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Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0986
Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Research on Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings for Low-Friction Valve Lifters

2003-03-03
2003-01-1101
One important development area for obtaining better fuel economy is to reduce mechanical friction losses in engine components. The valvetrain is a significant source of mechanical friction loss in an automobile engine, especially at low speeds where fuel economy is most important. This paper describes the potential use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings at the cam/follower interface in a bucket-type valvetrain. Using a pin-on-disk tester, a motored valvetrain friction apparatus and a bench test rig, the frictional performance of DLC coatings was tested. Experimental data indicate that under a lubricated condition, DLC coatings produced by a plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition) technique did not show a sufficient effect on reducing friction (only a 20-25% reduction) contrary to our expectations. DLC coatings prepared by arc-ion plating and containing less hydrogen showed superior frictional performance compared with CVD-DLC coatings under a lubricated condition.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Crank Pin Journal Temperature Based on the Oil Flow Rate

1998-05-04
981403
Improving the durability and reliability of crankshaft bearings has become an important issue for automotive engines recently because of conflicting demands for lower fuel consumption and higher power output. This study focused on the connecting rod big-end bearing which is subjected to harsher operating conditions on account of these requirements. It is known that the crank pin journal temperature is an indicator of big-end bearing seizure. Having a simple method for predicting the crank pin journal temperature with the required accuracy at the design stage is indispensable to efficient engine development. In this study, analyses were first conducted to determine the oil flow rate at the big-end bearing which is a major determinant of the crank pin journal temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Pressure Fueling System for a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

1998-05-04
981458
A direct-injection gasoline engine that uses a stratified charge combustion process was developed by Nissan and released in the Japanese market toward the end of 1997. This new engine is based on Nissan's VQ engine, which enjoys a good reputation for its quick throttle response and low fuel consumption, and has been developed to accomplish the objectives of reducing fuel consumption by stratified charge combustion and securing high power output. The fuel injectors are connected by an arrangement of lightweight, small-diameter fuel lines that distribute fuel to each injector under high pressure. This system was adopted in order to reconcile the use of an aerodynamic straight intake port with the desired fuel injection position. The use of a casting net injector, which uniformly distributes the fuel spray above the piston, makes it possible to accomplish stratified charge combustion with a shallow-bowl piston.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion Performance in a New Direct-Injection SI V-6 Engine

1998-05-04
981435
One advantage of a direct-injection S.I. engine is lower fuel consumption due to the use of lean stratified charge combustion. Another advantage is greater power output resulting from evaporation of the fuel in the cylinder. A critical factor in making the most of these advantages is to achieve optimum mixture formation for both stratified and homogeneous charge combustion. To achieve the optimum mixture, the new direct-injection S.I. V-6 engine adopts a piston with a shallow bowl, a valve that changes in-cylinder air motion between swirl and tumble by opening and closing one side of separated air intake port, an air intake port that has optimized inward and port angle to induces swirl in the piston bowl, and a CASTING NET injector that injects the hollow cone spray in a deflected pattern toward the spark plug.
Technical Paper

The Development of Driveability Index and the Effects of Gasoline Volatility on Engine Performance

1995-10-01
952521
To reduce engine exhaust emissions, we have had to deal with this global environmental problem from the fuel side by introducing oxygenated fuels, reducing the RVP and using low aromatics. But when we change the fuel components and distillation, we must take note about how these affect the engine driveability. We have used T50, T90, RVP and so on as the fuel index up to the present. It is possible to characterize the fuel from one aspect, but these indexes don't always represent the real feature of the fuel. In this paper we propose a New Driveability Index (here in after referred to as NDI) that is more realistic and accurate than the other fuel indexes. We used a 1600cc DOHC L4 MPI type engine. We used Model Gasolines and Market Gasolines, see Appendix(1), (2) and (3), and tested them according to the Excess Air Ratio Response Test Method (here in after referred to as λ-R Test) that was suggested in SAE paper #930375, and we calculated the NDI statistically.
Technical Paper

Development of a New-Generation Lightweight 3-Liter V6 Nissan Engine

1994-03-01
940991
This paper presents a new-generation, lightweight, 3-liter V6 engine that has been developed for use in the next Nissan Maxima. The distinctive features of this new engine, VQ30DE, is its compact, lightweight design and excellent fuel economy. The basic construction of the engine is characterized by its 60-degree V6 configuration, chain-driven DOHC and high-pressure die cast aluminum cylinder block. A two-way cooling system was adopted with the aim of shortening the warm-up time of the cylinder liners. The new engine has been designed to comply with the tougher emission standards, the OBD-II requirements and California's new evaporative emission standard.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Performance TiA1 Exhaust Valve

1996-02-01
960303
A new high-performance and lightweight TiA1 intermetallic compound exhaust valve has been developed. The TiA1 valve can improve power output and fuel economy by contributing higher engine speeds and a reduction in valvetrain friction. It was achieved by developing a Ti-33.5A1-0.5Si-1Nb-0.5Cr (mass%) intermetallic compound, a precision casting method for TiA1 that provides a low-cost, high-quality process, and a plasma carburizing technique for assuring good wear resistance on the valve stem end, stem and face.
Technical Paper

Development of a Metal Belt-Drive CVT Incorporating a Torque Converter for Use with 2-Liter Class Engines

1998-02-23
980823
Technologies for reducing fuel consumption have attracted strong interest in recent years amid the heightened concern about global environmental protection. At Nissan, we have been focusing on the development of electronically controlled continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) since the early 1980s as a promising technology for reducing fuel consumption. That work has led to the commercialization of the world's first belt-drive CVT that is suitable for application up to 2.0-liter class passenger cars. The practical use of CVTs has so far been limited to cars mounted with small displacement engines of the 1.6-liter class. The belt-drive CVT described here incorporates new technology for transmitting greater torque and also has product attributes suitable for use on upscale passenger cars, making it applicable to 2.0-liter class models.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

1997-10-01
972837
Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Attainment of Low Fuel Consumption High Output Power and Low Exhaust Emissions in Direct Injection SI Engines

1998-02-01
980149
This paper describes simultaneous attainment in improving fuel consumption, output power and reducing HC emissions with a direct injection S.I. engine newly developed in Nissan. Straight intake port is adopted to increase discharge coefficient under WOT operation and horizontal swirl flow is generated by a swirl control valve to provide stable stratified charge combustion under part load conditions. As a result, fuel consumption is reduced by more than 20% and power output is improved by approximately 10%. Moreover, unburned HC is reduced by equivalently 30% in engine cold start condition. An application of diagnostic and numerical simulation tools to investigate and optimize various factors are also introduced.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies on a Natural Gas Vehicle

1994-10-01
942005
This paper presents the results of several studies conducted on a natural gas vehicle. In one study of engine-out emissions performance, the exhaust emissions of the CNG engine were lower than those of the base gasoline engine. In another study of the conversion characteristics of three-way catalysts, it was found that the conversion efficiency of total hydrocarbons (THCs) was much lower in the lean-mixture region for the NGV. The reduced efficiency was traced to lower conversion and poor reactivity of low-end hydrocarbons and to a higher concentration of H2O.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Compound Fuel and Fluorescent Tracer Combination for Use with Laser Induced Fluorescence

1995-10-01
952465
Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a useful method for visualizing the distribution of the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber. The way this method is applied mainly depends on the fluorescent tracer used, such as biacetyl, toluene, various aldehydes, fluoranthene or diethylketone, among others. Gasoline strongly absorbs light in the UV region, for example, at the 248-nm wavelength of broadband KrF excimer laser radiation. Therefore, when using this type of laser, iso-octane is employed as the fuel because it is transparent to 248-nm UV light. However, since the distillation curves of iso-octane and gasoline are different, it can be expected that their vaporization characteristics in the intake port and cylinder would also be different. The aim of this study was to find a better fuel for use with LIF at a broadband wavelength of 248 nm. Three tasks were undertaken in this study.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electric Concept Vehicle with a Super Quick Charging System

1992-02-01
920442
Recent environmental concerns such as atmospheric pollution and energy conservation have intensified the need to develop pollution-free, energy-efficient vehicles. One such solution is the electric automobile which draws its power from rechargeable batteries. There are few vehicles on the road today because present batteries can store very little energy compared with that of a tank of gasoline. To obtain adequate range, this concept vehicle adopts a new battery which can be recharged to 40% of capacity in six minutes. This super quick charging system makes it possible to recharge the batteries at an electric recharging station just as gasoline-powered vehicles are refilled at service stations. The electric concept vehicle also has improved aerodynamics, reduced rolling resistance and a lighter curb weight, which help to assure adequate range.
Technical Paper

Establishment of a Method for Predicting Cam Follower Wear in the Material Development Process

1990-10-01
902087
Many studies have been reported concerning fundamental tribological research aimed at reducing the severe valve train wear that occurs in internal combustion engines. In this paper, cam follower wear was theoretically and experimentally analyzed at the material development stage. Statistical methods have been applied to practical use in determining the material properties quantitatively. Based on the results, a method for predicting cam follower wear has been derived which has made it possible to develop new valve train systems more efficiently. Further, a guideline for developing new wear resistant materials was also clarified. Finally, the precision high chrominum cast iron rocker arm is described, along with its application to a new NISSAN high-performance 4-cylinder DOHC engine, as an example of the use of this method to develop new wear-resistant materials.
Technical Paper

A New 1.6-Liter Twin-Cam 16-Valve Nissan Engine

1991-02-01
910677
Nissan has developed a new GA16DE engine for use in the new 1991 Sentra. The major development aims for this engine were to achieve ample torque at low to intermediate engine speed and smooth throttle response. These aims, of course, had to be compatible with good fuel economy, quietness, maintenance-free operation and high reliability. In addition, It was necessary to achieve a compact package size despite the twin-cam design. All of those objectives have been attained through the use of a super-long and aerodynamic intake system, variable valve timing control, a low friction, maintenance-free, direct acting valve system, dual direction fuel injectors, and a two-stage cam drive system. This paper discuss the major development objectives, basic engine structure and principal component parts.
Technical Paper

Effects of NOx and Unburned Gasoline on Low Temperature Sludge Formation in Engine Oil

1991-02-01
910747
It is generally known that NOx reacts with unburned gasoline, olefins in particular, to form sludge precursors. In this study, the authors investigated the process by which NOx and unburned gasoline mix into the engine oil and analyzed the mechanism whereby stop and go driving accelerates sludge formation. It has been found that NOx detected in the engine oil as nitrite ions mixes into the oil in the crankcase. The NOx concentration in the engine oil increases rapidly when the crankcase gas temperature is nearly equal to the dew point of the water vapor in the crankcase. Unburned gasoline is mainly absorbed into the oil through the oil film on the cylinder walls and the oil in the ring grooves. During low-temperature engine operation in stop-go driving (i.e., when the vehicle is stopped), NOx and unburned gasoline are absorbed into the engine oil and, in high-temperature engine operation (i.e., when the vehicle is moving), NOx and unburned gasoline are released from the oil.
Technical Paper

Development of Four Cylinder SR Engine

1990-09-01
901714
The SR engine is a new medium-size, all aluminum (cylinder block, head, rocker cover and oil pan) in-line 4-cylinder gasoline powerplant developed as a replacement for CA engine in Nissan's compact passenger cars. The development aim set for this engine was to achieve excellent power output and ample torque in the middle-and high-speed ranges, as well as a clear, linear engine sound up to the red zone. These performance targets have been achieved through the use of the 4-valve-per-cylinder DOHC design featuring a Y-shaped valve rocker arm system. This system allows a straight intake port for high power output and a narrow valve angle for a compact combustion chamber. The result is ample torque output as well as good fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Performance and Reliability of Engine Electronic Controller

1988-02-01
880181
Need for electronic engine control has increased, because of high power output, high performance and the demands for drivability and low fuel consumption. As the control system has become sophisticated and important, the reliabilty has become very important, too. Nissan Motor Company has introduced a high-reliability and high-performance system which meets the current customer's demand, adopting new technology and new method for items such as circuit composition, electronic parts, print circuit board layout, parts instsllation, control specification of engine electronic control system (ECCS). The new content and the effect of new technology and method are described.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Study on Knocking Heat Release and its Control in a Spark Ignition Engine

1988-02-01
880196
In this study the relationship between the timing for the onset of autoignition and the amount of mixture fraction burned by autoignition and the resulting knock intensity is investigated using a combination of high-speed laser shadowgraphy and thermodynamic calculations. It is made clear that over 40 percent of the entire mixture burns due to autoignition in a crank angle of less than five to eight degrees when an engine is operated under a heavy knocking condition. This burn rate is about ten times higher than that of combustion seen in a normally propagating flame. This abrupt heat release causes an oscillation in cylinder gases, resulting in a knocking sound. The experimental procedure is applied to examine the effect of a squish combustion chamber on suppressing knock. The results indicate that, when autoignition occurs in the squish area, an amount of mixture burned by autoignition is small, resulting in lower knock intensity.
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