Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Aggregate Vehicle Emission Estimates for Evaluating Control Strategies

1994-03-01
940303
Currently, states that are out of compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards must, according to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), develop and implement control strategies that demonstrate specific degrees of reduction in emissions-with the degree of reduction depending upon the severity of the problem. One tool that has been developed to aid regulators in both deciding an appropriate course of action and to demonstrate the desired reductions in mobile emissions is EPA's Mobile 5a emission estimation model. In our study, Mobile 5a has been used to examine the effects of regulatory strategies, as applied to the Northeast United States, on vehicle emissions under worst-case ozone-forming conditions.
Technical Paper

Novel Experiment on In-Cylinder Desorption of Fuel from the Oil Layer

1994-10-01
941963
A technique has been developed to measure the desorption and subsequent oxidation of fuel in the oil layer by spiking the oil with liquid fuel and firing the engine on gaseous fuel or motoring with air. Experiments suggest that fuel desorption is not diffusion limited above 50 °C and indicated that approximately two to four percent of the cylinder oil layer is fresh oil from the sump. The increase in hydrocarbon emissions is of the order of 100 ppmC1 per 1% liquid fuel introduced into the fresh oil in a methane fired engine at mid-speed and light load conditions. Calculations indicate that fuel desorbing from oil is much more likely to produce hydrocarbon emissions than fuel emerging from crevices.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Speed Steel Based Sintered Material for High Performance Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts

1998-02-23
980328
The demands on valve seat insert materials, in terms of providing greater wear-resistance at higher temperatures, enhanced machinability and using non-environmentally hazardous materials at a reasonably low cost have intensified in recent years. Due therefore to these strong demands in the market, research was made into the possibility of producing a new valve seat insert material. As a result a high speed steel based new improved material was developed, which satisfies the necessary required demands and the evaluation trials, using actual gasoline engine endurance tests, were found to be very successful.
Technical Paper

Trends in Vehicle Information Displays in the Multimedia Era

1998-10-19
98C035
Flat panel displays for automobiles are facing a new era with the development of navigation systems. As navigation systems become more important as driver's assistance devices, development of birds-eye-view and 3D displays continues, as well as improvements for larger display screens and higher mounting positions. In response to the progress of mobile multimedia technologies, demands for larger display screens and larger aspect ratios have been increasing. Significance for improvements to anti-glare features or view angles has increased as they provide better visibility and the increase layout options. The use of human machine information interaction, which interfaces visual, audio and tactile senses, makes it possible to realize safer, more convenient and comfortable multimedia era vehicle
Technical Paper

Development of Side Impact Air Bag System for Head and Chest Protection

1998-05-31
986165
Most of the side impact air bag systems in the current market are designed to protect the thorax area only. The new Head and Thorax SRS Side Impact Air Bag system, which Nissan recently introduced into the market, was designed to help provide additional protection for the head in certain side impacts. The system may help protect occupant head contacts when the vehicle collides into a tree, or the high hood of a large striking vehicle. This paper introduces the additional features and function of the new Head and Thorax SRS Side Impact Air Bag system, and some evaluation results in laboratory testing.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Compound Fuel and Fluorescent Tracer Combination for Use with Laser Induced Fluorescence

1995-10-01
952465
Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a useful method for visualizing the distribution of the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber. The way this method is applied mainly depends on the fluorescent tracer used, such as biacetyl, toluene, various aldehydes, fluoranthene or diethylketone, among others. Gasoline strongly absorbs light in the UV region, for example, at the 248-nm wavelength of broadband KrF excimer laser radiation. Therefore, when using this type of laser, iso-octane is employed as the fuel because it is transparent to 248-nm UV light. However, since the distillation curves of iso-octane and gasoline are different, it can be expected that their vaporization characteristics in the intake port and cylinder would also be different. The aim of this study was to find a better fuel for use with LIF at a broadband wavelength of 248 nm. Three tasks were undertaken in this study.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Vehicle Frontal Crash Phenomena

1992-02-01
920357
Recent years have seen remarkable advances in the development and diffusion of numerical analysis techniques using the finite element method for examining vehicle crashworthiness. The importance of numerical analysis in vehicle development work has also increased. One reason for this is that the use of numerical analysis makes it possible to study crash phenomena in detail based on calculated data which can not be obtained experimentally. In this study, the non-linear dynamic finite element program PAM-CRASH was applied to a vehicle frontal crash simulation to calculate the body deformation modes, the force transmitted at different sections of the body structure and the internal energy accumulation of each component. The results obtained provide a quantitative explanation of the deformation mechanism of the body structure.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Interior Airflow in a Full-Scale Passenger-Compartment Model Using a Laser-Light-Sheet Method

1992-02-01
920206
Flow velocity distributions in the passenger compartment were measured from visualized images of particle flow paths obtained with a full-scale model. The flow paths were visualized using an approach that combined a particle tracing method with a pulse-laser light technique. Air was used as the fluid medium with the full-scale passenger compartment model and water was used as the fluid medium with a one-fourth scale model. A comparison of the results obtained with the two models confirmed that there was good agreement between the flow velocity distributions. Using the full-scale model, measurements were also made of the flow velocity distributions when two dummies were placed in the front-seats.
Technical Paper

Front-End Airflow Rate Simulation

1988-11-01
881748
Front-end airflow predictions are generally carried out at the styling stage in the development process for vehicle cooling systems. These predictions have taken on increasing importance in recent years in studying the heat radiation capacities of the radiator. This paper presents a method for simulating front-end airflow rates. Two- and three-dimensional front-end airflow simulations are iirst analyzed experimentally. A technique for predicting a three-dimensional airflow from a numerical analysis of a two-dimensional airflow is then examined, and a comparison is made with actual vehicle data. A sample application of this simulation method is presented and a comparison is made with experimental data. Good quantitative agreement is seen between the calculated and experimental results. This paper also discusses the present status of three-dimensional analysis which is expected to become a major trend in the future.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Deceleration Curve on Dummy Injury Criteria

1988-02-01
880612
This paper discusses the influence of variations in the vehicle deceleration curve on dummy injury criteria for a passive seat belt-restrained dummy using MVMA-2D crash victim simulation and sled tests for frontal crash analysis. The MVMA-2D simulation and sled tests verified that the vehicle deceleration curve exhibiting the higher Residual Deformation (RD) produces smaller dummy injury criteria. Also, using MVMA-2D simulation, the peak levels of the first and second waves were changed as parameters to ensure accurate evaluation of the influence of the deceleration curve on dummy injury criteria. Moreover, this paper also discusses Nissan's use of both occupant kinematic simulation and vehicle structural sisulation for frontal crash in the development of its vehicles.
Technical Paper

Study on Air Bag Systems for Nissan Small-Sized Cars

1974-02-01
740577
This paper outlines the most important characteristics of the practical type air bag now being developed by Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. It explains the results of various occupant protection tests conducted at 16 to 64 km/h (10 to 40 mph) speeds, and the related problems we have encountered. It further discusses the effects of several type of occupant protection systems installed on small-sized cars and the relationships between those effects and limited crash speeds. An examination and analysis of air bag performance test results is also included. Despite all efforts made, there yet remain several problems to be solved. For example, (a) in high-speed collisions it is difficult to reduce femur load by means of air bag systems alone; (b) passengers such as three-year-old infants and 5th percentile female adults display a tendency toward submarining: (c) when the environmental temperature is extremely low, it is difficult for the air bag to meet the MVSS Occupant Protection Requirements.
Technical Paper

Small Car Safety and Esv Specifications

1972-01-01
726039
Nissan's Experimental Safety Vehicle is a small-sized passenger car. "Small-sized" means small in overall dimensions and light weight. Differences between the Japanese 2,500 pound ESV and the 4,000 pound ESV specifications are outlined. This paper discusses small car safety and ESV specifications
Technical Paper

On Crashworthiness of Nissan ESV

1974-02-01
740208
It is very difficult for small cars to protect occupants in high-speed collisions. The Nissan ESV is of lightweight monocoque construction, and its body possesses crashworthiness designed to match the occupant protection system. This vehicle has experimentally proved to be effective in occupant protection. This paper primarily deals with the most difficult problem of crashworthiness in frontal collisions, first referring to the basic analyses and test results acquired in the development process, and then setting forth the body construction and test results of the two types of Nissan ESV (E1 and E2).
Technical Paper

Automatic Falling Occupant Protecting Net - Preliminary Study

1970-02-01
700452
An automatic, falling, occupant-protecting net is being developed for spreading in front of automobile occupants in the time interval between vehicle impact and occupant collision. The device is designed to counteract forward body acceleration and minimize head, neck, and chest injuries. This device was investigated by sled and barrier tests using anthropomorphic dummies. Significant improvements in occupant kinematics and remarkable reduction in head and chest impact force has been observed. Some problems such as whiplash injury await solution but continuing investigation of proposed measures of correction show that they are not insurmountable.
Technical Paper

A Study of Laser Radar

1985-01-01
856036
Various radar systems have been proposed as collision avoidance sensors for automatic braking and warning applications. Practical use of laser radar systems is near with the introduction of high power, high reliability laser diodes. Utilizing these new devices, a laser radar system has been adapted for measuring the distance to objects in its path. It was first shown that reflectors on the rear of the automobile possess high reflectivity and sharp directivity. Given these characteristics, a compact laser radar system was tested that employed 12W laser diodes and PIN photodiodes. The maximum range of approximately 100 m was obtained. Furthermore, the ability to discriminate other vehicles from roadside objects was achieved by detecting discontinuity in measured distance data through a microprocessor. These results show that the performance of laser radar is comparable to that of microwave radar.
Technical Paper

Radiation Noise Due to Longitudinal Vibration of the Exhaust Pipe

1985-11-11
852266
The front exhaust pipe and the heat-shield plate of the catalytic converter are excited by the engine vibration. Noise radiation occurs on their surface. Concerning vehicle exterior noise, noise radiated from the exhaust system is often one of major sources as well as engine and exhaust noise. This paper describes the longitudinal vibration model-as a beam-is applied to the high frequency vibration that causes the noise radiated from the exhaust system. It describes also some methods of reducing such noise radiation by isolating the vibration from the front exhaust pipe. These methods are: adding mass to the front pipe, changing the material of the front pipe to a smaller Young's modulus one, installing flexible pipe composed by two sections, and so on.
Technical Paper

New Automotive Applications for Liquid Crystal Displays

1984-02-01
840144
LCD instrument panels incorporating the following new techniques have been developed and put into practical use. The back illumination using white-light cold cathode discharge tubes, coupled with added dye and twisted nematic LCD panels, represents a liquid crystal display with good visibility and high-quality appearance. In addition, a fast display response time of less than 0.1 seconds at −30°C, and a two-toned display on a single segment have been achieved by the adoption of a heating system and three polarizers.
Technical Paper

Appling CAE to Understand the Causality of Dummy Neck Injury Readings

2011-04-12
2011-01-1069
The progress of computer technology and CAE methodology makes it possible to simulate dummy injury readings in vehicle crash simulations. Dummy neck injuries are generally more difficult to simulate than injuries to other regions such as the head or chest. Accordingly, improving the accuracy of dummy neck injury data is a major concern in frontal occupant safety simulations. This paper describes the use of an advanced airbag modeling methodology to improve the accuracy of dummy neck injury readings. First, the following items incorporated in the advanced airbag model are explained. (1) The Finite Point Method (FPM) is used to simulate the flow of gas. (2) A folding model is applied to simulate the folded condition. (3) The fabric material properties used in the simulation take into account anisotropy in the fiber directions and the nonlinear, hysteresis characteristics of stiffness.
Technical Paper

Anthropometric and Blood Flow Characteristics Leading to EVA Hand Injury

2009-07-12
2009-01-2471
The aim of this study was to explore if fingernail delamination injury following EMU glove use may be caused by compression-induced blood flow occlusion in the finger. During compression tests, finger blood flow decreased more than 60%, however this occurred more rapidly for finger pad compression (4 N) than for fingertips (10 N). A pressure bulb compression test resulted in 50% and 45% decreased blood flow at 100 mmHg and 200 mmHg, respectively. These results indicate that the finger pad pressure required to articulate stiff gloves is more likely to contribute to injury than the fingertip pressure associated with tight fitting gloves.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Method for Predicting the Risk of Crossing-Collisions at Intersection

2008-04-14
2008-01-0524
The probability or risk of traffic accidents must be estimated quantitatively in order to implement effective traffic safety measures. In this study, various statistical data and probability theory were used to examine a method for predicting the risk of crossing-collisions, representing a typical type of accident at intersections in Japan. Crossing-collisions are caused by a variety of factors, including the road geometry and traffic environment at intersections and the awareness and intentions of the drivers of the striking and struck vehicles. Bayes' theorem was applied to find the accident probability of each factor separately. Specifically, the probability of various factors being present at the time of a crossing-collision was estimated on the basis of traffic accident data and observation survey data.
X