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Technical Paper

Trends in Vehicle Information Displays in the Multimedia Era

Flat panel displays for automobiles are facing a new era with the development of navigation systems. As navigation systems become more important as driver's assistance devices, development of birds-eye-view and 3D displays continues, as well as improvements for larger display screens and higher mounting positions. In response to the progress of mobile multimedia technologies, demands for larger display screens and larger aspect ratios have been increasing. Significance for improvements to anti-glare features or view angles has increased as they provide better visibility and the increase layout options. The use of human machine information interaction, which interfaces visual, audio and tactile senses, makes it possible to realize safer, more convenient and comfortable multimedia era vehicle
Technical Paper

Analysis of Interior Airflow in a Full-Scale Passenger-Compartment Model Using a Laser-Light-Sheet Method

Flow velocity distributions in the passenger compartment were measured from visualized images of particle flow paths obtained with a full-scale model. The flow paths were visualized using an approach that combined a particle tracing method with a pulse-laser light technique. Air was used as the fluid medium with the full-scale passenger compartment model and water was used as the fluid medium with a one-fourth scale model. A comparison of the results obtained with the two models confirmed that there was good agreement between the flow velocity distributions. Using the full-scale model, measurements were also made of the flow velocity distributions when two dummies were placed in the front-seats.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Deceleration Curve on Dummy Injury Criteria

This paper discusses the influence of variations in the vehicle deceleration curve on dummy injury criteria for a passive seat belt-restrained dummy using MVMA-2D crash victim simulation and sled tests for frontal crash analysis. The MVMA-2D simulation and sled tests verified that the vehicle deceleration curve exhibiting the higher Residual Deformation (RD) produces smaller dummy injury criteria. Also, using MVMA-2D simulation, the peak levels of the first and second waves were changed as parameters to ensure accurate evaluation of the influence of the deceleration curve on dummy injury criteria. Moreover, this paper also discusses Nissan's use of both occupant kinematic simulation and vehicle structural sisulation for frontal crash in the development of its vehicles.
Technical Paper

Automatic Falling Occupant Protecting Net - Preliminary Study

An automatic, falling, occupant-protecting net is being developed for spreading in front of automobile occupants in the time interval between vehicle impact and occupant collision. The device is designed to counteract forward body acceleration and minimize head, neck, and chest injuries. This device was investigated by sled and barrier tests using anthropomorphic dummies. Significant improvements in occupant kinematics and remarkable reduction in head and chest impact force has been observed. Some problems such as whiplash injury await solution but continuing investigation of proposed measures of correction show that they are not insurmountable.
Technical Paper

New Automotive Applications for Liquid Crystal Displays

LCD instrument panels incorporating the following new techniques have been developed and put into practical use. The back illumination using white-light cold cathode discharge tubes, coupled with added dye and twisted nematic LCD panels, represents a liquid crystal display with good visibility and high-quality appearance. In addition, a fast display response time of less than 0.1 seconds at −30°C, and a two-toned display on a single segment have been achieved by the adoption of a heating system and three polarizers.
Technical Paper

Appling CAE to Understand the Causality of Dummy Neck Injury Readings

The progress of computer technology and CAE methodology makes it possible to simulate dummy injury readings in vehicle crash simulations. Dummy neck injuries are generally more difficult to simulate than injuries to other regions such as the head or chest. Accordingly, improving the accuracy of dummy neck injury data is a major concern in frontal occupant safety simulations. This paper describes the use of an advanced airbag modeling methodology to improve the accuracy of dummy neck injury readings. First, the following items incorporated in the advanced airbag model are explained. (1) The Finite Point Method (FPM) is used to simulate the flow of gas. (2) A folding model is applied to simulate the folded condition. (3) The fabric material properties used in the simulation take into account anisotropy in the fiber directions and the nonlinear, hysteresis characteristics of stiffness.
Technical Paper

Application of CAP to Analyze Mechanisms Producing Dummy Injury Readings under U.S. Side Impact Test Conditions

Evaluations of dummy injury readings obtained in regulatory crash tests and new car assessment program tests provide indices for the development of crash safety performance in the process of developing new vehicles. Based on these indices, vehicle body structures and occupant restraint systems are designed to meet the required occupant injury criteria. There are many types of regulatory tests and new car assessment program tests that are conducted to evaluate vehicle safety performance in side impacts. Factoring all of the multiple test configurations into the development of new vehicles requires advanced design capabilities based on a good understanding of the mechanisms producing dummy injury readings. In recent years, advances in computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools and computer processing power have made it possible to run simulations of occupant restraint systems such as side airbags and seatbelts.
Technical Paper

Aircraft In Situ Validation of Hydrometeors and Icing Conditions Inferred by Ground-based NEXRAD Polarimetric Radar

MIT Lincoln Laboratory is tasked by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to investigate the use of the NEXRAD polarimetric radars* for the remote sensing of icing conditions hazardous to aircraft. A critical aspect of the investigation concerns validation that has relied upon commercial airline icing pilot reports and a dedicated campaign of in situ flights in winter storms. During the month of February in 2012 and 2013, the Convair-580 aircraft operated by the National Research Council of Canada was used for in situ validation of snowstorm characteristics under simultaneous observation by NEXRAD radars in Cleveland, Ohio and Buffalo, New York. The most anisotropic and easily distinguished winter targets to dual pol radar are ice crystals.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of Ankle/Foot Injury in Frontal Crashes

Finite element models of human body segments have been developed in recent years. Numerical simulation could be helpful when understanding injury mechanisms and to make injury assessments. In the lower leg injury research in NISSAN, a finite element model of the human ankle/foot is under development. The mesh for the bony part was taken from the original model developed by Beaugonin et al., but was revised by adding soft tissue to reproduce realistic responses. Damping effect in a high speed contact was taken into account by modeling skin and fat in the sole of the foot. The plantar aponeurosis tendon was modeled by nonlinear bar elements connecting the phalanges to the calcaneus. The rigid body connection, which was defined at the toe in the original model for simplicity, was removed and the transverse ligaments were added instead in order to bind the metatarsals and the phalanges. These tendons and ligaments were expected to reproduce a realistic response in compression.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Occupant Motion and Seat Characteristics in Low-Speed Rear Impacts

Sled tests were conducted with some seats which had different characteristics to understand the relationships between occupant motion and seat characteristics in lowspeed rear impacts. The position of the head restraint and the stiffness distribution of the seatback were selected as parameters expressing seat characteristics. Volunteer’s cervical vertebral motions were photographed with an x-ray cineradiographic system at a speed of 90 frames/sec as well as the visible motions of dummy’s and volunteer’s were recorded. The results indicated the head restraint position and upper seatback stiffness influenced occupant motions. Correlations between visible motions, such as ramping-up, retraction and extension, were also analyzed and some correlations were found.
Technical Paper

Impact Simulation of the CFRP Structure for a GT-Car

CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) materials have been extensively used in racing cars because of its high stiffness and lightweight. Recently, car crash safety is becoming increasingly important even for racing cars. CFRP has also a merit on crash safety because it offers the freedom to set the material characteristics where needed and the needless of considering remaining length after the impact. In this analysis, a multi-layered shell material is applied to reproduce the crash characteristics of the CFRP structure. Fundamental crash test data of simple specimens are used to verify the material characteristics of CFRP, and applied to the Crash-Box of a Nissan GT500 racing car. The simulation showed good correlation with the actual test, and the final design was based on these analyses without the need of repeating impact tests.
Technical Paper

Implications of Contingency Planning Support for Weather and Icing Information

A human-centered systems analysis was applied to the adverse aircraft weather encounter problem in order to identify desirable functions of weather and icing information. The importance of contingency planning was identified as emerging from a system safety design methodology as well as from results of other aviation decision-making studies. The relationship between contingency planning support and information on regions clear of adverse weather was investigated in a scenario-based analysis. A rapid prototype example of the key elements in the depiction of icing conditions was developed in a case study, and the implications for the components of the icing information system were articulated.
Technical Paper

Compatibility for Frontal Impact Collisions Between Heavy and Light Cars

Recently, frontal impact compatibility is discussed internationally and various procedures to assess compatibility and various measures to improve compatibility have been proposed. Considering the above, car-to-car tests between a heavy car and a light car were conducted to clarify the effect of homogenizing the front structure on compatibility. Then correlation between the results of the barrier impact tests proposed as the procedures to assess compatibility and the car-to-car test results and the requirements for the assessment procedure were discussed.
Technical Paper

Validation of SID2s Dummy FE-Model and Study of Relation between Design Parameter and Injury

The accuracy of FE (Finite Element) side impact dummy characteristics is important when using FE vehicle model for vehicle development. This study evaluated the response characteristics of FE SID-lls dummy (5TH female) model that was developed by FTSS using FE code PAM-CRASH™. This paper will describe improvements of computational evaluation method and FE dummy model in the sled tests simulated interior. For the various impact conditions, good correlation between FE calculation and the sled test results was obtained.
Technical Paper

Multi-parameter, Multi-objective Optimization of Injury Indexes of Vehicle Crash Models

This paper presents a method for optimizing occupant restraint system parameters in vehicle frontal crashes. Simulation models incorporating restraint systems and dummies are used for predicting injury indexes. A full-scale survey of all of the design parameters related to the injury indexes would require a vast number of simulations. Therefore, the Design of Experiments (DOE) method involving a minimum number of experiments is more realistic. However, dummy behavior often shows discontinuity if the dummy comes in contact with the steering wheel, so it is not predicted well with usual DOE methods. This paper shows how to incorporate such discontinuity in a DOE study and how to optimize the restraint system parameters to reduce occupant injury indexes. It also discusses the feasibility of this method for integrated optimization of 50th percentile and 5th percentile dummies.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Test Procedure for Evaluation of Tripped Rollover Crashes

Rollover crashes have continued to be a source of extensive research into determining both vehicle performance, and occupant restraint capabilities. Prior research has utilized various test procedures, including the FMVSS 208 dolly fixture, as a basis for evaluating vehicle and restraint performance. This research, using 2001 Nissan Pathfinder sport utility vehicles (SUVs), was conducted to update the status of passenger vehicle rollover testing, and evaluate dynamic test repeatability with a new test procedure. A series of eight rollover tests was conducted using these SUV vehicles, mounted on a modified FMVSS 208 rollover dolly fixture, with instrumented dummies in both front seat positions. This test protocol involved launching the vehicles horizontally, after snubbing the dolly fixture, and having the leading-side tires contact curbing for a trip mechanism.
Technical Paper

Real World Accident Analysis of Driver Car-to-Car Intersection Near-Side Impacts: Focus on Impact Location, Impact Angle and Lateral Delta-V

In total, 865 intersection car-to-car crashes (NASS-CDS CY 2004-2014) are analyzed in detail to determine the injury level outcome based on different crash factors, such as delta-V, age, airbag deployment, number of events, impact locations (F,Y,P,Z,D,B-regions based on CDC codes), amount of compartment intrusion and impact angle. A multivariate logistic regression test was performed to predict the probability of MAIS3+ serious injuries using lateral delta-V, location of maximum deformation from B-PLR, age (0: <60/1: ≥60 years), number of events (0: single/ 1: multiple), intrusion (0: <16cm/ 1: ≥16cm), side airbag deployment (yes/no) and direction of impact (0: 9/ 1: 10 o’clock). It is found that direction of impact is one of the significant (p<0.05) parameters and 10 o’clock angle impact has more influence than 9 o’clock perpendicular lateral impact. Frequency of AIS3+ injuries was high in Y-region impact cases.
Journal Article

A Comparison of the NHTSA Research Offset Oblique and Small Overlap Impact Tests and the IIHS Moderate and Small Overlap Tests

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) have both developed crash test methodologies to address frontal collisions in which the vehicle's primary front structure is either partially engaged or not engaged at all. IIHS addresses Small Overlap crashes, cases in which the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure is not engaged, using a rigid static barrier with an overlap of 25% of the vehicle's width at an impact angle of 0°. The Institute's Moderate Overlap partially engages the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure using a deformable static barrier with 40% overlap at a 0° impact angle. The NHTSA has developed two research test methods which use a common moving deformable barrier impacting the vehicle with 20% overlap at a 7° impact angle and 35% overlap at a 15° impact angle respectively.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 2): Evaluation of thermal environment and equivalent temperature in a vehicle cabin

In the previous paper (Part1), measurements of equivalent temperature (teq) by a clothed thermal manikin and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation are discussed. In this paper (Part2), the outline of the proposed mesh-free simulation method is described and the comparisons of teq between calculations and measurements under summer cooling with solar radiation and winter heating without solar radiation conditions in the vehicle cabin are discussed. The key factors to evaluate the teq on each body segment of the clothed thermal manikin under cooling and heating conditions are also discussed. In the mesh-free simulation, even if there are a hole or an unnecessary shape on the CAD model, only a group of points whose density is controlled in the simulation area is generated without modifying the CAD model. Therefore, the fluid mesh required by conventional CFD code is not required and the analysis load is greatly reduced.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 1): Measurement of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin and Development of a Numerical Thermal Manikin

Present paper is Part 1 of two consecutive studies. Part 1 describes three subjects: definition of equivalent temperature (teq), measurements of teq by a clothed thermal manikin in a vehicle cabin, and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation. After describing the definition of teq, a measurement method of teq by a clothed thermal manikin was examined. This study proposed two techniques: definition of total heat transfer coefficient between skin and environment in a standard environment (hcal) based on thermal insulation of clothing (Icl), and measurement method of Icl in consideration of area factor (fcl), which indicates the ratio of clothing surface to manikin surface area. Then teq was measured in an actual vehicle cabin by the proposed method under two conditions: cooling with solar radiation, and heating without solar radiation. The results showed that proper teq, including the effects of air temperature, air velocity and radiation, was measured.