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Technical Paper

Aggregate Vehicle Emission Estimates for Evaluating Control Strategies

Currently, states that are out of compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards must, according to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), develop and implement control strategies that demonstrate specific degrees of reduction in emissions-with the degree of reduction depending upon the severity of the problem. One tool that has been developed to aid regulators in both deciding an appropriate course of action and to demonstrate the desired reductions in mobile emissions is EPA's Mobile 5a emission estimation model. In our study, Mobile 5a has been used to examine the effects of regulatory strategies, as applied to the Northeast United States, on vehicle emissions under worst-case ozone-forming conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Side Impact Air Bag System for Head and Chest Protection

Most of the side impact air bag systems in the current market are designed to protect the thorax area only. The new Head and Thorax SRS Side Impact Air Bag system, which Nissan recently introduced into the market, was designed to help provide additional protection for the head in certain side impacts. The system may help protect occupant head contacts when the vehicle collides into a tree, or the high hood of a large striking vehicle. This paper introduces the additional features and function of the new Head and Thorax SRS Side Impact Air Bag system, and some evaluation results in laboratory testing.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Vehicle Frontal Crash Phenomena

Recent years have seen remarkable advances in the development and diffusion of numerical analysis techniques using the finite element method for examining vehicle crashworthiness. The importance of numerical analysis in vehicle development work has also increased. One reason for this is that the use of numerical analysis makes it possible to study crash phenomena in detail based on calculated data which can not be obtained experimentally. In this study, the non-linear dynamic finite element program PAM-CRASH was applied to a vehicle frontal crash simulation to calculate the body deformation modes, the force transmitted at different sections of the body structure and the internal energy accumulation of each component. The results obtained provide a quantitative explanation of the deformation mechanism of the body structure.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Deceleration Curve on Dummy Injury Criteria

This paper discusses the influence of variations in the vehicle deceleration curve on dummy injury criteria for a passive seat belt-restrained dummy using MVMA-2D crash victim simulation and sled tests for frontal crash analysis. The MVMA-2D simulation and sled tests verified that the vehicle deceleration curve exhibiting the higher Residual Deformation (RD) produces smaller dummy injury criteria. Also, using MVMA-2D simulation, the peak levels of the first and second waves were changed as parameters to ensure accurate evaluation of the influence of the deceleration curve on dummy injury criteria. Moreover, this paper also discusses Nissan's use of both occupant kinematic simulation and vehicle structural sisulation for frontal crash in the development of its vehicles.
Technical Paper

On Crashworthiness of Nissan ESV

It is very difficult for small cars to protect occupants in high-speed collisions. The Nissan ESV is of lightweight monocoque construction, and its body possesses crashworthiness designed to match the occupant protection system. This vehicle has experimentally proved to be effective in occupant protection. This paper primarily deals with the most difficult problem of crashworthiness in frontal collisions, first referring to the basic analyses and test results acquired in the development process, and then setting forth the body construction and test results of the two types of Nissan ESV (E1 and E2).
Technical Paper

A Study of a Method for Predicting the Risk of Crossing-Collisions at Intersection

The probability or risk of traffic accidents must be estimated quantitatively in order to implement effective traffic safety measures. In this study, various statistical data and probability theory were used to examine a method for predicting the risk of crossing-collisions, representing a typical type of accident at intersections in Japan. Crossing-collisions are caused by a variety of factors, including the road geometry and traffic environment at intersections and the awareness and intentions of the drivers of the striking and struck vehicles. Bayes' theorem was applied to find the accident probability of each factor separately. Specifically, the probability of various factors being present at the time of a crossing-collision was estimated on the basis of traffic accident data and observation survey data.
Technical Paper

Real World Injury Patterns in Narrow Object Frontal Crashes: An Analysis of US Field Data

Analyses were performed using field data for belted drivers of light vehicles in frontal crashes to examine the frequency and severity of frontal crashes with narrow objects. This study examined the distribution of injuries by body region, crash severity, and single- versus multiple-vehicle crashes for narrow object and all other crashes. Factors influencing injuries in different types of frontal crashes were identified, and risk of injury to belted drivers in narrow object crashes versus other frontal crashes was examined. A detailed review of about 400 NASS cases involving narrow object crashes was also performed. Results indicate frontal crashes involving impact with poles, posts, or trees are relatively infrequent. Overall, the fatal risk for belted drivers is lower in narrow object crashes than in other types of frontal crashes.
Technical Paper

Application of CAP to Analyze Mechanisms Producing Dummy Injury Readings under U.S. Side Impact Test Conditions

Evaluations of dummy injury readings obtained in regulatory crash tests and new car assessment program tests provide indices for the development of crash safety performance in the process of developing new vehicles. Based on these indices, vehicle body structures and occupant restraint systems are designed to meet the required occupant injury criteria. There are many types of regulatory tests and new car assessment program tests that are conducted to evaluate vehicle safety performance in side impacts. Factoring all of the multiple test configurations into the development of new vehicles requires advanced design capabilities based on a good understanding of the mechanisms producing dummy injury readings. In recent years, advances in computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools and computer processing power have made it possible to run simulations of occupant restraint systems such as side airbags and seatbelts.
Technical Paper

Effective Numerical Simulation Tool for Real-World Rollover Accidents by Combining PC-Crash and FEA

With SUVs and minivans accounting for a larger share of the US market in the past decade, rollover accidents have drawn greater attention, leading to more active research from different perspectives. This ranges from investigations for elucidating the basic causes and mechanisms of rollover accidents to studies of more advanced occupant protection measures. As the phenomenon of a rollover accident is longer in duration than frontal, side or rear impacts, it is relatively difficult [1] to simulate such accidents for experimental verification and also for proper evaluation of occupant restraint system performance. In this work, we focused on the trip-over type, which occurs most frequently, and performed simulations to reproduce real-world rollover accidents by combining PC-Crash and FEA.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of Ankle/Foot Injury in Frontal Crashes

Finite element models of human body segments have been developed in recent years. Numerical simulation could be helpful when understanding injury mechanisms and to make injury assessments. In the lower leg injury research in NISSAN, a finite element model of the human ankle/foot is under development. The mesh for the bony part was taken from the original model developed by Beaugonin et al., but was revised by adding soft tissue to reproduce realistic responses. Damping effect in a high speed contact was taken into account by modeling skin and fat in the sole of the foot. The plantar aponeurosis tendon was modeled by nonlinear bar elements connecting the phalanges to the calcaneus. The rigid body connection, which was defined at the toe in the original model for simplicity, was removed and the transverse ligaments were added instead in order to bind the metatarsals and the phalanges. These tendons and ligaments were expected to reproduce a realistic response in compression.
Technical Paper

An Application of CAP (Computer-Aided Principle) to Structural Design for Vehicle Crash Safety

The Computer-Aided Principle (CAP) is applied in this study as an effective approach to the crashworthiness design of the vehicle front-end structure. With this method, correlative parameters are extracted in a parametric study by using a cluster analysis. The results can help engineers to understand the fundamental mechanisms of structural phenomena. A simulation example of an offset frontal crash against a deformable barrier (ODB) is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Technical Paper

New Design Support Approach CAP (Computer Aided Principle) and an Application to Structural Design for Vehicle Crash Safety

The authors have proposed a new method to identify the important information which links to the basic principle of the design's physical behavior by using CAE technology, and this method was named as CAP (Computer-Aided Principle).This method can help the engineers to grasp the basic physical characteristic that governs the first-order behavior. In this study, the authors applied CAP to the simulations of the design of frontal crash phenomena, which are difficult to understand because of the problem of strong nonlinearity, and explored the possibilities for using CAP. The correlative physical parameters thus obtained can help designers to understand the essence of the phenomena involved.
Technical Paper

Compatibility for Frontal Impact Collisions Between Heavy and Light Cars

Recently, frontal impact compatibility is discussed internationally and various procedures to assess compatibility and various measures to improve compatibility have been proposed. Considering the above, car-to-car tests between a heavy car and a light car were conducted to clarify the effect of homogenizing the front structure on compatibility. Then correlation between the results of the barrier impact tests proposed as the procedures to assess compatibility and the car-to-car test results and the requirements for the assessment procedure were discussed.
Technical Paper

Validation of SID2s Dummy FE-Model and Study of Relation between Design Parameter and Injury

The accuracy of FE (Finite Element) side impact dummy characteristics is important when using FE vehicle model for vehicle development. This study evaluated the response characteristics of FE SID-lls dummy (5TH female) model that was developed by FTSS using FE code PAM-CRASH™. This paper will describe improvements of computational evaluation method and FE dummy model in the sled tests simulated interior. For the various impact conditions, good correlation between FE calculation and the sled test results was obtained.
Technical Paper

Restraint System Optimization for Dual Test Configurations of Frontal Crashes

The numerical relations between occupant restraint systems and injury indexes were investigated by multi-parameter optimization of an integrated restraint system model of frontal crash simulations. This paper proposes a method of optimizing restraint systems in two types of test configurations: a 35-mph full overlap crash model and a 40-mph 40%-offset crash model.
Technical Paper

Multi-parameter, Multi-objective Optimization of Injury Indexes of Vehicle Crash Models

This paper presents a method for optimizing occupant restraint system parameters in vehicle frontal crashes. Simulation models incorporating restraint systems and dummies are used for predicting injury indexes. A full-scale survey of all of the design parameters related to the injury indexes would require a vast number of simulations. Therefore, the Design of Experiments (DOE) method involving a minimum number of experiments is more realistic. However, dummy behavior often shows discontinuity if the dummy comes in contact with the steering wheel, so it is not predicted well with usual DOE methods. This paper shows how to incorporate such discontinuity in a DOE study and how to optimize the restraint system parameters to reduce occupant injury indexes. It also discusses the feasibility of this method for integrated optimization of 50th percentile and 5th percentile dummies.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Test Procedure for Evaluation of Tripped Rollover Crashes

Rollover crashes have continued to be a source of extensive research into determining both vehicle performance, and occupant restraint capabilities. Prior research has utilized various test procedures, including the FMVSS 208 dolly fixture, as a basis for evaluating vehicle and restraint performance. This research, using 2001 Nissan Pathfinder sport utility vehicles (SUVs), was conducted to update the status of passenger vehicle rollover testing, and evaluate dynamic test repeatability with a new test procedure. A series of eight rollover tests was conducted using these SUV vehicles, mounted on a modified FMVSS 208 rollover dolly fixture, with instrumented dummies in both front seat positions. This test protocol involved launching the vehicles horizontally, after snubbing the dolly fixture, and having the leading-side tires contact curbing for a trip mechanism.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rollover Restraint Performance With and Without Seat Belt Pretensioner at Vehicle Trip

Eight rollover research tests were conducted using the 2001 Nissan Pathfinder with a modified FMVSS 208 dolly rollover test method where the driver and right front dummy restraint performance was analyzed. The rollover tests were initiated with the vehicle horizontal, not at a roll angle. After the vehicle translated laterally for a short distance, a trip mechanism was introduced to overturn the vehicle. Retractor, buckle, and latch plate performance in addition to the overall seat belt performance was analyzed and evaluated in the rollover test series. Retractor pretensioners were activated near the rollover trip in three of the tests to provide research data on its effects. Various dummy sizes were utilized. The test series experienced incomplete data collection and a portion of the analog data was not obtained. National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) data was also analyzed to quantify the characteristics of real world rollovers and demonstrated the benefits of restraint use.
Technical Paper

Real World Accident Analysis of Driver Car-to-Car Intersection Near-Side Impacts: Focus on Impact Location, Impact Angle and Lateral Delta-V

In total, 865 intersection car-to-car crashes (NASS-CDS CY 2004-2014) are analyzed in detail to determine the injury level outcome based on different crash factors, such as delta-V, age, airbag deployment, number of events, impact locations (F,Y,P,Z,D,B-regions based on CDC codes), amount of compartment intrusion and impact angle. A multivariate logistic regression test was performed to predict the probability of MAIS3+ serious injuries using lateral delta-V, location of maximum deformation from B-PLR, age (0: <60/1: ≥60 years), number of events (0: single/ 1: multiple), intrusion (0: <16cm/ 1: ≥16cm), side airbag deployment (yes/no) and direction of impact (0: 9/ 1: 10 o’clock). It is found that direction of impact is one of the significant (p<0.05) parameters and 10 o’clock angle impact has more influence than 9 o’clock perpendicular lateral impact. Frequency of AIS3+ injuries was high in Y-region impact cases.
Journal Article

A Comparison of the NHTSA Research Offset Oblique and Small Overlap Impact Tests and the IIHS Moderate and Small Overlap Tests

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) have both developed crash test methodologies to address frontal collisions in which the vehicle's primary front structure is either partially engaged or not engaged at all. IIHS addresses Small Overlap crashes, cases in which the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure is not engaged, using a rigid static barrier with an overlap of 25% of the vehicle's width at an impact angle of 0°. The Institute's Moderate Overlap partially engages the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure using a deformable static barrier with 40% overlap at a 0° impact angle. The NHTSA has developed two research test methods which use a common moving deformable barrier impacting the vehicle with 20% overlap at a 7° impact angle and 35% overlap at a 15° impact angle respectively.