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Technical Paper

An Analytical Study on Knocking Heat Release and its Control in a Spark Ignition Engine

1988-02-01
880196
In this study the relationship between the timing for the onset of autoignition and the amount of mixture fraction burned by autoignition and the resulting knock intensity is investigated using a combination of high-speed laser shadowgraphy and thermodynamic calculations. It is made clear that over 40 percent of the entire mixture burns due to autoignition in a crank angle of less than five to eight degrees when an engine is operated under a heavy knocking condition. This burn rate is about ten times higher than that of combustion seen in a normally propagating flame. This abrupt heat release causes an oscillation in cylinder gases, resulting in a knocking sound. The experimental procedure is applied to examine the effect of a squish combustion chamber on suppressing knock. The results indicate that, when autoignition occurs in the squish area, an amount of mixture burned by autoignition is small, resulting in lower knock intensity.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Knock Control by Detecting Cylinder Pressure

1987-10-01
871911
To improve available power, tolerance to variation in fuel octane number and high engine speed knock control, an individual cylinder knock control has been developed. Knock are detected by spark plug washer transducers. Which indicate individual cylinder pressures. Last year we read a paper entitled “Cylinder Pressure Vibration Analysis Indicates Accurate Knock Detection”. We read continuously on the following items. Spark plug washer transducers - These are piezoelectric ceramic rings which fit beneath individual spark plugs. These can detect knock at high engine speed, and are very durable. Knock detection and control algorithm - Knock is indicated by the transducer's cylinder pressure vibration signal. When knock occurs in the cylinder, the ignition timing of the cylinder is controlled. During the transient condition, control response is fast by learning control. Fail safe - At transducer trouble, the ignition timing of the cylinder is controlled by other transducer signals.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Deposits and Gasoline Composition on S.I. Engine Performance

1992-10-01
922263
Valve deposits in gasoline engines increase with time, absorbing fuel during acceleration and releasing fuel during deceleration. Valve deposits insulate the heat release from the cylinder and this phenomenon is the cause of bad fuel vaporization. In this way, the deposits greatly affect the driveability and exhaust emissions. Using a 3.OL MPI(Multipoint Injection) engine, we measured the quantity of fuel that deposits at the intake port, and the throttle response (using a wall-flow meter made by Nissan Motor Co.1), 2) to study the deposits effect on driveability and exhaust emissions at a low temperature. The deposits were formed on the intake valve surface (about 8.0 on the CRC deposit rating scale) through 200 hours of laboratory engine stand operation. At low temperature, C9 and C10 hydrocarbons tend to stick to the intake port surface and intake valve as “wall-flow”; this is one cause of bad driveability.
Technical Paper

The New Nissan 1.7 Liter 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine

1983-06-06
831008
The new Nissan 1.7 liter 4 cylinder diesel engine has been developed to meet the social requirements for energy conservation. The main objective was to improve fuel economy without sacrificing driveability, and this has been achieved by minimizing engine weight, reducing mechanical friction loss and optimizing the combustion system. The CA series gasoline engine, which is known for its light weight, was chosen as the base engine for dieselization. The swirl chamber combustion system used for the LD28 engine was modified to satisfy the requirements for high power, good fuel economy and low noise. Engine noise has been reduced with the aid of several analytical methods such as laser holography. Special attention has been paid to the reduction of diesel knock which is most offensive to the ear. To install this engine in a small FWD vehicle transversely, much effort went into the minimizing of the engine length and width.
Technical Paper

Mechanism Analysis on LSPI Occurrence in Boosted S. I. Engines

2015-09-01
2015-01-1867
Mechanism of suddenly occurring behavior of low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in boosted spark ignition (SI) engines was analyzed with various experimental methodologies. Endoscope-visualized 1st cycle of LSPI showed droplet-like luminous flame kernels as the origin of flame propagation before spark ignition. With the oil lubricated visualization engine, droplets flying were observed only after enough accumulation of fuel at piston crevice. Also, it was confirmed that subsequent cycles of LSPI occur only after enough operation time. These results indicated that local accumulation of liner adhered fuel and saturation of oil dilution can be a contributing factor to the sudden occurrence of LSPI.
Technical Paper

Research on the Effect of Lubricant Oil and Fuel Properties on LSPI Occurrence in Boosted S. I. Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2292
The effects of lubricant oil and fuel properties on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) occurrence in boosted S.I. engines were experimentally evaluated with multi-cylinder engine and de-correlated oil and fuel matrices. Further, the auto-ignitability of fuel spray droplets and evaporated homogeneous fuel/oil mixtures were evaluated in a combustion bomb and pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) tests to analyze the fundamental ignition process. The work investigated the effect of engine conditions, fuel volatility and various lubricant additives on LSPI occurrence. The results support the validity of aspects of the LSPI mechanism hypothesis based on the phenomenon of droplets of lubricant oil/fuel mixture (caused by adhesion of fuel spray on the liner wall) flying into the chamber and autoigniting before spark ignition.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Gasoline-fueled HCCI Engine∼Mode Changes from SI Combustion to HCCI Combustion∼

2008-04-14
2008-01-0050
Since the stable operating region of a gasoline-fueled HCCI engine is limited to the part load condition, a mode change between SI and HCCI combustion is required, which poses an issue due to the difference in combustion characteristics. This report focuses on the combustion characteristics in the transitional range. The combustion mode in the transitional range is investigated by varying the internal EGR rate, intake air pressure, and spark advance timing in steady-state experiments. In this parametric study, stable SI-CI combustion is observed. This indicates that the combustion mode transition is possible without misfiring or knocking, regardless of the speed of variable valve mechanism which includes VVA, VVEL, VTEC, VVL and so on, though the response of intake air pressure still remains as a subject to be examined in the actual application.
Technical Paper

Development of Transient Knock Prediction Technique by Using a Zero-Dimensional Knocking Simulation with Chemical Kinetics

2004-03-08
2004-01-0618
A transient knock prediction technique has been developed by coupling a zero-dimensional knocking simulation with chemical kinetics and a one-dimensional gas exchange engine model to study the occurrence of transient knock in SI engines. A mixed chemical reaction mechanism of the primary reference fuels was implemented in the two-zone combustion chamber model as the auto-ignition model of the end-gas. An empirical correlation between end-gas auto-ignition and knock intensity obtained through intensive analysis of experimental data has been applied to the knocking simulation with the aim of obtaining better prediction accuracy. The results of calculations made under various engine operating parameters show good agreement with experimental data for trace knock sensitivity to spark advance.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Combustion in Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines

2002-10-21
2002-01-2865
A new auto-ignition combustion model for performing multi-zone engine cycle simulations has been developed to investigate the characteristics of compression ignition combustion in gasoline engines. In this combustion model, the auto-ignition timing is predicted with a modified shell model and combustion speed is calculated with a three-region (burned, ignited and unburned) model. Engine cycle simulations performed with this model were used to analyze the effect of engine operating parameters, i.e., temperature and air-fuel distributions in the cylinder, on combustion characteristics. It was found that the air-fuel distribution in the cylinder has a large impact on combustion characteristics and knocking was prevented by creating a fuel-rich zone at the center of the cylinder under high load conditions. The fuel-rich zone works as an ignition source to ignite the surrounding fuel-lean zone. In this way, two-step combustion is accomplished through two separate auto-ignitions.
Journal Article

An Investigation on the Ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Component Containing Fuel Droplets Using Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2168
With the development of downsized spark ignition (SI) engines, low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) has been observed more frequently as an abnormal combustion phenomenon, and there is a critical need to solve this issue. It has been acknowledged that LSPI is not directly triggered by autoignition of the fuel, but by some other material with a short ignition delay time. It was previously reported that LSPI can be caused by droplets of lubricant oil intermixed with the fuel. In this work, the ignition behavior of lubricant component containing fuel droplets was experimentally investigated by using a constant volume chamber (CVC) and a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM), which enable visualization of the combustion process in the cylinder. Various combinations of fuel compositions for the ambient fuel-air mixture and fractions of base oil/metallic additives/fuel for droplets were tested.
Journal Article

A Study of Combustion Technology for a High Compression Ratio Engine: The Influence of Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature on Knocking

2016-04-05
2016-01-0703
Technologies for improving the fuel economy of gasoline engines have been vigorously developed in recent years for the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions. Increasing the compression ratio is an example of a technology for improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. A significant issue of a high compression ratio engine for improving fuel economy and low-end torque is prevention of knocking under a low engine speed. Knocking is caused by autoignition of the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder and seems to be largely affected by heat transfer from the intake port and combustion chamber walls. In this study, the influence of heat transfer from the walls of each part was analyzed by the following three approaches using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experiments conducted with a multi-cooling engine system. First, the temperature rise of the air-fuel mixture by heat transfer from each part was analyzed.
Journal Article

A Study of a Multistage Injection Mechanism for Improving the Combustion of Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0883
Technologies for improving the fuel economy of gasoline engines have been vigorously developed in recent years for the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions. Increasing the compression ratio for improving thermal efficiency and downsizing the engine based on fuel-efficient operating conditions are good examples of technologies for enhancing gasoline engine fuel economy. A direct-injection system is adopted for most of these engines. Direct injection can prevent knocking by lowering the in-cylinder temperature through fuel evaporation in the cylinder. Therefore, direct injection is highly compatible with downsized engines that frequently operate under severe supercharging conditions for improving fuel economy as well as with high compression ratio engines for which susceptibility to knocking is a disadvantage.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 2L Gasoline VC-Turbo Engine with the World’s First Variable Compression Ratio Technology

2018-04-03
2018-01-0371
A new 2L gasoline turbo engine, named KR20DDET was developed with the world’s first mass-producible variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) technology using a multi-link variable compression ratio (VCR) mechanism. It is well known that increasing the compression ratio improves gasoline engine thermal efficiency. However, there has always been a compromise for engine designers because of the trade-off between increasing the compression ratio and knocking. At Nissan we have been working on VCR technology for more than 20 years and have now successfully applied this technology to a mass production engine. This technology uses a multi-link mechanism to change the top and bottom dead center positions, thereby allowing the compression ratio to be continuously changed. The VC-Turbo engine with this technology can vary the compression ratio from 14:1 for obtaining high thermal efficiency to 8:1 for delivering high torque by taking advantage of the strong synergy with turbocharging.
Journal Article

A Study of the Knocking Mechanism in Terms of Flame Propagation Behavior Based on 3D Numerical Simulations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0699
The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of knocking with respect to flame propagation behavior based on 3D simulations conducted with the Universal Coherent Flamelet Model. Flame propagation behavior under the influence of in-cylinder flow was analyzed on the basis of the calculated results and experimental visualizations. Tumble and swirl flows were produced in the cylinder by inserting various baffle plates in the middle of the intake port. A comparison of the measured and calculated flame propagation behavior showed good agreement for various in-cylinder flow conditions. The results indicate that in-cylinder flow conditions vary the flame propagation shape from the initial combustion period and strongly influence the occurrence of knocking.
Technical Paper

Mechanism Analysis on the Effect of Fuel Properties on Knocking Performance at Boosted Conditions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0035
In recent years, boosted and downsized engines have gained much attention as a promising technology to improve fuel economy; however, knocking is a common issue of such engines that requires attention. To understand the knocking phenomenon under downsized and boosted engine conditions deeply, fuels with different Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) were prepared, and the knocking performances of these fuels were evaluated using a single cylinder engine, operated under a variety of conditions. Experimental results showed that the knocking performance at boosted conditions depend on both RON and MON. While higher RON showed better anti-knocking performance, lower MON showed better anti-knocking performance. Furthermore, the tendency for a reduced MON to be beneficial became stronger at lower engine speeds and higher boost pressures, in agreement with previously published modelling work.
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