Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Investigation of the Dilution Process for Measurement of Particulate Matter from Spark-Ignition Engines

1998-10-19
982601
Measurements of particulate matter (PM) from spark ignition (SI) engine exhaust using dilution tunnels will become more prevalent as emission standards are tightened. Hence, a study of the dilution process was undertaken in order to understand how various dilution related parameters affect the accuracy with which PM sizes and concentrations can be determined. A SI and a compression ignition (CI) engine were separately used to examine parameters of the dilution process; the present work discusses the results in the context of SI exhaust dilution. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the size distribution, number density, and volume fraction of PM. Temperature measurements in the exhaust pipe and dilution tunnel reveal the degree of mixing between exhaust and dilution air, the effect of flowrate on heat transfer from undiluted and diluted exhaust to the environment, and the minimum permissible dilution ratio for a maximum sample temperature of 52°C.
Technical Paper

3D Vortex Simulation of Intake Flow in a Port-Cylinder with a Valve Seat and a Moving Piston

1996-05-01
961195
A Lagrangian random vortex-boundary element method has been developed for the simulation of unsteady incompressible flow inside three-dimensional domains with time-dependent boundaries, similar to IC engines. The solution method is entirely grid-free in the fluid domain and eliminates the difficult task of volumetric meshing of the complex engine geometry. Furthermore, due to the Lagrangian evaluation of the convective processes, numerical viscosity is virtually removed; thus permitting the direct simulation of flow at high Reynolds numbers. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical methodology is given, followed by an example of induction flow in an off-centered port-cylinder assembly with a harmonically driven piston and a valve seat situated directly below the port. The predicted flow is shown to resemble the flow visualization results of a laboratory experiment, despite the crude approximation used to represent the geometry.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lubricant for Retrofitting Automotive Air Conditioners for Use with HFC-134a

1994-03-01
940594
This paper presents a new refrigeration lubricant for use with the HFC-134a retrofit refrigerant in automotive air-conditioning systems originally designed to use the CFC-12 refrigerant, one of the regulated CFCs scheduled to be phased out. This new retrofit lubricant provides high lubricity and excellent performance characteristics as a result of adopting a newly developed PAG base oil with a block polymer structure and a new antiwear additive formulation. In retrofit systems, it assures sufficient durability for wobble-plate-type variable displacement compressors, which experience severe lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of the New Generation Ergonomic Seat Based on Occupant Posture Analysis

1995-02-01
950140
In this study, the functions required of automotive seats were analyzed from the standpoint of occupant posture. The results have been incorporated in the development of the New Generation Ergonomic Seat, which better fits the contours of the human body and prevents a stooped posture that places a greater load on the lumbar region, thereby reducing fatigue during long hours of driving. The new seat adopts the concept of “combined pelvic and lumbar support,” based on an analysis of the muscular and skeletal structure of the human body, sitting posture and body pressure distribution.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Speed Steel Based Sintered Material for High Performance Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts

1998-02-23
980328
The demands on valve seat insert materials, in terms of providing greater wear-resistance at higher temperatures, enhanced machinability and using non-environmentally hazardous materials at a reasonably low cost have intensified in recent years. Due therefore to these strong demands in the market, research was made into the possibility of producing a new valve seat insert material. As a result a high speed steel based new improved material was developed, which satisfies the necessary required demands and the evaluation trials, using actual gasoline engine endurance tests, were found to be very successful.
Technical Paper

Trends in Vehicle Information Displays in the Multimedia Era

1998-10-19
98C035
Flat panel displays for automobiles are facing a new era with the development of navigation systems. As navigation systems become more important as driver's assistance devices, development of birds-eye-view and 3D displays continues, as well as improvements for larger display screens and higher mounting positions. In response to the progress of mobile multimedia technologies, demands for larger display screens and larger aspect ratios have been increasing. Significance for improvements to anti-glare features or view angles has increased as they provide better visibility and the increase layout options. The use of human machine information interaction, which interfaces visual, audio and tactile senses, makes it possible to realize safer, more convenient and comfortable multimedia era vehicle
Technical Paper

Development of a Practical DSP Car Audio System

1992-02-01
920081
Digital signal processors (DSPs) are being used widely for sound field reproduction. However, it is difficult to apply a DSP to a car audio system because of the complicated acoustic characteristics of the passenger compartment. The authors have developed a new car audio system which employs special DSP software and a new speaker layout to provide excellent presence. The DSP has five output channels to generate stereophonic reflection from the front and rear speakers. The DSP software is programmed for each individual car model. A center speaker and A-pillar tweeters are used to produce a natural sound field in front through effective utilization of reflection from the windshield. This system is featured in 1992 Nissan models.
Technical Paper

Factors Limiting the Improvement in Thermal Efficiency of S. I. Engine at Higher Compression Ratio

1987-02-01
870548
An analysis of the factors that limit the improvement in thermal efficiency at higher compression ratios was performed with both thermodynamic calculation and experiment. The results showed that the major factors were cooling loss and unburned fuel. Both of these factors increase with smaller swept volume, larger S/V ratio combustion chamber, and lower engine speed and load. These effects explain the observation that thermal efficiency peaks at relatively low compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Impinging Diesel Sprays

1989-02-01
890439
The heat transfer characteristics of impinging diesel sprays were studied in a Rapid Compression Machine. The temporal and spatial distributions of the heat transfer around the impingement point -were measured by an array of high frequency response surface thermocouples. Simultaneously, the flow field of the combusting spray was photographed with high speed movie through the transparent head of the apparatus. The results for the auto-ignited fuel sprays were compared to those of non-combusting sprays which were carried out in nitrogen. The values of the heat flux from the combusting sprays were found to be substantially different from those of the non-combusting sprays. The difference was attribute to the radiative heat transfer and the combustion generated bulk, motion and small scale turbulence.
Technical Paper

Development of Practical Heads-Up Display for Production Vehicle Application

1989-02-01
890559
THIS PAPER presents an advanced heads-up display which has been newly developed for use in 88 Nissan Silvia model. The HUD consists of a projector with a newly developed high brightness VFD and light-selective film used as a combiner which is coated on the windshield. This combination provides good display legibility even under bright sunlight. The display shows the vehicle speed in a three-digit reading at distance of more than one meter from the driver's eyes. The windshield-coated combiner conforms to U.S. safety standards concerning light transmittance, abrasion and other performance requirements. Experimental data are also presented which substantiate the HUD's high legibility and confirm its effect in enhancing the driver's attention toward the road ahead
Technical Paper

Predicting the Effects of Air and Coolant Temperature, Deposits, Spark Timing and Speed on Knock in Spark Ignition Engines

1992-10-01
922324
The prediction of knock onset in spark-ignition engines requires a chemical model for the autoignition of the hydrocarbon fuel-air mixture, and a description of the unburned end-gas thermal state. Previous studies have shown that a reduced chemistry model developed by Keck et al. adequately predicts the initiation of autoignition. However, the combined effects of heat transfer and compression on the state of the end gas have not been thoroughly investigated. The importance of end-gas heat transfer was studied with the objective of improving the ability of our knock model to predict knock onset over a wide range of engine conditions. This was achieved through changing the thermal environment of the end gas by either varying the inlet air temperature or the coolant temperature. Results show that there is significant heating of the in-cylinder charge during intake and a substantial part of the compression process.
Technical Paper

M.I.T. Stirling-Cycle Heat Transfer Apparatus

1992-08-03
929465
The paper describes the design and construction of a two cylinder apparatus to measure heat transfer under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating flow such as found in Stirling-cycle machines. The apparatus consists of two large single stage air compressors joined by a rigid drive shaft between the two crank shafts. The compressors are 27.94 cm (11-in) diameter by 22.86 cm (9-in) stroke. The apparatus is powered by a 25 HP variable speed DC motor. Belts and a jack shaft provide wide speed ranges. The test section, which is connected between the compressor cylinders, is a 44.45 mm (1.75-in) diameter tube and about 254 cm (100-in) long. The test section is configured for measuring wall heat flux, and gas pressure as a function of time. An LDV system is being installed for measurement of gas velocity as a function of time and position. A fast response micro thermocouple measures gas temperature as a function of time and position.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Loss at Component Interfaces in Stirling Cycles

1992-08-03
929468
The paper considers the thermodynamic irreversibility in Stirling cycle machines at the interface between components with different thermodynamic characteristics. The approach of the paper is to consider the simplest possible cases and to focus on the factors that influence the thermodynamic losses. For example, an ideal adiabatic cylinder facing an ideal isothermal heat exchanger is considered. If there is no mixing in the cylinder (gas remains one dimensionally stratified), there will be no loss (irreversibility) if the gas motion is in phase with the gas pressure changes. If there is a phase shift, as required to have a network for the cylinder, there will be a loss (entropy generation) because the gas will not match the heat exchanger temperature. There will also be a loss if the gas in the cylinder is mixed rather than stratified. Similar simple interface conditions can be considered between components and interconnecting open volumes and between heat exchangers and regenerators.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method for Predicting Comfortable Airflow in the Passenger Compartment

1992-09-01
922131
Indexes of thermal comfort, such as PMV (Predicted Mean Vote: ISO-7730), which have traditionally been applied to houses or buildings, are difficult to be applied to the automotive passenger compartment because of the large thermal differences that exist around vehicle occupants. In this work, the effects of temperature, airflow and solar radiation on passenger comfort in an air-conditioned vehicle interior were analyzed. Based on the results obtained, a method was devised for predicting the feeling of comfort passengers get from the thermal atmosphere in the vehicle interior. This paper explains the necessity of providing a diffused airflow in an air-conditioned passenger compartment, based on the effects of airflow on the feeling of comfort. Further, a new airflow control procedure is proposed which combines both diffused and concentrated airflow patterns to create a new variable airflow system.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a One-Zone Burn-Rate Analysis Procedure Using Production SI Engine Pressure Data

1993-10-01
932749
A single-zone burn-rate analysis based on measured cylinder pressure data proposed by Gatowski et al. in 1984 was evaluated over the full load and speed range of a spark-ignition engine. The analysis, which determines the fuel mass burning rate based on the First Law of Thermodynamics, includes sub-models for the effects of residual fraction, heat transfer, and crevices. Each of these sub-models was assessed and calibrated. Cylinder pressure data over the full engine operating range obtained from two different engines were used to examine the robustness of the analysis. The sensitivity of predictions to the parameters wall temperature, heat transfer model coefficients and exponent, swirl ratio, motoring polytropic constant, in-cylinder mass, and to uncertainty in pressure data was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Study of Comfortable Sitting Posture

1988-02-01
880054
By nature, the driver's seat should be designed for work, while the passenger's seat should be built for comfort. This means that the functions of the seats are inherently different. Although many studies have been done on the driver's seat, the design and use of the passenger's seat have received little attention. This study examined a comfortable sitting posture in the passenger's seat. The results obtained have led to the development of two new devices. One device makes it possible for the seat cushion to move upward and forward as the seat tilts backward. The other device allows the upper portion of the seat back to tilt forward from the top of the lower seat back. These devices thus function to provide a comfortable sitting posture. This paper describes the new devices and presents the results of an investigation into a comfortable sitting posture for the occupant of the front passenger's seat.
Technical Paper

Effects of Power Plant Vibration on Sound Quality in the Passenger Compartment During Acceleration

1987-04-28
870955
The relationship between the spectrum structures of passenger compartment noise and the results of subjective evaluations of sound quality-has been studied on a fron-wheel-drive car with a four cylinder engine. As a result of an analysis using a car interior noise simulator, which is a kind of digital sound shynthesizer, most of the sound quality indicies such as the crank rumble noise, the roughness or unstable characteristics, and the muddiness were found to be related to the structure of engine revolution harmonics and to the strength of fourmants. Further, the physical mechanisms which characterize these spectrum structures were identified through both engine running tests and shaker tests. As a results, the dominant factors governing sound quality problems were found to be the crankshaft bending or torsional vibration coupled with the total power plant vibration shystem.
Technical Paper

New PM Valve Seat Insert Materials for High Performance Engines

1992-02-01
920570
Internal combustion engines experience severe valve train wear and the reduction of valve seat and seat insert wear has been a long-standing issue. In this work, worn valve seats and inserts were examined to obtain a fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms and the results were applied in developing new valve seat insert materials. The new exhaust valve insert material for gasoline engines is a sintered alloy steel containing Co-base hard particles, with lead infiltrated only for inserts used in unleaded gasoline engines. The new intake valve insert material for gasoline engines is a high-Mo sintered steel, obtained through transient liquid phase sintering and with copper precipitated uniformly. This material can be used for both leaded and unleaded gasoline engines. Valve and valve seat insert wear has long been an issue of concern to engine designers and manufacturers.
Technical Paper

A Graphical Workstation Based Part-Task Flight Simulator for Preliminary Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Displays

1992-10-01
921953
Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) has developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator has been successfully used to evaluate graphical microburst alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Modal Synthesis Method for Coupled Acoustic-Structural Systems

1992-09-01
922089
This paper describes an experimental modal synthesis method for determining the noise characteristics of coupled acoustic-structural systems. This method was developed to provide an essential tool for analyzing passenger compartment noise levels. With this method, it is possible to obtain the coupled acoustic-structural parameters directly from experimental measurements of noise and vibration. The resulting modal parameters provide the basis for predicting how structural modifications will affect interior noise characteristics. This paper presents the theory on which the method is based and gives examples of its application to passenger compartment noise analyses.
X