Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
High interest is expressed in using analytical models to eliminate costly driveline tests used to determine the stresses produced in the driveshaft and driveline during resonant operating conditions. This paper discusses an analytical model to simulate the driveline-bending integrity, test procedure. Three major subsystems are modeled in this analytical approach, namely powertrain, rear axle, and driveshaft. Imbalance masses were added on the driveshaft to induce the whirl motion of the driveshaft. The combination of nonlinear Multi-body System Simulation (MSS) and linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in the time domain was employed for the evaluation of the dynamic interaction between several parts.
A roll down methodology has been developed to predict the driver's seat track fore-aft acceleration response using measured half shaft torque time histories and an analytically predicted vehicle sensitivity function suitable for transverse front wheel drive powertrains. The predicted vehicle sensitivity function (a frequency response function) relates the transmission torque applied to the drive axles to the seat track fore-aft acceleration. An experimental procedure was developed to measure the in-situ vehicle sensitivity function. The experimental data was used to correlate the analytical model. The testing results have shown that in the frequency range of the “garage shift” that the vehicle body can be represented as a rigid body. A Nastran model utilizing a rigid body representation of the body and powertrain is used to predict the vehicle response to the torque transient.
Driveline clunk is a phenomenon that can adversely affect customer perception of vehicle quality. Clunk is created by the impact of two driveline components as they oscillate in response to a torque disturbance in the driveline system. This disturbance is typically initiated by a driver controlled engine torque variation, most severely through a throttle or clutch manipulation. This torque variation excites a torsional response from the driveline, manifested by a variety of mechanisms such as resonances of various shafts, housings and axles, clutch oscillations, and gear impacts. Because automotive drivelines are complex systems composed of many rotating components, difficulty arises in identifying the impacts that cause clunk and evaluating the significant parameters that can positively affect these collisions. This paper will describe the application of analysis and test methods in the investigation of clunk in a rear wheel drive, manual transmission vehicle.
Elastomeric isolators are used in a variety of different applications to reduce noise and vibration. To use isolators effectively requires the product design and development engineer to satisfy multiple objectives, which typically include packaging restrictions, environmental criteria, limitations on motion control, load requirements, and minimum fatigue life, in addition to vibration isolation performance. An understanding of elastomeric material properties and the methods used to characterize elastomeric component behavior is necessary to achieve desired performance. Typical design criteria and functional objectives for various isolator applications, including powertrain mounts, suspension control arm bushings, shock absorber bushings, exhaust hangers, flexible couplings, cradle mounts, body mounts and vibration dampers are also discussed.
A flow analysis method with quick turnaround time has been studied for application to flows in the engine compartment of vehicles. In this research, a rapid modeling method based on the Cartesian mesh system was developed to obtain flow field information quickly. With this modeling method, the original shape is approximated by many small cubic cells, allowing automatic mesh generation in significantly less time. Moreover, a hierarchical mesh system that reduces the total number of meshes has been introduced. This multi-level mesh system is also highly capable of representing shapes in detail. Another important issue in flow calculations in the engine bay is the treatment of the boundary conditions such as the radiator and cooling fan. With the proposed method, the fluid dynamics characteristics of such components are measured, and characteristics such as the pressure loss/gain and the rotational vector of the fan are reflected in the flow field as empirical models.
Forward collision warning (FCW) systems are intended to provide drivers with crash alerts to help them avoid or mitigate rear-end crashes. To facilitate successful deployment of FCW systems, the Ford-GM Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) developed preliminary minimum functional requirements for FCW systems implemented on light vehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, and vans). This paper summarizes one aspect of the CAMP results: minimum requirements and recommendations for when to present rear-end crash alerts to the driver. These requirements are valid over a set of kinematic conditions that are described, and assume successful tracking and identification of a legitimate crash threat. The results are based on extensive closed-course human factors testing that studied drivers' last-second braking preferences and capabilities. The paper reviews the human factors testing, modeling of results, and the computation of FCW crash alert timing requirements and recommendations.
This paper describes the method used to design the basic control algorithm of a lane-keeping support system that is intended to assist the driver's steering action. Lane-keeping control has been designed with steering torque as the control input without providing a minor loop for the steering angle. This approach was taken in order to achieve an optimum balance of lane-keeping control, ease of steering intervention by the driver and robustness. The servo control system was designed on the basis of H2 control theory. Robustness against disturbances, vehicle nonlinearity and parameter variation was confirmed by μ - analysis. The results of computer simulations and driving tests have confirmed that the control system designed with this method provides the intended performance.
Today's competitive market requires new products to have extremely high Quality; customer expectation demands it. Testing, Validation, Setting Requirements, Failure Mode & Effect Analysis (FMEA), and Design Reviews by themselves do not improve a product; they only provide information that has to be translated into Design/Manufacturing & Service tasks. The quality of these tasks determines how well the new product will perform at its introduction. This paper outlines a generic Development Process through the use of an automotive example for a Door Glass Guidance Mechanism. This process includes the fundamental steps involving recommendations for setting requirements, benchmarking, and a methodology on how to design in requirements through the use of analytical and experimental tools to create Robust Designs. Also included are examples of Validation and Assessment Plans that are requirement driven.
Several methods are currently used to enforce motion in different types of noise and vibration models. Experimentally based FRF models often use a matrix inversion technique to enforce motion. In finite element models, the large mass method is one that is very commonly used. A literature review has shown few guidelines for determining the size of these large masses. In this paper, the relationship between the matrix inversion technique and the large mass method is derived. From this relationship, conditions necessary for these large mass FEM models to converge to the same answers as the matrix inversion technique are derived. These conditions are then used to develop a criterion for determining a smallest possible large mass. Results from a simple model are presented to demonstrate the criterion.
This paper documents the development of the 2002 Buick Rendezvous body structure for optimum noise & vibration performance. Accelerated vehicle development timing demanded clearly defined body structure vibration performance targets, with critical dependence on math based modeling. The 2002 Buick Rendezvous was truly a fast-to-math program enabled partially by borrowing some of its structural features from the recently launched Pontiac Aztek Competitive performance data collected for the Aztek was tailored to the Rendezvous for setting major global body structure targets. Architectural differences in overall vehicle size and body opening configuration led to adjustments in body matchboxing, bending and torsional requirements. The frequency domain “mode map” was modified to these requirements taking into account the Buick Brand Character. Computer simulation models were used exclusively to predict body structural performance.
A vehicle concept finite-element model is experimentally assessed for predicting structural vibration to 50 Hz. The vehicle concept model represents the body structure with a coarse mesh of plate and beam elements, while the suspension and powertrain are modeled with a coarse mesh of rigid-links, beams, and lumped mass, damping, and stiffness elements. Comparisons are made between the predicted and measured frequency-response-functions (FRFs) and modes of (a) the body-in-white, (b) the trimmed body, and (c) the full vehicle. For the full vehicle, the comparisons are with a comprehensive set of measured FRFs from 63 tests of nominally identical vehicles that demonstrate the vehicle-to-vehicle variability of the measured FRF response.
A set of functions for characterizing the mechanical properties of a steering “short gear” is described. They cover the kinematic, stiffness, assist, and friction performance of a power assisted (or manual) steering gear from the input shaft to the inner ends of the tie rods. Their use in describing the performance of a generalized steering gear is described. They have particular application to describing the steering feel performance of a vehicle. They can be used to specify the steering subsystem performance for desired steering feel for a given vehicle. They can also be used for experimental characterization of steering subsystems, can be used in vehicle dynamics simulations, and can be synthesized from a set of vehicle level performance targets. Along with their description, their use in simulation and methods to synthesize their values are described.
With the revolutionary advances in computing power and software technology, the future trend of integrating design and CFD analysis software package to realize an automated design optimization has been explored in this study. The integrated process of UG, ICEMCFD, and FLUENT was accomplished using iSIGHT for vehicle Aero/Thermal applications. Process integration, CFD solution strategy, optimization algorithm and the practicality for real world problem of this process have been studied, and will be discussed in this paper. As an example of this application, the results of an underhood thermal design will be presented. The advantage of systematical and rapid design exploration is demonstrated by using this integrated process. It also shows the great potential of computer based design automation in vehicle Aero/Thermal development.
It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
An Adaptive Cruise Control system with stop-and-go capability has been developed to reduce the driver's workload in traffic jams on expressways. Based on an analysis of driving behavior characteristics in expressway traffic jams, a control system capable of modeling those characteristics accurately has been constructed to provide natural vehicle behavior in low-speed driving. The effectiveness of the system was evaluated with an experimental vehicle, and the results confirmed that it reduces the driver's workload. This paper presents an outline of the system and its effectiveness along with the experimental results.
This paper describes an image processing system for tracking a traffic lane by recognizing white lines on the road ahead. The system utilizes the features of the white lines and the Hough transformation to detect white line candidate points in images taken with a CCD camera. The parameters of the road configuration and vehicle attitude are estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This system has been applied to achieve a lane-keeping assistance system that provides steering control based on the host vehicle’s lateral position in its lane.
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
An approach to designing an intelligent vehicle controller for partially supporting driver operation of a vehicle is proposed. Vehicle behavior is regarded as a system performed by the interaction between the driving environment, vehicle as a machine and driver expectations for the vehicle movements. Driver intention to accelerate or decelerate is mainly generated by the perception of the driving environment. The model we propose involves information on the driving environment affecting driver intention taking driver differences in perceiving the driving environment into account. An engineering model for installing the vehicle controller is expressed by a multipurpose decision-maker allowing explicit treatment of the driving environment, vehicle action, and driver intention. A reasoning engine deals with differences in individual driver traits for generating intention to decelerate by using fuzzy integrals and fuzzy measures.