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Technical Paper

Appling CAE to Understand the Causality of Dummy Neck Injury Readings

The progress of computer technology and CAE methodology makes it possible to simulate dummy injury readings in vehicle crash simulations. Dummy neck injuries are generally more difficult to simulate than injuries to other regions such as the head or chest. Accordingly, improving the accuracy of dummy neck injury data is a major concern in frontal occupant safety simulations. This paper describes the use of an advanced airbag modeling methodology to improve the accuracy of dummy neck injury readings. First, the following items incorporated in the advanced airbag model are explained. (1) The Finite Point Method (FPM) is used to simulate the flow of gas. (2) A folding model is applied to simulate the folded condition. (3) The fabric material properties used in the simulation take into account anisotropy in the fiber directions and the nonlinear, hysteresis characteristics of stiffness.
Technical Paper

Application of CAP to Analyze Mechanisms Producing Dummy Injury Readings under U.S. Side Impact Test Conditions

Evaluations of dummy injury readings obtained in regulatory crash tests and new car assessment program tests provide indices for the development of crash safety performance in the process of developing new vehicles. Based on these indices, vehicle body structures and occupant restraint systems are designed to meet the required occupant injury criteria. There are many types of regulatory tests and new car assessment program tests that are conducted to evaluate vehicle safety performance in side impacts. Factoring all of the multiple test configurations into the development of new vehicles requires advanced design capabilities based on a good understanding of the mechanisms producing dummy injury readings. In recent years, advances in computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools and computer processing power have made it possible to run simulations of occupant restraint systems such as side airbags and seatbelts.
Technical Paper

Spot-weld Layout Optimization for Body Stiffness by Topology Optimization

In general, the improvement of vehicle body stiffness involves a trade-off with the body weight. The objective of this research is to derive the lightest-weight solution from the original vehicle model by finding the optimized spot-weld layout and body panel thickness, while keeping the body stiffness and number of spot welds constant. As the first step, a method of deriving the optimal layout of spot welds for maximizing body stiffness was developed by applying the topology optimization method. While this method is generally used in shape optimization of continuous solid structures, it was applied to discontinuous spot-weld positions in this work. As a result, the effect of the spot-weld layout on body stiffness was clarified. In the case of the body used for this research, body stiffness was improved by about 10% with respect to torsion and vertical and lateral bending.
Technical Paper

Compatibility for Frontal Impact Collisions Between Heavy and Light Cars

Recently, frontal impact compatibility is discussed internationally and various procedures to assess compatibility and various measures to improve compatibility have been proposed. Considering the above, car-to-car tests between a heavy car and a light car were conducted to clarify the effect of homogenizing the front structure on compatibility. Then correlation between the results of the barrier impact tests proposed as the procedures to assess compatibility and the car-to-car test results and the requirements for the assessment procedure were discussed.
Technical Paper

Restraint System Optimization for Dual Test Configurations of Frontal Crashes

The numerical relations between occupant restraint systems and injury indexes were investigated by multi-parameter optimization of an integrated restraint system model of frontal crash simulations. This paper proposes a method of optimizing restraint systems in two types of test configurations: a 35-mph full overlap crash model and a 40-mph 40%-offset crash model.
Technical Paper

Multi-parameter, Multi-objective Optimization of Injury Indexes of Vehicle Crash Models

This paper presents a method for optimizing occupant restraint system parameters in vehicle frontal crashes. Simulation models incorporating restraint systems and dummies are used for predicting injury indexes. A full-scale survey of all of the design parameters related to the injury indexes would require a vast number of simulations. Therefore, the Design of Experiments (DOE) method involving a minimum number of experiments is more realistic. However, dummy behavior often shows discontinuity if the dummy comes in contact with the steering wheel, so it is not predicted well with usual DOE methods. This paper shows how to incorporate such discontinuity in a DOE study and how to optimize the restraint system parameters to reduce occupant injury indexes. It also discusses the feasibility of this method for integrated optimization of 50th percentile and 5th percentile dummies.