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Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of the Fuel Mixing Process in a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

1998-05-04
981440
The spray formation and mixing processes in a direct-injection gasoline engine are examined by using a sophisticated air flow calculation model and an original spray model. The spray model for a spiral injector can evaluate the droplet size and spatial distribution under a wide range of parameters such as the initial cone angle, back pressure and injection pressure. This model also includes the droplet breakup process due to wall impingement. The arbitrary constants used in the spray model are derived theoretically without using any experimental data. Fuel vapor distributions just before ignition and combustion processes are analyzed for both homogeneous and stratified charge conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study on Engine Bearing Performance Focusing on the Viscosity-Pressure Characteristic of the Lubricant and Housing Stiffness

1996-05-01
961144
It is important to understand the influence of housing stiffness on bearing performance, particularly for the connecting rod bearings of automotive engines. It is known that the engine lubricant shows a piezoviscous characteristic whereby its viscosity changes under the influence of pressure. Engine bearings under a heavy load are apt to be influenced in this way. In this study, the effects of connecting rod stiffness and lubricant piezoviscosity on bearing performance were examined by elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) analysis under conditions corresponding to the high-speed operation of an actual engine. The results indicated that under such heavy load conditions housing stiffness greatly affects friction loss because of lubricant piezoviscosity. It was also found that the piezoviscosity of the lubricant has a large effect on bearing performance, as does its viscosity under atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Computation of the Effects of the Swirl Ratio in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines on NOx and Soot Emissions

1996-05-01
961125
Three-dimensional computation has been applied to analyze combustion and emission characteristics in direct-injection diesel engines. A computational code called TurboKIVA was used to investigate the effects of the swirl ratio, one of the fundamental factors related to combustion control, on combustion characteristics and NOx and soot emissions. The code was first modified to calculate soot formation and oxidation and the precise behavior of fuel drops on the combustion chamber wall. As a result of improving calculation accuracy, good agreement was obtained between the measured and predicted pressure, heat release rate and NOx and soot emissions. Using this modified version of TurboKIVA, the effects of the swirl ratio on NOx and soot emissions were investigated. The computational results showed that soot emissions were reduced with a higher swirl ratio. However, a further increase in the swirl ratio produced greater soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of the Full Active Suspension by Nissan

1990-09-01
901747
Nissan has developed a hydraulic active suspension which uses an oil pump as its power source to produce hydraulic pressure that negates external forces acting on the vehicle. As a result, the suspension system is able to control vehicle movement freely and continuously. This control capability makes it possible to provide higher levels of ride comfort and vehicle dynamics than are obtainable with conventional suspension systems. The major features of the hydraulic system include: (1) active bouncing control using a skyhook damper, (2) a frequency-sensitive damping mechanism and (3) active control over roll, dive and squat.
Technical Paper

MBT Control through Individual Cylinder Pressure Detection

1988-11-01
881779
Making use of spark-plug-washer type cylinder pressure sensors and a high-performance 16-bit microprocessor, the authors have developed a new control system (Nissan ECCS) of ignition timing for gasoline engine. Use of this system results in effective control, enabling each engine to deliver maximum torque and minimum fuel consumption at all conditions, regardless of changes in environmental conditions, etc.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of Brake Pipings

1991-01-01
910022
A new analysis procedure have been developed that evaluate a brake system performance based on analyses of the transient characteristics and frequency characteritics in the brake piping. Using this procedure, analyses were made of the effect of ABS operation on brake pressure changes and of the influence of the orifice on the pressure transmission characteristics. As an example of a frequency analysis, the pressure transmission characteristics were analyzed when pulse pressure occured in the brake piping as a result of variation in the wall thickness of the brake rotors. This paper presents the results of these analyses and shows the validity of the new procedure through a comparison with experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Unique Dual-Mode Muffler

1989-11-01
891356
The techniques harmonizing the contradiction which consists of exhaust noise reduction and engine power increase, have been required for the exhaust muffler. This techniques rapidly improved by means of the clarification due to the acoustic theories and the flow analyses. Recently, according to the passenger car tendency toward high grade and high performance, demands for low noise and high power exhaust systems are increasing year by year. The “Dual Mode Muffler” system (abbreviated, below, DMM) mounted on Nissan Cedric, Grolia and Cima series, installed in 1987, is achieved the consistent of the quietness and the engine power performance. This system is the first control type exhaust system for the 4 wheel car. On previous paper, the analyses of acoustic characteristics on DMM were mainly shown. The analyses of exhaust pressure characteristics are also an important theory along with the acoustic in the development of the exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Heat Capacity Changes Predict Nitrogen Oxides Reduction by Exhaust Gas Recirculation

1971-02-01
710010
Earlier work has demonstrated that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) decreases peak combustion temperature and thus reduces the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in spark ignition engine exhaust. The present authors hypothesized that NOx formation is primarily affected by the heat capacity of the combustion gases and recycled exhaust. The hypothesis was tested in an experimental program involving the admission of inert gases such as He, Ar, H2, and CO2, and water in place of EGR. In addition to confirming the validity of the original hypothesis, the test data also indicated that engine output and efficiency were significantly affected by the heat capacity of the combustion gases. The authors conclude that EGR functions by increasing the heat capacity of the working fluid, and demonstrates that the correlative changes in NOx and engine performance can be predicted from heat capacity considerations.
Technical Paper

Development of Nissan Variable Geometry JET Turbocharger

1986-02-01
860105
Turbocharged engines exhibit poor transient response, especially when accelerating from low speeds at low loads, due to the inertia of the turbocharger rotating mechanism. In looking for ways to overcome this disadvantage, we investigated the possibilities of variable geometry turbochargers, and evaluated the performance characteristics of several types. We decided on the single flap type, and established a control method using compressor outlet pressure to control the flap and waste gate valves. Based on the results of experiments with this method, we developed an electronic pressure feedback system which greatly improves transient engine response and, at the same time, engine performance over a wide range of engine speeds.
Technical Paper

The Turbocharged 2.8 Liter Engine for the Datsun 280ZX

1982-02-01
820442
Nissan’s new 2.8 liter in-line 6-cylinder turbocharged engine was developed for Che Datsun 280ZX in order to achieve higher performance and improved fuel economy. The Electronic Concentrated Engine Control System (ECCS), controlled by microprocessor, is provided for this 2.8 liter turbocharged engine. ECCS controls fuel injection, ignition timing, EGR rate and idling speed. It solved the problems related to power and fuel economy by optimizing the control parameters. Further, this system contains a barometric pressure compensator and a detonation controller; thus, the performance of this engine is efficient over a wide range of circumstances and fuel octane ratings. During the development of the engine, computer simulation was employed to predict engine performance and select turbocharger size, valve timing and other important factors.
Technical Paper

An Application of Structural-Acoustic Analysis to Car Body Structure

1985-05-15
850961
In order to calculate efficiently the characteristics of car body vibration and the acoustic characteristic of the passenger compartment, a structural-acoustic analysis system, ‘CAD-B’, was developed. This system divides the body into three components - front body, main cabin and rear body. The characteristics of front and rear body vibration are expressed in modal parameters. The vibration characteristic throughout the car body is then calculated through the building block approach, while the main cabin remains in finite elements. A good agreement in eigen pairs was seen between this approach and the conventional finite element method. As for the passenger compartment, it is divided into finite elements and its eigen pairs are calculated. Then by linking body vibration with the acoustic characteristic of the passenger compartment, sound pressure in the passenger compartment is calculated.
Technical Paper

Development of Digital Tire Pressure Display Device

1985-06-01
851237
Basic vehicle performance, such as Safety, Comfort and Economy, are by dependent on tire performance, and it is the air pressure in the tire which assures this performance. However, tire air has a tendency to leak naturally, making it necessary to check them periodically. Since a deterioration in vehicle performance resulting from a drop on tire air pressure can not be directly felt by the driver, the number of people maintaining their tires sufficiently is relatively few. There have been many tire pressure warning devices developed which advise the driver when the pressure drops below a prescribed level. Differing from conventional devices, the TWD-III features a 7-step digital display (at a pitch of 0.1 kgf/cm2) which shows the pressure of each tire within an optional range, and it also has a flat tire warning function. The employment of echo effect from clystal vibrator resonance precludes the need to attach a power source on the tire.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Piston and Piston Ring Assembly Friction Force

1985-10-01
851671
A new method for measuring friction has been developed in order to analyze piston and piston ring assembly friction force during engine operation. While this method does not require extensive modification to the piston or cylinder, two extra compression and expansion strokes each are added at the end of the conventional four-stroke cycle. In these measuring strokes, the gas pressure and temperature are maintained at firing levels, and friction force characteristics of the piston and piston ring assembly are measured continuously while the burned gas is compressed and expanded.
Technical Paper

Microfluidic Simulation of Diesel Exhaust Gas and Soot Oxidation in Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-03-25
2013-01-0009
Particulate matter (PM) including soot in diesel exhaust gas is a serious atmospheric pollutant, and stricter exhaust emission standards are being set in many countries. As one of the key technologies, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) for PM trap in the after-treatment of the exhaust gas has been developed. Typically, the inlet size of filter monolith is about 2 mm, and the thickness of the filter wall is only 0.2 mm, where soot particles are removed. It is impossible to observe the small-scale phenomena inside the filter, experimentally. Then, in the present study, we conducted microfluidic simulation with soot oxidation. Here, a real cordierite filter was used in the simulation. The inner structure of the filter was scanned by a 3D X-ray CT Computed Tomography) technique. The advantage is that it is non-intrusive system, and it has a high spatial resolution in the micrometer.
Technical Paper

Reciprocal Measurements of the Vehicle Transfer Function for Road Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2241
Road Noise is generated by the change of random displacement input inside the tire contact patch. Since the existing 3 or 6 directional electromagnetic shakers have a flat surface at the tire contact patch, these shakers cannot excite the vehicle in a manner representative of actual on-road road noise input. Therefore, this paper proposes a new experimental method to measure the road noise vehicle transfer function. This method is based on the reciprocity between the tire contact patch and the driver's ear location. The reaction force sensor of the tire contact patch is newly developed for the reciprocal loud speaker excitation at the passenger ear location. In addition, with this equipment, it is possible to extract the dominant structural mode shapes creating high sound pressure in the automotive interior acoustic field. This method is referred to as experimental structure mode participation to the noise of the acoustic field in the vibro-acoustic coupling analysis.
Technical Paper

Development of the Aerodynamics of the New Nissan Murano

2015-04-14
2015-01-1542
The new Murano was developed with special emphasis on improving aerodynamics in order to achieve fuel economy superior to that of competitor models. This paper describes the measures developed to attain a drag coefficient (CD) that is overwhelmingly lower than that of other similar models. Special attention was paid to optimizing the rear end shape so as to minimize rear end drag, which contributes markedly to the CD of sport utility vehicles (SUVs). A lower grille shutter was adopted from the early stage of the development process. When open, the shutter allows sufficient inward airflow to ensure satisfactory engine cooling; when closed, the blocked airflow is actively directed upward over the body. The final rear end shape was tuned so as to obtain the maximum aerodynamic benefit from this airflow. In addition, a large front spoiler was adopted to suppress airflow toward the underbody as much as possible.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Pressure Analysis of the Wake Flow Behind a Passenger Car Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-0810
This paper describes a system for measuring unsteady pressure at up to 256 spatial points and at frequencies up to 300 Hz. The system consists of commercially available equipment for measuring steady pressures. It is based on the use of electronically scanned pressure (ESP) sensors, 16 A/D converters, and a personal computer to control the whole system and acquire data. The signal outputs through the tubes connecting the pressure taps and the ESP sensors are compensated, as are the phase delays between the scanned signals and the gain variation. A 1/5 scale model of a sedan was used in this experiment. The passenger car model was placed in a wind tunnel equipped with a moving belt, which was operated at the same speed as the uniform flow in the wind tunnel. Pressure measurements were obtained at 252 points in a plane behind the model perpendicular to the uniform flow. Measurements were made with the belt turned on and off.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of In-Cylinder Temperature and Residual Gas Concentration in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug by Wavelength Modulation Infrared Absorption

2007-04-16
2007-01-0639
This paper presents a new measurement technique for in-cylinder gas temperature and residual gas concentration during the compression stroke of an internal combustion (IC) engine. This technique is based on the infrared absorption of water vapor by a wavelength modulated laser. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was adopted to enable the short-path measurements over a wide range of temperatures and pressures corresponding to the late compression stroke in a typical automotive engine. The WMS-2f signal is detected through a bandpass filter at a width of 7.5 kHz, enabling crank angle-resolved measurements. The temperature is determined from the ratio of optical absorption for two overtone transitions of water vapor in the intake gas mixture, and the H2O concentration is determined from this inferred temperature and the absorption for one of the transitions.
Technical Paper

Compact and Long-Stroke Multiple-Link VCR Engine Mechanism

2007-10-29
2007-01-3991
A multiple-link variable compression ratio (VCR) mechanism is suitable for a long-stroke engine by providing the following characteristics: (1) a nearly symmetric piston stroke and (2) an upper link that stays vertical around the time of the maximum combustion pressure. These two characteristics work to reduce force inputs to the piston. The maximum inertial force around top dead center is reduced by the effect of the first characteristic. The second characteristic is effective in reducing piston side thrust force and helps ease piston pin lubrication. Because of the combined effect of these characteristics, the piston skirt can be made smaller and the piston pin can be shortened. That makes it possible for the piston skirt and piston pin to move between the counterweights, resulting in a downward extension of the piston stroke. As a result, a longer-stroke engine mechanism can be achieved without making the cylinder block taller.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Gasoline-fueled HCCI Engine∼Mode Changes from SI Combustion to HCCI Combustion∼

2008-04-14
2008-01-0050
Since the stable operating region of a gasoline-fueled HCCI engine is limited to the part load condition, a mode change between SI and HCCI combustion is required, which poses an issue due to the difference in combustion characteristics. This report focuses on the combustion characteristics in the transitional range. The combustion mode in the transitional range is investigated by varying the internal EGR rate, intake air pressure, and spark advance timing in steady-state experiments. In this parametric study, stable SI-CI combustion is observed. This indicates that the combustion mode transition is possible without misfiring or knocking, regardless of the speed of variable valve mechanism which includes VVA, VVEL, VTEC, VVL and so on, though the response of intake air pressure still remains as a subject to be examined in the actual application.
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