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Technical Paper

Effective Numerical Simulation Tool for Real-World Rollover Accidents by Combining PC-Crash and FEA

With SUVs and minivans accounting for a larger share of the US market in the past decade, rollover accidents have drawn greater attention, leading to more active research from different perspectives. This ranges from investigations for elucidating the basic causes and mechanisms of rollover accidents to studies of more advanced occupant protection measures. As the phenomenon of a rollover accident is longer in duration than frontal, side or rear impacts, it is relatively difficult [1] to simulate such accidents for experimental verification and also for proper evaluation of occupant restraint system performance. In this work, we focused on the trip-over type, which occurs most frequently, and performed simulations to reproduce real-world rollover accidents by combining PC-Crash and FEA.
Technical Paper

Development of a Brake-Operated Pre-Crash Seatbelt System and Performance Evaluation

The brake-operated pre-crash seatbelt system retracts the seatbelt webbing by activating an electric motor attached to the seatbelt retractor. Detection of emergency braking is used as a trigger to activate the motor. Retracting the seatbelt helps to reduce an occupant's forward movement due to inertial force acting on the occupant's body during deceleration in braking. Addtionally, retraction of the seatbelt webbing also helps existing occupant restraint devices to work more effectively in a crash. The effectiveness of the pre-crash system was evaluated by considering two conditions combined. One involved the dynamic behavior of the vehicle and occupants prior to a crash. The other concerned the safety performance of the vehicle during the crash event. Experiments were conducted to measure the behavior of the vehicle and occupants under emergency braking prior to a crash.
Technical Paper

Real World Accident Analysis of Driver Car-to-Car Intersection Near-Side Impacts: Focus on Impact Location, Impact Angle and Lateral Delta-V

In total, 865 intersection car-to-car crashes (NASS-CDS CY 2004-2014) are analyzed in detail to determine the injury level outcome based on different crash factors, such as delta-V, age, airbag deployment, number of events, impact locations (F,Y,P,Z,D,B-regions based on CDC codes), amount of compartment intrusion and impact angle. A multivariate logistic regression test was performed to predict the probability of MAIS3+ serious injuries using lateral delta-V, location of maximum deformation from B-PLR, age (0: <60/1: ≥60 years), number of events (0: single/ 1: multiple), intrusion (0: <16cm/ 1: ≥16cm), side airbag deployment (yes/no) and direction of impact (0: 9/ 1: 10 o’clock). It is found that direction of impact is one of the significant (p<0.05) parameters and 10 o’clock angle impact has more influence than 9 o’clock perpendicular lateral impact. Frequency of AIS3+ injuries was high in Y-region impact cases.
Journal Article

Development of a Long-Range Ultrasonic Sensor for Automotive Application

In recent years, short-range sensors like stereo cameras, radar and infrared cameras have become essential components of safety systems and user-friendly convenience systems, such as pre-crash safety or parking assist systems. However, they are generally too expensive to implement on lower-end vehicles. On the other hand, a conventional backup-assistance sonar has a very small coverage area, but it is more cost effective than the above-mentioned sensors. This paper proposes an effective method to increase the range of detection of conventional sensor with the help of a pseudo-Wigner distribution-based likelihood function. The reflected wave detected by maximizing the p-WD-based likelihood function with respect to the parameter related to the time delay. This method is verified in actual experiment and the maximum detection range was found to be extended by about 2.5 times beyond that of the conventional approach.