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Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2022
A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
Technical Paper

Increased Power Density via Variable Compression/Displacement And Turbocharging Using The Alvar-Cycle Engine

1998-02-23
981027
This paper presents the analysis and design of a variable compression-ratio and displacement engine concept - the Alvar Cycle using a four-stroke engine-performance simulation. The Alvar-Cycle engine uses secondary pistons which reciprocate in auxiliary chambers housed in the cylinder head, at adjustable phase-angle differences from the primary pistons. The phase difference provides both the variable total engine displacement and compression ratio. Results indicate that the Alvar engine can operate at higher power density via a combination of higher intake boost and lower compression ratio to avoid knock at high loads, and capture the better thermal efficiency at higher compression ratios at part loads.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Pressure Fueling System for a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

1998-05-04
981458
A direct-injection gasoline engine that uses a stratified charge combustion process was developed by Nissan and released in the Japanese market toward the end of 1997. This new engine is based on Nissan's VQ engine, which enjoys a good reputation for its quick throttle response and low fuel consumption, and has been developed to accomplish the objectives of reducing fuel consumption by stratified charge combustion and securing high power output. The fuel injectors are connected by an arrangement of lightweight, small-diameter fuel lines that distribute fuel to each injector under high pressure. This system was adopted in order to reconcile the use of an aerodynamic straight intake port with the desired fuel injection position. The use of a casting net injector, which uniformly distributes the fuel spray above the piston, makes it possible to accomplish stratified charge combustion with a shallow-bowl piston.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion Performance in a New Direct-Injection SI V-6 Engine

1998-05-04
981435
One advantage of a direct-injection S.I. engine is lower fuel consumption due to the use of lean stratified charge combustion. Another advantage is greater power output resulting from evaporation of the fuel in the cylinder. A critical factor in making the most of these advantages is to achieve optimum mixture formation for both stratified and homogeneous charge combustion. To achieve the optimum mixture, the new direct-injection S.I. V-6 engine adopts a piston with a shallow bowl, a valve that changes in-cylinder air motion between swirl and tumble by opening and closing one side of separated air intake port, an air intake port that has optimized inward and port angle to induces swirl in the piston bowl, and a CASTING NET injector that injects the hollow cone spray in a deflected pattern toward the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Absorption into Engine Lubricating Oil

1996-05-01
961229
A method to collect and speciate the components of gasoline absorbed in the lubricant oil using gas chromatography has been developed. Samples were collected continuously from the piston skirt, baffle and sump in a Saturn engine. A long (18 hours) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the sump, and a shorter (25 min) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the piston skirt and baffle during engine warm-up. The first experiment showed that the total hydrocarbon concentration in the sump oil reached a steady state of about 1.35% mass fraction after 11 hours of engine operation. The relative concentration of individual fuel hydrocarbon species absorbed in the oil increases exponentially with boiling point. Most of the identified species in the oil consist of the heavy end aromatics. Similar compositions but lower concentrations were found for samples collected from the piston skirt during engine warm-up.
Technical Paper

3D Vortex Simulation of Intake Flow in a Port-Cylinder with a Valve Seat and a Moving Piston

1996-05-01
961195
A Lagrangian random vortex-boundary element method has been developed for the simulation of unsteady incompressible flow inside three-dimensional domains with time-dependent boundaries, similar to IC engines. The solution method is entirely grid-free in the fluid domain and eliminates the difficult task of volumetric meshing of the complex engine geometry. Furthermore, due to the Lagrangian evaluation of the convective processes, numerical viscosity is virtually removed; thus permitting the direct simulation of flow at high Reynolds numbers. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical methodology is given, followed by an example of induction flow in an off-centered port-cylinder assembly with a harmonically driven piston and a valve seat situated directly below the port. The predicted flow is shown to resemble the flow visualization results of a laboratory experiment, despite the crude approximation used to represent the geometry.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Crevices on the Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions in SI Engines

1994-03-01
940306
To understand the effects of crevices on the engine-out hydrocarbon emissions, a series of engine experiments was carried out with different piston crevice volumes and with simulated head gasket crevices. The engine-out HC level was found to be modestly sensitive to the piston crevice size in both the warmed-up and the cold engines, but more sensitive to the crevice volume in the head gasket region. A substantial decrease in HC in the cold-to-warm-up engine transition was observed and is attributed mostly to the change in port oxidation.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Model of Piston Secondary Motion and Piston Slap in Partially Flooded Elastohydrodynamic Skirt Lubrication

1994-03-01
940696
This paper presents a numerical model of the rotational and lateral dynamics of the piston (secondary motion) and piston slap in mixed lubrication. Piston dynamic behavior, frictional and impact forces are predicted as functions of crank angle. The model considers piston skirt surface waviness, roughness, skirt profile, thermal and mechanical deformations. The model considers partially-flooded skirt and calculates the pressure distributions and friction in the piston skirt region for both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Model predictions are compared with measurements of piston position using gap sensors in a single-cylinder engine and the comparison between theory and measurement shows remarkable agreement.
Technical Paper

Engine Experiments on the Effects of Design and Operational Parameters on Piston Secondary Motion and Piston Slap

1994-03-01
940695
Experiments were done to quantify the dynamic motion of the piston and oil-film during piston impact on the cylinder bore, commonly known as “piston slap.” Parameters measured include engine block vibration, piston-skirt to liner separation, oil-film thickness between the piston and liner, and other engine operating conditions. Experimental parametric studies were performed covering the following: engine operating parameters - spark timing, liner temperature, oil-film thickness, oil type, and engine speed; and engine design parameters - piston-skirt surface waviness, piston-skirt/cylinder-liner clearance, and wrist-pin offset. Two dynamic modes of piston-motion-induced vibration were observed, and effects of changes in engine operating and design parameters were investigated for both types of slap. It was evident that engine design parameters have stronger effects on piston slap intensity, with piston-skirt/liner clearance and wrist-pin offset being the dominant parameters.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Deposit Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-10-01
972887
A dynamometer-mounted four-cylinder Saturn engine was used to accumulate combustion chamber deposits (CCD), using an additized fuel. During each deposit accumulation test, the HC emissions were continuously measured. The deposit thickness at the center of the piston was measured at the beginning of each day. After the 50 and 35-hour tests, HC emissions were measured with isooctane, benzene, toluene, and xylene, with the deposited engine, and again after the deposits had been cleaned from the engine. The HC emissions showed a rapid rise in the first 10 to 15 hours and stabilization after about 25 hours of deposit accumulation. The HC increase due to CCD accumulation accounted for 10 to 20% of the total engine-out HC emissions from the deposit build-up fuel and 10 to 30% from benzene, isooctane, toluene, and xylene, making CCDs a significant HC emissions source from this engine. The HC emissions stabilized long before the deposit thickness.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Piston Ring Friction and Oil Film Thickness Measurements in a Reciprocating Test Rig

1995-10-01
952470
A reciprocating test apparatus was constructed in which the friction of a single piston ring against a liner segment was measured. The lubrication oil film thickness was also measured simultaneously at the mid stroke of the ring travel using a laser fluorescence technique. The apparatus development and operation are described. Results are presented from a test matrix consisting of five different lubrication oils of viscosity (at 30°C) ranging from 49 to 357 cP; at three mean piston speeds of 0.45, 0.89 and 1.34 m/s; and at three ring normal loading of 1.4, 2.9 and 5.7 MPa. At mid stroke, the oil film thickness under the ring was ∼0.5 to 4 μm; the frictional coefficient was ∼0.02 to 0.1. The frictional coefficient for all the lubricants tested increased with normal load, and decreased with piston velocity. Both mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes were observed. The friction behaviors were consistent with the Stribeck diagram.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston-Ring Dynamics on Ring/Groove Wear and Oil Consumption in a Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970835
The wear patterns of the rings and grooves of a diesel engine were analyzed by using a ring dynamics/gas flow model and a ring-pack oil film thickness model. The analysis focused primarily on the contact pressure distribution on the ring sides and grooves as well as on the contact location on the ring running surfaces. Analysis was performed for both new and worn ring/groove profiles. Calculated results are consistent with the measured wear patterns. The effects of groove tilt and static twist on the development of wear patterns on the ring sides, grooves, and ring running surfaces were studied. Ring flutter was observed from the calculation and its effect on oil transport was discussed. Up-scraping of the top ring was studied by considering ring dynamic twist and piston tilt. This work shows that the models used have potential for providing practical guidance to optimizing the ring pack and ring grooves to control wear and reduce oil consumption.
Technical Paper

A Piston Ring-Pack Film Thickness and Friction Model for Multigrade Oils and Rough Surfaces

1996-10-01
962032
A complete one-dimensional mixed lubrication model has been developed to predict oil film thickness and friction of the piston ring-pack. An average flow model and a roughness contact model are used to consider the effects of surface roughness on both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Effects of shear-thinning and liner temperature on lubricant viscosity are included. An inlet condition is applied by considering the unsteady wetting location at the leading edge of the ring. A ‘film non-separation’ exit condition is proposed to replace Reynolds exit condition when the oil squeezing becomes dominant. Three lubrication modes are considered in the model, namely, pure hydrodynamic, mixed, and pure boundary lubrication. All of these considerations are crucial for studying the oil transport, asperity contact, and friction especially in the top dead center (TDC) region where the oil control ring cannot reach.
Technical Paper

Decoupled Design of Cylinder Liner for IC Engines

1991-11-01
911231
Concept of a new decoupled cylinder liner design for internal combustion (IC) engines is presented from the framework of axiomatic design to improve friction and wear characteristics. In the current design, the piston rings fail to satisfy their functional requirements at the two dead centers of the piston stroke where lubrication is poor. It is proposed that by using undulated cylindrical surfaces selectively along the cylinder liner, much of the existing friction and wear problems of IC engines may be solved. The main idea behind undulated surface is to trap wear particles at the piston-cylinder interface in order to minimize plowing, and thus maintain low friction even in areas where lubrication fails to be hydrodynamic. In dry sliding tests using a modified engine motored at low speeds, undulated cylinders operated for significantly longer time than smooth cylinders without catastrophic increase in friction.
Technical Paper

A New Nissan 3.0-liter V-6 Twin-cam Twin-turbo Engine with Dual Intake and Exhaust Systems

1990-02-01
900649
As a new generation sports car engine to lead the field in the 1990s, a 3.0 liter, 60°V, type 6 cylinder, 4 cam, 24 valve engine (VG30DETT) has been developed to achieve the utmost in high performance levels and reliability. it has been mounted on the new model 300ZX and announced in the North America and Japanese markets. The VG30DETT engine is based on the previous VG30DE engine (the engine mounted on the former model 300ZX designed for the market in Japan). The main components, the major driving and the lubrication systems including such parts as the crank shaft,con-rod, cylinder block, piston, exhaust manifold, and oil pan of the VG30DE were thoroughly reviewed and revised. The VG30DETT engine is the result of redesigning the structure of the engine itself and its parts and components to assure durability under, high-level performance requirements.
Technical Paper

Development of a New-Generation High-Performance 4.5-liter V8 Nissan Engine

1990-02-01
900651
This paper describes a new 4.5-liter V8 engine, VH45DE, which was developed for use in the INFINITI Q45 sporty luxury sedan that was released in the U.S. and Japanese markets in November 1989. The many V8 engines in use around the world can be broadly devided into two categories. One category is characterized by ample torque at low engine speed and relatively large engine displacement. The other category is characterized by enhanced performance at relatively high engine speeds. The VH45DE engine is a new-generation V8 powerplant that delivers smooth power output at top-end speed and also generates ample torque at low engine speed to maintain good idle stability, and accomplishes it all with the smallest possible displacement. Development efforts were focused on two main goals. The first was to achieve efficient intake air charging. This has been accomplished the intake air resonant point at a relatively high engine speed through appropriate intake branch and collector tuning.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 12 Valve 4 Cylinder Engine

1988-11-01
881776
The 1.5 1 GA15 engine is a new inline 4 cylinder engine. The GA15 fully meets the major development objectives of sufficient torque at low and middle engine speeds, high power output, good fuel economy and quiet engine operation. Its structure features a compact combustion chamber with a small bore and long stroke, aerodynamic intake ports, a stiff engine cylinder block with a deep skirt and bearing beam, a newly designed silentrunning chaine, and pistons with full floating pins. High quality was achieved by adopting the latest methods in its development: vibration analysis of the assembled engine and transmission, FEM model, rigidity analysis of the cylinder block and head, and analysis of air flow in the intake port and movement of the timing chain.
Technical Paper

M.I.T. Stirling-Cycle Heat Transfer Apparatus

1992-08-03
929465
The paper describes the design and construction of a two cylinder apparatus to measure heat transfer under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating flow such as found in Stirling-cycle machines. The apparatus consists of two large single stage air compressors joined by a rigid drive shaft between the two crank shafts. The compressors are 27.94 cm (11-in) diameter by 22.86 cm (9-in) stroke. The apparatus is powered by a 25 HP variable speed DC motor. Belts and a jack shaft provide wide speed ranges. The test section, which is connected between the compressor cylinders, is a 44.45 mm (1.75-in) diameter tube and about 254 cm (100-in) long. The test section is configured for measuring wall heat flux, and gas pressure as a function of time. An LDV system is being installed for measurement of gas velocity as a function of time and position. A fast response micro thermocouple measures gas temperature as a function of time and position.
Technical Paper

The Possible Role of Surface Tension in the Reduction of Top Ring Drag

1993-10-01
932781
In a small (4.5 KW) diesel engine, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) has been used to produce detailed oil film thickness measurements around the top piston ring and liner near midstroke. The flow is “Newtonian” under the ring in the sense that using a high shear rate viscosity at the liner temperature is appropriate. The geometry corresponds everywhere to that required for a valid Reynolds approximation. Classical boundary conditions are not applicable for the high strain rates (106-107 s-1) under the piston rings of typical modem engines. A new boundary condition is developed to explain the data. The exit surface shear stress is shown to scale with a Marangoni-like (surface tension gradient) effect. By increasing surface tension, it is possible to make substantial reductions in friction for a fixed high shear viscosity.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion Chamber Insulation on the Heat Rejection and Thermal Efficiency of Diesel Engines

1992-02-01
920543
Experiments were conducted with 4-cylinder and single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines to examine the effects of combustion chamber insulation on heat rejection and thermal efficiency. The combustion chamber was insulated by using a silicon nitride piston cavity that was shrink-fitted into a titanium alloy crown. The effect of insulation on heat rejection was examined on the basis of heat release calculations made from cylinder pressure time histories. High-speed photography was used to investigate combustion phenomena. The results showed that heat rejection was influenced by the combustion chamber geometry and swirl ratio and that it was reduced by insulating the combustion chamber. However, because combustion deteriorated, it was not possible to obtain an improvement in thermal efficiency equivalent to the reduction in heat rejection.
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