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Technical Paper

Performance of a CVT Fluid for High Torque Transmitting Belt-CVTs

A new belt-drive continuously variable Transmission (B-CVT) was introduced into the Japanese market in September 1997 by Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. It transmits a maximum torque of 196 Nm and represents a major breakthrough of the torque limit transmitted by B-CVTs, thus opening a new epoch for the automatic transmission. The major features of the CVT are transmission of high torque between a steel belt and pulleys, electronic control of high hydraulic-pressure to pulleys and a torque converter with an electronically controlled lockup clutch engaging at low vehicle speeds. A CVT fluid formulated for this CVT was designed to optimize these features and this paper describes the performance of the CVT fluid in lab-scale tests and an endurance test of the CVT unit. In order to realize high torque transmission between a steel belt and pulleys, high friction between metal/metal contacts is required with normal wear.
Technical Paper

Development of a Metal Belt-Drive CVT Incorporating a Torque Converter for Use with 2-Liter Class Engines

Technologies for reducing fuel consumption have attracted strong interest in recent years amid the heightened concern about global environmental protection. At Nissan, we have been focusing on the development of electronically controlled continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) since the early 1980s as a promising technology for reducing fuel consumption. That work has led to the commercialization of the world's first belt-drive CVT that is suitable for application up to 2.0-liter class passenger cars. The practical use of CVTs has so far been limited to cars mounted with small displacement engines of the 1.6-liter class. The belt-drive CVT described here incorporates new technology for transmitting greater torque and also has product attributes suitable for use on upscale passenger cars, making it applicable to 2.0-liter class models.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Torque Capacity of a Metal Pushing V-Belt for CVTs

The mechanism causing the micro slip characteristic of a metal CVT belt during torque transmission was analyzed, focusing on the gap distribution between the elements. It was hypothesized that gaps between the elements cause slip to occur between the elements and the pulleys when the belt is squeezed between the two halves of the pulleys, and the slip ratio was calculated theoretically on that assumption. The μ-v (friction coefficient versus sliding velocity) characteristic between the elements and the pulleys was measured and the results were used in calculating the slip ratio. As a result, a simulation procedure was developed for predicting the slip-limit torque of the belt on the basis of calculations. The slip ratio found by simulation and the calculated slip-limit torque showed good quantitative agreement with the experimental data, thereby confirming the validity of the simulation procedure.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Belt-Drive CVT Fluid on the Friction Coefficient Between Metal Components

A block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine (LFW-1) was used as a test method for making fundamental evaluations of the effect of the Belt-Drive Continuously Variable Transmission(B-CVT) fluid on the friction coefficient between the belt and pulleys. The results confirmed that this method can simulate the friction phenomena between the belt and pulleys of an actual transmission. The mechanism whereby ZDDP and some Ca detergents improve the torque capacity of a B-CVT was also investigated along with the effect of the deterioration of these additives on the friction coefficient. It was found that these additives form a film, 80-90 nm in thickness, on the sliding surface, which is effective in increasing the friction coefficient. The friction coefficient declined with increasing additive deterioration. The results of a 31P-NMR analysis indicated that the decline closely correlated with the amount of ZDDP in the B-CVT fluid.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics of Speed Ratio Control of the Halt Toroidal CVT for Passenger Cars

This paper describes the results of an investigation into the controllability of a traction-drive type half toroidal CVT, built with traction-drive elements. One feature of this CVT is that it provides better power transmission efficiency at its rolling contact points than other traction-drive CVTs developed previously. Another feature is that ratio changes can be effected with only a slight power input. A third feature is that it does not require any special hydraulic system to engage the contact points of rolling elements because it is designed to generate engaging force spontaneously in proportion to the torque input. The first half of the paper presents an analysis of the shifting mechanism. The characteristics of ratio changes effected by slight displacements of the power rollers were analyzed theoretically. A simplified CVT model was then examined experimentally and found to provide good response characteristics.
Technical Paper

Dual-Cavity Half Toroidal CVT for Passenger Cars

This paper presents a method for obtaining a large-capacity, high-efficiency continuously variable transmission (CVT). In designing a dual-cavity half toroidal CVT, it is essential to balance the load forces of each cavity. The axial position of the inner output disks has an important effect on the load forces. Several dual-cavity layouts designed to maintain the necessary balance are discussed, and an optimum layout is proposed that meets three required conditions. One is that the inner output disks should be supported by a wall separating the cavities. The second is that the outer input disks should have identical rotational phases. The third is that a single loading cam should produce all the contact forces. Tests of the proposed layout indicate that it provides good synchronization of all power rollers.
Technical Paper

Development of High Torque Capacity Variator System for CVT

The new Jatco CVT8 High Torque (CVT8 HT) was developed for use on front-wheel-drive vehicles fitted with a large displacement engine. The development objectives set for this new CVT with a high torque capacity were outstanding fuel economy, size and weight reductions. To achieve those targets, a high torque capacity CVT chain was newly developed in cooperation with LuK GmbH & Co. KG. This article describes the efforts undertaken to develop increasing torque capacity.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Control Algorithm for an SI Engine and a CVT

A new integrated control system has been developed for controlling an SI engine and a CVT proactively so as to obtain the demanded drive torque most efficiently. Taking into account ease of calibration, a control system configuration has been achieved that determines the CVT ratio from the target drive torque and vehicle speed, based on the steady-state relationship between the demanded drive torque and the vehicle speed, gear ratio, engine torque and fuel economy. An analysis was made of drive torque characteristics while the ratio was changing under transient conditions. The results showed that using engine torque to compensate for the ratio change response lag and inertia torque, which is proportional to the differential of the gear ratio, is effective in improving drive torque responsiveness.
Technical Paper

Functional Design of a Motor Integrated CVT for a Parallel HEV

We succeeded in developing a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with a fuel efficiency in the 10-15 mode more than double that of existing vehicles of the same class of driving performance. A prominent feature of this HEV system is the belt-drive continuously variable transmission (CVT) with built-in traction motor and powder clutch. Adopting a more efficient configuration proved effective in minimizing cost increases and loss of space utility and offered the same reliability provided by existing vehicles. This paper discusses the functional design aspects of the parallel HEV system, which holds great promise for viable mass production.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of CVT Fluid for Nissan Toroidal CVT

Nissan has developed a practical and available toroidal continuously variable transmission (T-CVT) for passenger vehicles for the first time in the world. This CVT is applicable to engines having an output of torque larger than 400 N-m and makes it possible to use a lock-up clutch at low vehicle speed, resulting in marked improvements in drivability and fuel economy. The authors have developed the T-CVT fluid, which is in this application, having excellent traction coefficient and sufficient capacity as the transmission fluid. This paper mainly describes the traction coefficient measurement procedure and the performance of the newly developed fluid.
Technical Paper

Development of a Large Torque Capacity Half-Toroidal CVT

This paper describes a half-toroidal continuously variable transmission (CVT) that has been newly developed. The continuously variable unit (CVU) of this CVT adopts a traction drive as its power transmission principle. The major features of this mechanism include its capacity to transmit large torque, quick ratio changes, and high transmission efficiency in the low torque range. The major CVT performance characteristics and dimensions and features of the various parts of the unit are explained here.
Technical Paper

A Study of Power Roller Synchronization in a Toroidal CVT

Building a toroidal continuously variable transmission (CVT) with multiple power rollers arranged in parallel is an effective way to improve its torque capacity. However, that requires a method for synchronizing the operation of all of the power rollers. This paper describes a method of synchronizing the four power rollers in a toroidal CVT that we have researched and developed. It also presents the results of an analysis of the cause of power roller vibration, which was a serious issue encountered in the development process, and describes an effective method for preventing it. The methods described here achieve sufficient synchronization performance for practical use of the toroidal CVT on production vehicles.
Technical Paper

Research on High Strength Material and Its Surface Modification for Parts Used Under Rolling Contact Cycles

This paper describes a newly developed steel composition and surface modification methods for improving the rolling contact fatigue strength of parts used in transmission systems, especially continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) to increase their torque capacity. The mechanisms of two types of typical rolling contact fatigue phenomenon in case hardening steel were examined with the aim of improving rolling contact fatigue strength. One concerned white etching constituents (WEC) and the other one concerned peculiar microstructural changes caused by hydrogen originating from decomposition of the lubrication oil as a result of repeated rolling contact stress cycles. The rolling contact fatigue strength limit due to WEC has been improved markedly by dispersing fine M23C6 alloy carbides in the martensite matrix at the subsurface layer of parts.
Technical Paper

Development of a Slip Control System for a Lock-Up Clutch

Lock-up operation of an automatic transmission is known as one good method of improving fuel economy. However, locking up the transmission at low vehicle speeds can often cause undesirable vibration or booming noise. Slip control of the lock-up clutch can resolve these problems, but the speed difference of the lock-up clutch needs to be controlled at a certain value. This control system has to overcome large changes in the parameters of the lock-up system at low vehicle speeds and also changes with regard to the speed ratio in a continuously variable transmission (CVT). In this study, this complex non-linear system has been modeled as a first-order linear parameter varying (LPV) system. A robust control algorithm was applied taking various disturbances into account to design a new slip lock-up control system.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Cruise Control System Using CVT Gear Ratio Control

This paper describes a newly developed adaptive cruise control (ACC) system using continuously variable transmission (CVT) gear ratio control. This system provides excellent headway distance control performance at a reasonable cost. With this system, headway distance is measured with a laser radar, and the throttle position and CVT gear ratio are controlled under both acceleration and deceleration situations. The new ACC system consists of a target headway distance calculator, a headway distance controller, a vehicle velocity controller and a drive torque controller. Using a drive torque control method that was newly developed based on integrated control of engine torque and the CVT gear ratio, the following benefits are obtained. (1) It provides smoother acceleration and deceleration. (2) It maintains the target vehicle velocity on steep uphill and downhill grades. As a result, sufficient ACC performance can be attained even in 2.0-liter class vehicles.
Technical Paper

Study of an Integrated Diesel Engine-CVT Control Algorithm for Improving Drivability and Exhaust Emission Performance

Diesel engines have attracted more attention in recent years as one means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motor vehicles. One of the major issues for diesel engines is exhaust emissions performance. Diesel engines also face various difficulties in providing the driving force demanded by the driver because of their greater inertia than that of gasoline engines. Meanwhile, continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) have been popularized as gearboxes that execute ratio changes continuously without generating shift shock. The aim of this research is to achieve higher levels of drivability and exhaust emissions performance by mating a CVT to a diesel engine and making maximum use of the continuous ratio change capability. An integrated engine-CVT control algorithm that can freely set the driving force and also the engine operating conditions for generating that driving force has been developed through this study.
Technical Paper

Future Light-Duty Vehicles: Predicting their Fuel Consumption and Carbon-Reduction Potential

The transportation sector in the United States is a major contributor to global energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission. To assess the future potentials of different technologies in addressing these two issues, we used a family of simulation programs to predict fuel consumption for passenger cars in 2020. The selected technology combinations that have good market potential and could be in mass production include: advanced gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine vehicles with automatically-shifting clutched transmissions, gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas hybrid electric vehicles with continuously variable transmissions, direct hydrogen, gasoline and methanol reformer fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles with direct ratio drive, and battery electric vehicle with direct ratio drive.
Technical Paper

Improvement of the High Rigidity Power-Roller Support Structure in a Half-Toroidal CVT

This paper describes the improvement made to the high rigidity power-roller support structure in a dual-cavity half-toroidal CVT to further increase torque capacity. As a result of re-analyzing the function and parts composition of the previous structure, a high rigidity power-roller support structure, which permits power roller movement only in the horizontal direction, has been adopted. This structure enables the thrust and radial stiffness of the power-roller support to be substantially improved over the previous structure.
Journal Article

New Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Pitch Sequence Optimization of CVT Variator Chain

A CVT variator chain system is superior in transmission efficiency to a belt system because of its lower internal friction. However, a chain produces more noise than a belt due to the long pitch length of contact between the pulleys and rocker pins. This study focuses on optimization of the pitch sequence for reducing chain noise. The previous pitch sequence was suitably combined of links of different lengths to improve noise dispersibility for reducing chain noise. First, the object function was defined as the reduction of the peak level of 1st-order chain noise combined with a well-balanced the levels on the low and high frequency sides. Interior background noise consisting of road noise and wind noise have the characteristic that they increase as the frequency decreases.
Journal Article

Novel Microsurface Machining Techniques for Improving the Traction Coefficient

This study examined methods of machining a microsurface texture on the surface of the rolling elements of a toroidal continuously variable transmission (CVT) for improving the traction coefficient. The microsurface texture of the toroidal surfaces consists of tiny circumferential grooves (referred to here as micro grooves) and a mirror-like surface finish similar to the rolling surface of bearings. Hard turning with a cubic boron nitride (cBN) cutting tool, grinding with a cBN wheel and micro forming were applied to machine the micro grooves. The results made clear the practical potential of each method. A micro forming device was also developed for use in actual production. A mirror-like surface finish and micro crowning of the convex portions of the microsurface texture were simultaneously executed by superfinishing them with a fine-grained elastic superfinishing stone.