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Technical Breakthroughs in Development of a Single Motor Full Hybrid System

Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
Technical Paper

Development of Pitting Resistant Steel for Transmission Gears

It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

A Loss Analysis Design Approach to Improving Torque Converter Performance

This paper describes the relationship between the design parameters used to define the geometry of an automotive torque converter and the resultant efficiency in relation to the internal flow characteristics. Taking the turbine bias angle and the contraction ratio of the pump flow passage as specific examples, the effects of each design parameter on the internal flow characteristics and the occurrence of loss were analyzed. A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis code was used in the numerical computation procedure and a method developed independently by the authors was used in the loss analysis. The flow near the wall was visualized experimentally using a technique resembling the so-called oil film method. The visualized results showed good qualitative agreement with the numerical analysis results.
Technical Paper

Performance of a CVT Fluid for High Torque Transmitting Belt-CVTs

A new belt-drive continuously variable Transmission (B-CVT) was introduced into the Japanese market in September 1997 by Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. It transmits a maximum torque of 196 Nm and represents a major breakthrough of the torque limit transmitted by B-CVTs, thus opening a new epoch for the automatic transmission. The major features of the CVT are transmission of high torque between a steel belt and pulleys, electronic control of high hydraulic-pressure to pulleys and a torque converter with an electronically controlled lockup clutch engaging at low vehicle speeds. A CVT fluid formulated for this CVT was designed to optimize these features and this paper describes the performance of the CVT fluid in lab-scale tests and an endurance test of the CVT unit. In order to realize high torque transmission between a steel belt and pulleys, high friction between metal/metal contacts is required with normal wear.
Technical Paper

Development of a Metal Belt-Drive CVT Incorporating a Torque Converter for Use with 2-Liter Class Engines

Technologies for reducing fuel consumption have attracted strong interest in recent years amid the heightened concern about global environmental protection. At Nissan, we have been focusing on the development of electronically controlled continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) since the early 1980s as a promising technology for reducing fuel consumption. That work has led to the commercialization of the world's first belt-drive CVT that is suitable for application up to 2.0-liter class passenger cars. The practical use of CVTs has so far been limited to cars mounted with small displacement engines of the 1.6-liter class. The belt-drive CVT described here incorporates new technology for transmitting greater torque and also has product attributes suitable for use on upscale passenger cars, making it applicable to 2.0-liter class models.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Torque Capacity of a Metal Pushing V-Belt for CVTs

The mechanism causing the micro slip characteristic of a metal CVT belt during torque transmission was analyzed, focusing on the gap distribution between the elements. It was hypothesized that gaps between the elements cause slip to occur between the elements and the pulleys when the belt is squeezed between the two halves of the pulleys, and the slip ratio was calculated theoretically on that assumption. The μ-v (friction coefficient versus sliding velocity) characteristic between the elements and the pulleys was measured and the results were used in calculating the slip ratio. As a result, a simulation procedure was developed for predicting the slip-limit torque of the belt on the basis of calculations. The slip ratio found by simulation and the calculated slip-limit torque showed good quantitative agreement with the experimental data, thereby confirming the validity of the simulation procedure.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Pitting Resistance of Transmission Gears by Plasma Carburizing Process

The application of both high strength gear steels and shot peening technology has succeeded in strengthening automotive transmission gears. This technology, though, improves mainly the fatigue strength at the tooth root, but not the pitting property at the tooth face. Therefore, demand has moved to the development of new gear steels with good pitting resistance. In order to improve pitting resistance, the authors studied super carburizing which is characterized by carbide dispersion in the case, especially processed with a plasma carburizing furnace. Firstly, the influence of the carburizing temperature and carburizing period on the carbide morphology was investigated and the optimum carburizing conditions were determined. Secondly, the fatigue strength and pitting resistance was evaluated using carbide dispersed specimens.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Belt-Drive CVT Fluid on the Friction Coefficient Between Metal Components

A block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine (LFW-1) was used as a test method for making fundamental evaluations of the effect of the Belt-Drive Continuously Variable Transmission(B-CVT) fluid on the friction coefficient between the belt and pulleys. The results confirmed that this method can simulate the friction phenomena between the belt and pulleys of an actual transmission. The mechanism whereby ZDDP and some Ca detergents improve the torque capacity of a B-CVT was also investigated along with the effect of the deterioration of these additives on the friction coefficient. It was found that these additives form a film, 80-90 nm in thickness, on the sliding surface, which is effective in increasing the friction coefficient. The friction coefficient declined with increasing additive deterioration. The results of a 31P-NMR analysis indicated that the decline closely correlated with the amount of ZDDP in the B-CVT fluid.
Technical Paper

A New Five-Speed Nissan Automatic Transmission for Passenger Cars

An electronically controlled five-speed automatic transmission has been developed for use in new 2-liter models. This high-performance gearbox is the world's first five-speed automatic transmission for passenger car use to be equipped with a torque converter. It is designed with an ultra-wide range and close ratio gearing and incorporates a host of outstanding technologies to provide excellent performance and driveability. This paper describes the major features and performance of this new automatic transmission and some of the studies undertaken concerning multiplication of gear steps.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Developing a More Efficient Torque Converter Stator

A flatter design is becoming increasingly important for reducing torque converter axial size and weight. The conventional stator design method, in which the blade profile is geometrically determined and flow analysis of the profile may give some valuable information, is no longer sufficient for achieving efficient flow turning in the short axial length of flat torque converters. Here, after a brief review of the conventional design approach, an inverse design method is introduced, which yields a blade profile solution for a prescribed favorable velocity distribution along the blade. The performance improvement with this procedure has been demonstrated experimentally.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics of Speed Ratio Control of the Halt Toroidal CVT for Passenger Cars

This paper describes the results of an investigation into the controllability of a traction-drive type half toroidal CVT, built with traction-drive elements. One feature of this CVT is that it provides better power transmission efficiency at its rolling contact points than other traction-drive CVTs developed previously. Another feature is that ratio changes can be effected with only a slight power input. A third feature is that it does not require any special hydraulic system to engage the contact points of rolling elements because it is designed to generate engaging force spontaneously in proportion to the torque input. The first half of the paper presents an analysis of the shifting mechanism. The characteristics of ratio changes effected by slight displacements of the power rollers were analyzed theoretically. A simplified CVT model was then examined experimentally and found to provide good response characteristics.
Technical Paper

Nissan Electronically Controlled Four Speed Automatic Transmission

This paper describes the Nissan R01A model automatic transmission, focusing in particular on the basic design concept, control system and the various control techniques it incorporates. This 4-speed transmission, installed in Nissan's rear-wheel-drive vehicles, was designed from the ground up and significant construction and control mechanism improvements were made over the former conventional model. With a compact gear arrangement consisting of two sets of planetary gears, this transmission features a new electro-hydraulic control system which not only provides optimum shifting and lock-up points, but also modulates the hydraulic pressure electronically to achieve superior shift quality. Control over the transmission is integrated with engine control to deliver improved driveability and better fuel economy. Different transmission variations have been developed to create a versatile lineup for rear-wheel-drive vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 12 Valve 4 Cylinder Engine

The 1.5 1 GA15 engine is a new inline 4 cylinder engine. The GA15 fully meets the major development objectives of sufficient torque at low and middle engine speeds, high power output, good fuel economy and quiet engine operation. Its structure features a compact combustion chamber with a small bore and long stroke, aerodynamic intake ports, a stiff engine cylinder block with a deep skirt and bearing beam, a newly designed silentrunning chaine, and pistons with full floating pins. High quality was achieved by adopting the latest methods in its development: vibration analysis of the assembled engine and transmission, FEM model, rigidity analysis of the cylinder block and head, and analysis of air flow in the intake port and movement of the timing chain.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Finding Optimum Planetary Gear Trains for Automatic Transmissions

There has been a growing need to develop more compact automatic transmissions with a greater number of speeds for better fuel economy and better driveability. This study investigated a method for determining suitable planetary gear trains for today's transmissions. A computer program has been developed for application to five-speed transmissions consisting of two planetary gearsets. By analyzing various gear train possibilities, the program can identify which gearsets are suitable for different conditions, including the number of speeds, the number of binding elements, topological suitability and other factors.
Technical Paper

Improved Automatic Transmission Provides Smoother Shifting through Accurate Hydraulic Control

The operating characteristics of the check valve in the clutch piston of an automatic transmission have a great effect on the shifting performance and durability of the developed clutch package test rig was used to visualize the flow and make pressure measurements in the vicinity of the check valve. The results indicate that the strength of the vortex just in front of the check valve strongly influences the opening and closing hydraulic pressure of the valve. It was also found that the vortex causes a pressure drop, which is related to the rotating speed of the clutch piston, oil volume discharged from the check valve and valve geometry. These results were used to design an improved check valve which provides a suitable oil pressure curve for achieving smoother shifting.
Technical Paper

Development of ROM Management and Evaluation System for Electronic Transmission Control Units

Electronic control of automatic transmission systems have become indispensable in order to satisfy driver expectations of comfort and vehicle response. The increasing complexity of such systems has resulted in a huge increase of control data volumes handled by electronic transmission control units (ETCUs). This paper describes the development, operation and evaluation by JATCO Corporation and Nissan Motor Co., Ltd of a Read Only Memory (ROM) management system for use with ETCUs. The system makes extensive use of computer aided design(CAD) techniques to create ROM data from standard format drawings, and vice-versa. The paper also presents the evaluation system developed for ETCU use. Making use of computer simulated testing, this increases the reliability of units and reduces testing time.
Technical Paper

Development of High Strength Transmission Gears

High strength transmission gears have been developed for use in the final gear set of front-wheel-drive vehicles. The steel used as the gear material has a higher molybdenum content, allowing more austenite to be retained following carburizing than is possible with chromium steel. As a result, the steel can be subjected to higher intensity shot peening by using harder peening particles which are projected by an air-nozzle peening system. With this procedure, the fatigue strength of the gears can be increased 1.6 times over that of conventional gears.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Transaxle Gear Noise by Gear Train Modification

As the quietness of vehicles has been continually improved in recent years, there have been stronger requirements to reduce transmission gear noise and thereby improve transmission quality. So far efforts to achieve quieter gears have generally focused on ways of reducing the excitation forces of individual gears. In addition to these traditional methods, there is a greater need today to adopt a new approach to gear noise reduction in which improvements are made to the gear train itself as the transmitter of vibration in the transmission. This paper describes the systematic approach taken to reduce the overall gear noise of the new RE4F04A four-speed automatic transaxle.The cross-sectional view is shown in Fig. 1. The vibration characteristics of this automatic transaxle were first identified by finite element analysis, and an investigation was made of a gear train structure that would be effective in reducing gear noise.
Technical Paper

Dual-Cavity Half Toroidal CVT for Passenger Cars

This paper presents a method for obtaining a large-capacity, high-efficiency continuously variable transmission (CVT). In designing a dual-cavity half toroidal CVT, it is essential to balance the load forces of each cavity. The axial position of the inner output disks has an important effect on the load forces. Several dual-cavity layouts designed to maintain the necessary balance are discussed, and an optimum layout is proposed that meets three required conditions. One is that the inner output disks should be supported by a wall separating the cavities. The second is that the outer input disks should have identical rotational phases. The third is that a single loading cam should produce all the contact forces. Tests of the proposed layout indicate that it provides good synchronization of all power rollers.