exhaust Emissions of Lean Mixtures in Automotive Spark Ignition Engines

Misfire and cycle-to-cycle combustion variation are both serious problems in securing good engine performance and low exhaust emissions in the case of using extremely lean mixtures. Making some modifications in the ignition system and in the combustion chamber, and increasing the mixture turbulence, we examined their effects upon the lean limit, the engine performance, and the exhaust emissions. It was found that gap width and gap projection of a spark plug and spark energy as well as mixture turbulence had a great effect on extending the lean limit and improving engine performance with lean mixtures. A compact combustion chamber is preferable for lean mixture operation. Smooth operation of the engine can be maintained even at retarded spark timing by applying the above-mentioned items and providing hot intake air to the engine. Consequently, exhaust emissions, including hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen, can be substantially reduced.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Fuel Reforming Catalyst for a Gasoline Engine

On-board hydrogen generation technology using a fuel reforming catalyst is an effective way to improve the fuel efficiency of automotive internal combustion engines. The main issue to be addressed in developing such a catalyst is to suppress catalyst deterioration caused by carbon deposition on the catalyst surface due to sulfur adsorption. Enhancing the hydrocarbon and water activation capabilities of the catalyst is important in improving catalyst durability. It was found that the use of a rare earth element is effective in improving the water activation capability of the catalyst. Controlling the hydrocarbon activation capability of the catalyst for a good balance with water activation was also found to be effective in improving catalyst durability.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Mixture Formation in a Direct Injection SI Engine with Optimized In-Cylinder Swirl Air Motion

This paper presents a study of mixture formation in the combustion chamber of a direct-injection SI engine. In-cylinder flow measurement was conducted using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), and visualization of fuel vapor behavior was done using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Further, fast response flame ionization detector (FID) was used to measure the hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations in the vicinity of the spark plug. Thereby mixture concentrations in the vicinity of the spark plug, within the mixture distribution observed using LIF, were quantified. Results revealed that an upward flow forms near the center of the cylinder in the latter half of the compression stroke and goes from the piston crown toward the cylinder head. This upward flow is caused by the synergistic effect of the swirl motion generated in the cylinder and the cylindrical bowl provided in the piston crown eccentrically to the central axis of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

In-line Hydrocarbon (HC) Adsorber System for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

An adsorber system for reducing cold-start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions has been developed combining existing catalyst technologies with a zeolite-based HC adsorber. The series flow in-line concept offers a passive and simplified alternative to other technologies by incorporating one additional adsorber substrate into existing converters without any additional valving, purging lines, secondary air, or special substrates. Major technical issues to be resolved for practical use of this system are 1) the ability to adsorb a wide range of HC molecular sizes in the cold exhaust gas and 2) the temperature difference between HC desorption from the adsorber and activation of the catalyst to convert desorbed HCs. This paper describes the current development status of hydrocarbon adsorber aftertreatment technologies. We report results obtained with a variety of adsorber properties, washcoat structures of adsorber catalyst and start-up and underfloor catalyst system combinations.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies for Turbocharged Engines

It is projected that compliance with Japanese new exhaust emission regulations set to be enforced in 2000 year will be difficult for turbocharged engines with conventional technologies. This is mainly because of the delay in catalyst lightoff at engine start due to the lower exhaust gas temperature of turbocharged engines compared with that of their naturally aspirated counterparts. Compliance will be particularly difficult for V-6 engines on account of the large heat mass of the exhaust system, resulting in a slower temperature rise. Previously, improvement of hydrocarbon (HC) conversion rates following engine start depended solely on the low-temperature characteristic of the catalyst. The catalyst system described here adopts a completely new mechanism that traps HCs before the catalyst lights off and then desorbs them for conversion after the engine warms up.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Prediction of Unburned HCs in a Lean-Burn Engine

Three-dimensional combustion simulation tools together with the Universal Coherent Flamelet Model (UCFM), a flame propagation model, have been applied to SI lean-burn combustion to study the influence of the equivalence ratio on the amount of unburned hydrocarbons (HCs). Unburned HCs from piston-cylinder crevices were taken into the consideration by using a calculation grid incorporating the actual crevice volume and shape and by applying an autoignition model to post-flame phenomena. The calculation results show the general tendencies for the total amount of unburned HCs and their distribution in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

A Study of an Analysis Method for Trace Substances in Vehicle Exhaust Gas

A new method for measuring unregulated substances in the exhaust gas is being investigated to clarify the influence of the vehicles' exhaust emissions into the environment. This paper explains our work on developing an analysis method for detecting and quantifying trace substances in the exhaust gas. A new analysis method was examined that uses thermal desorption to analyze trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vehicle exhaust gas. This technique is faster than conventional methods and does not require any preconditioning of the samples before analysis. While lead and chloromethane were detected in the exhaust gas samples, it was made clear that these substances did not originate in the engine system. Accordingly, the results of this study indicate that careful attention must be paid to the test environment and the presence of measurement interfering substances in exhaust samples when measuring trace constituents in the exhaust gas from low-emission vehicles.
Technical Paper

Combination of Combustion Concept and Fuel Property for Ultra-Clean DI Diesel

Experimental investigations were previously conducted with a direct-injection diesel engine with the aim of reducing exhaust emissions, especially nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). As a result of that work, a combustion concept, called Modulated Kinetics (MK) combustion, was developed that reduces NOx and smoke simultaneously through low-temperature combustion and premixed combustion to achieve a cleaner diesel engine. In subsequent work, it was found that applying a low compression ratio was effective in expanding the MK combustion region on the high-load side. The MK concept was then combined with an exhaust after-treatment system and applied to a test vehicle. The results indicated the attainment of ULEV emission levels, albeit in laboratory evaluations. In the present work, the combination of the MK combustion concept and certain fuel properties has been experimentally investigated with the aim of reducing exhaust emissions further.