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Technical Paper

Estimation of the Maximum Load Applied to Automotive Carburized Gears Using an Acoustic Emission Technique

1995-02-01
950668
A study was made of the possibility of using an acoustic emission (AE) technique to estimate the maximum load applied to automotive carburized gears under actual operating conditions. Three-point bending tests done on carburized steel specimens showed that, provided a small crack was induced in the material, AE was not generated until the material was subjected to a higher bending load than the maximum load previously applied. Using this effect, the maximum load applied to gears, in which a crack had been induced during endurance testing, was estimated. Although the estimated maximum load was about 14% higher than the actual load, the AE technique appears to be a promising method for use in the design and durability assurance of carburized parts of automotive powertrains.
Technical Paper

Aggregate Vehicle Emission Estimates for Evaluating Control Strategies

1994-03-01
940303
Currently, states that are out of compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards must, according to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), develop and implement control strategies that demonstrate specific degrees of reduction in emissions-with the degree of reduction depending upon the severity of the problem. One tool that has been developed to aid regulators in both deciding an appropriate course of action and to demonstrate the desired reductions in mobile emissions is EPA's Mobile 5a emission estimation model. In our study, Mobile 5a has been used to examine the effects of regulatory strategies, as applied to the Northeast United States, on vehicle emissions under worst-case ozone-forming conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lubricant for Retrofitting Automotive Air Conditioners for Use with HFC-134a

1994-03-01
940594
This paper presents a new refrigeration lubricant for use with the HFC-134a retrofit refrigerant in automotive air-conditioning systems originally designed to use the CFC-12 refrigerant, one of the regulated CFCs scheduled to be phased out. This new retrofit lubricant provides high lubricity and excellent performance characteristics as a result of adopting a newly developed PAG base oil with a block polymer structure and a new antiwear additive formulation. In retrofit systems, it assures sufficient durability for wobble-plate-type variable displacement compressors, which experience severe lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Improved Metal-Supported Catalyst

1989-02-01
890188
A compact, high-performance and durable metal-supported catalyst has been developed by using the properties of the metal support effectively. The advantages of the metal-surpported catalyst against the ceramic-supported one are higher geometrical surface area, higher heat conductivity and thinner wall thickness. Higher geometlical surface area and higher heat conductivity lead to higher conversion efficiency after durability test and it allows reduction in catalyst volume. And the thinner wall thickness lowers gas flow resistance. But also, the metal-supported catalyst has the disadvantage of larger heat expansion and it requires special structure and material.
Technical Paper

A Study of Technology for Assembling Vehicle Endurance Reliability

1991-09-01
911924
The ways in which vehicles are used in the field are continually becoming more diverse. In order to provide the optimum solution with respect to performance and weight, it is necessary to be able to assure vehicle endurance reliability with a high degree of accuracy in relation to the manner of use in each market. This situation has increased the importance of accurately quantifying the ways in which vehicles are used in the field and of designing vehicles with sufficient endurance reliability to match the usage requirements. This report presents a “market model” by which the manner of usage in the field can be treated quantitatively using combinations of environmental factors that influence the road load, drive load and corrosion load, representing typical loads vehicles must withstand.
Technical Paper

A Method for Predicting Connecting Rod Bearings Reliability Based on Seizure and Wear Analysis

1988-02-01
880568
Maintaining reliability of the connecting rod bearing is a very important subject, and the following is a problem that needs to be overcome. Predicting reliability has generally depended on minimum oil film thickness (M.O.F.T), but recently, the engines of passenger cars which have greater power and speed potential than conventional ones are sometimes run beyond their M.O.F.T. limit (a degree of roughness around the crank shaft's axis.) In such a case, it is so difficult to predict reliability according to M.O.F.T., that we need a new index which directly shows seizure and wear. For this purpose, we found that the crank shaft pin temperature can be a key cause of seizure and wear according to an analysis of the relationship between its temperature and the seizure and wear caused intentionally. Using this method, we confirmed that the combination of bearing and crank shaft materials is very important for preventing seizure and wear.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Evaluation Methods of Light Durability Degradation Environments through Meteorological Observation

1987-11-08
871298
Methods to evaluate the light degradation environment of automotive interior materials in the market have been studied. The aim for this study was calculating the light degradation environment quantitatively on the basis of meteorologically observed value. For the quantitative light degradation factor, Equivalent Total Sunshing Energy (ESE) was used. ESE was a value presented by the authors in 1982. Although ESE correlates closely with the degradation, it takes more than one year to determine at a given resion. With this new method, a monthly average daily ESE at the gien resion was estimated numetically based on the meteorologically observed monthly average solar radiation and monthly maximum air temperature at the resion. The calculated value in relation to actual measured value were accurate to within 10%.
Technical Paper

An Automatic Sealing Robot System for Cars

1987-11-08
871258
Car rust has been a big problem. To improve the effectiveness of rustproofing, car materials and some methods are being developed. Sealing the seams of body panels is one important method. But the sealing operation is a difficult process and it is not easy to maintain quality standards for workmen and automatized systems. To overcome this problem, we developed an automatic robot sealing system with following features: 1. The system can be easily installed on an existing conveyor and follows the line conveyor in synchronization during sealing operation. 2. Small robots can cover wide area inside the vihecle. 3. New sealant supply controllers can regurate the supply rate in response to speed and motion of robots with a high accuracy. This system has already been installed in the Murayma plant and has proved successful in achieving a high quality sealing result.
Technical Paper

Development of a Ball Bearing Turbocharger

1990-02-01
900125
Nissan has added ball bearings to its “High-flow Ceramic Turbocharger”(1) (introduced in 1987) to improve acceleration response by reducing friction loss. The following programs were carried out in applying ball bearings to the turbocharger: Optimum bearing size and material were selected to assure long life; lubrication techniques were employed to achieve compatibility between acceleration response and durability; a thrust support system was designed to assure that the ball bearings endure thrust load which varies in direction and magnitude during engine operation; and the squeeze film damper was optimized to keep the turbocharger silent. These innovations have resulted in a practical ball-bearing turbocharger, which has been installed in Nissan's most recent Skyline model(released in May 1989). This is the first time a ball-bearing turbocharger has been applied to a passenger car.
Technical Paper

Small Engine - Concept Emission Vehicles

1971-02-01
710296
Three Japanese automobile manufacturers-Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., and Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd.-have been making efforts over the past three years to design and develop effective thermal reactor-exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter systems suitable for small engines. The work is being done by members participating in the IIEC (Inter-Industry Emission Control) Program, and the exhaust emission levels of the concept vehicles developed by these companies have met the goal established by the IIEC Program at low mileage. Each system, however, has a characteristic relationship between exhaust emission level and loss of fuel economy. Much investigation is required, particularly with respect to durability, before any system that will fully satisfy all service requirements can be completed. This paper reports the progress of research and development of the individual concept vehicles.
Technical Paper

Positioning System with Vision Sensor for Automatic Arc Welding

1986-02-01
860607
This report describes an arc-welding robot system with a vision sensor which Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. has introduced to automate the arc welding line for truck frames. Developed in-house, this system is now in operation on the arc welding line for Nissan Truck frames at Nissan's Kyushu plant. In developing the system, primary emphasis was placed on assuring practicality and high reliability. Included among the prominent features of the system is the capability to detect the welding line of thin panels with a high degree of accuracy and to calculate corrections when needed. To assure the high speed and reliability needed for the production line, the robot and sensor are separated, and the vision sensors are placed at fixed positions. Detection of the welding line and transmission of data to the robots to correct their positions are completed just prior to welding, so as to avoid the effects of noise and the arc flash during welding.
Technical Paper

Structural Changes in the World Auto Companies: The Emerging Japanese Role

1982-02-01
820444
Japan’s recent dominance of the international auto industry does not result from some major single factor, such as technological superiority or advanced automation. It derives from twenty years of building flexible, durable industrial systems integrating assemblers, suppliers, and related companies. Current competitive advantages result from combinations of seemingly unrelated company, government, and labor practices. Japan’s position of leadership will instigate major changes in international labor forces, corporate strategies, and government policies, as former auto powers adapt to new competition, and simultaneous shifts in energy and economics.
Technical Paper

Road-load Input Contribution Analysis for Suspension Durability using a Multi-axial Road Simulator

2008-04-14
2008-01-1482
The durability test with road-load input is necessary for evaluating durability of body and chassis structure in automotive applications. This paper shows the method to analyze road-load input to a suspension system for development of a simple component level bench test. This method enables the extraction of the essential inputs to evaluate the durability of suspension parts using the transfer function (frequency response function) measured by Multi-axial Road Simulator and wheel force transducers. These extracted inputs contribute to development of a new realistic component bench test.
Technical Paper

Development of HMI and Telematics Systems for a Reliable and Attractive Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0554
This paper describes the HMI, navigation and telematics systems developed specifically for the Nissan LEAF electric vehicle to dispel drivers' anxieties about operating an EV. Drivers of EVs will need to understand various new kinds of information about the vehicle's operational status that differ from conventional gasoline-engine vehicles. Additionally, owing to the current driving range of EVs and limited availability of charging stations, drivers will want to know acccurate the remaining driving range, amount of power and the latest information about charging station locations. It will also be important to ensure that people unfamiliar with EVs will be able to operate them easily as rental cars or in car-sharing systems without experiencing any inconvenience.
Technical Paper

The Study of Friction between Piston Ring and Different Cylinder Liners using Floating Liner Engine - Part 1

2012-04-16
2012-01-1334
The objective of this work was to develop an experimental system to support development and validation of a model for the lubrication of two-piece Twin-Land-Oil-Control-Rings (hereafter mentioned as TLOCR). To do so, a floating liner engine was modified by opening the head and crankcase. Additionally, only TLOCR was installed together with a piston that has 100 micron cold clearance to minimize the contribution of the skirt to total friction. Friction traces, FMEP trend, and repeatability have been examined to guarantee the reliability of the experiment results. Then, engine speed, liner temperature, ring tension, and land widths were changed in a wide range to ensure all three lubrication regimes were covered in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Development of a Small Pitch Silent Chain for a Single-Stage Cam Drive System

1999-03-01
1999-01-1226
In contrast to the conventional two-stage cam drive system with a 9.52- mm pitch roller chain, a newly developed silent chain with a 6.35-mm pitch has made it possible to achieve a single-stage system. One traditional drawback of silent chains has been wear elongation. In developing the new chain, reliability was substantially improved by identifying the factors causing wear elongation and their effects and also by optimizing the characteristics of the chain components. The application of this single-stage cam drive system to the new QG engine series has resulted in reduced chain noise, a more compact cylinder head and significant weight savings due to the smaller part count and other improvements.
Technical Paper

Introduction of Functional Periodicity to Prevent Long-Term Failure Mechanism

2006-04-03
2006-01-1203
One of the goals of designing engineering systems is to maximize the system's reliability. A reliable system must satisfy its functional requirements without failure throughout its intended lifecycle. The typical means to achieve a desirable level of reliability is through preventive maintenance of a system; however, this involves cost. A more fundamental approach to the problem is to maximize the system's reliability by preventing failures from occurring. A key question is to find mechanisms (and the means to implement them into a system) that will prevent its system range from going out of the design range. Functional periodicity is a means to achieve this goal. Three examples are discussed to illustrate the concept. In the new electrical connector design, it is the geometric functional periodicity provided by the woven wire structure. In the case of integrated manufacturing systems, it is the periodicity in scheduling of the robot motion.
Technical Paper

Development of a New HC-Adsorption Three-Way Catalyst System for Partial-ZEV Performance

2003-05-19
2003-01-1861
This paper describes a newly developed HC-adsorption three-way catalyst and adsorption system that reduce cold-start HC emissions with high efficiency. This system is the first of its kind anywhere in the world to be implemented on production vehicles. An overview is given of the various improvements made to achieve higher cold-start HC conversion efficiency. Improvement of conversion performance was accomplished by (1) increasing the thermal stability of the HC adsorbent, (2) improving desorbed HC conversion efficiency and durability and (3) optimizing the geometric surface area (GSA) of the substrate. Concretely, the thermal stability of the adsorbent was improved by enhancing the high-temperature durability of zeolite. Improvement of desorbed HC conversion efficiency was accomplished by improving the OSC material so as to match the temperature rise characteristic and usage temperature of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

The Mars Gravity Biosatellite: Innovations in Murine Motion Analysis and Life Support

2005-07-11
2005-01-2788
The MIT-based Mars Gravity Biosatellite payload engineering team has been engaged in designing and prototyping sensor and control systems for deployment within the rodent housing zone of the satellite, including novel video processing and atmospheric management tools. The video module will be a fully autonomous real-time analysis system that takes raw video footage of the specimen mice as input and distills those parameters which are of primary physiological importance from a scientific research perspective. Such signals include activity level, average velocity and rearing behavior, all of which will serve as indicators of animal health and vestibular function within the artificial gravity environment. Unlike raw video, these parameters require minimal storage space and can be readily transmitted to earth over a radio link of very low bandwidth.
Technical Paper

Reliable Processes of Simulating Liner Roughness and Its Lubrication Properties

2019-04-02
2019-01-0178
Topology of liner finish is critical to the performance of internal combustion engines. Proper liner finish simulation processes lead to efficient engine design and research. Fourier methods have been well studied to numerically generate liner topology. However, three major issues wait to be addressed to make the generation processes feasible and reliable. First, in order to simulate real plateau honed liners, approaches should be developed to calculate accurate liner geometric parameters. These parameters are served as the input of the generation algorithm. Material ratio curve, the common geometry calculation method, should be modified so that accurate root mean square of plateau height distribution could be obtained. Second, the set of geometric parameters used in generating liner finish (ISO 13565-2) is different from the set of parameters used in manufacturing industry (ISO 13565-3). Quantitative relations between these two sets should be studied.
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