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Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Link Beam Rear Suspension for Front-Wheel-Drive Cars

1995-02-01
950585
Research into stability at high speed shows that rear suspension characteristics play an important role in vehicle control and stability. In order to improve the cornering limit steering performance and traction of front-wheel-drive vehicles, where the front wheels bear a large proportion of the load and transmit the driving force, and to maintain vehicle stability when decelerating while cornering, rear suspension characteristics are needed that will fully draw out the cornering force capacity of the rear tires. This requirement continues to grow every year, along with demands for higher levels of comfort in passenger cars, including improved ride quality and quietness. It was against this background that the new multi-link beam rear suspension, which is installed in the new Maxima and Sentra models, was developed. This paper describes the aims, construction, characteristics and effects of this new suspension, with focus on vehicle control and stability.
Technical Paper

Research Alliances, A Strategy for Progress

1995-09-01
952146
In today's business climate rapid access to, and implementation of, new technology is essential to enhance competitive advantage. In the past, universities have been used for research contracts, but to fully utilize the intellectual resources of education institutions, it is essential to approach these relationships from a new basis: alliance. Alliances permit both parties to become active participants and achieve mutually beneficial goals. This paper will examine the drivers and challenges for industrial -- university alliances from both the industrial and academic perspectives.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Performance Dash Silencer Made of a Novel Shaped Fiber Sound-Absorbing Material

1996-02-01
960192
Interior quietness has been improved year by year until it has now become one of the basic performance requirements of vehicles. Traditional approaches to assuring quietness have been to increase the weight of sound insulation barriers or to enlarge sound insulation space. Such methods run counter to the aims of reducing vehicle weight and providing a more spacious interior. In this research, an attempt was made to overcome this trade-off by adopting a new material for the sound-absorbing material used in vehicles. The newly developed-sound absorbing material consists mainly of modified cross-section polyester fabric. It provides noticeably higher sound-absorbing performance than traditional material like shoddy or formed urethane. This is attributed to increased friction between the fibers and air, owing to the greater surface aria of the modified cross-section polyester fiber compare with that of the circular cross-section of ordinary fibers at an identical weight.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

1997-10-01
972837
Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Technical Paper

Research on Crankshaft System Behavior Based on Coupled Crankshaft-Block Analysis

1997-10-01
972922
Achieving a multi-cylinder engine with excellent noise/vibration character sties and low friction at the main bearings requires an optimal design not only for the crankshaft construction but also for the bearing support system of the cylinder block. To accomplish that, it is necessary to understand crankshaft system behavior and the bearing load distribution for each of the main bearings. Crankshaft system behavior has traditionally been evaluated experimentally because of the difficulty in performing calculations to predict resonance behavior over the entire engine speed range. A coupled crankshaft-block analysis method has been developed to calculate crankshaft system behavior by treating vibration and lubrication in a systematic manner. This method has the feature that the coupled behavior of the crankshaft and the cylinder block is analyzed by means of main bearing lubrication calculations. This paper presents the results obtained with this method.
Technical Paper

Research and Development Work on Navigation Systems at Nissan

1993-11-01
931921
Nissan is offering navigation systems in some domestic production models. These systems, which show drivers the vehicle's present location on a CRT map display, free them from anxiety about getting lost when traveling in an unfamiliar area. It is expected that future navigation systems will incorporate two key capabilities. One will be a route guidance capability, which will not only indicate the present location but also select the optimal route to the intended destination and guide drivers there by indicating which direction to take at each intersection along the way. The second capability will be a communications link with the roadside infrastructure for receiving outside information such as traffic congestion data and incorporating that information into route guidance. Nissan has established the core technologies of these navigation capabilities in the past ten years through the development of conceptual prototypes and experimental systems in government-sponsored projects.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Practical Numerical Analysis Method for Heat Flow Distribution in the Engine Compartment

1993-04-01
931081
The thermal environment in the automotive engine compartment is expected to become increasingly severe in the years ahead owing to the installation of a large-size manifold catalyst to reduce exhaust emissions, among other factors. This will make it even more important to analyze the engine compartment layout in terms of heat flow considerations at the design conceptualization stage of a new vehicle. In this research, a flow analysis program called DRAG4D was applied to find the flow velocity distribution and ambient air temperature distribution in the engine compartment during driving, idling and after the engine was turned off. This original program developed at Nissan takes into account the effects of the energy balance and buoyancy, and provides a practical level of prediction accuracy. The time required to create an analytical model and perform the computations has been shortened by using an automatic grid generation function, based on a solid model, and experimental equations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Disc Brake Squeal, 1992

1992-02-01
920553
Eliminating squeal noise generated during braking is an important task for the improvement of vehicle passengers' comfort. Considerable amount of research and development works have been done on the problem to date. In this study, we focused on the analyses of friction self-excited vibration and brake part resonance during high frequency brake squeal. Friction self-excited vibration is caused by the dry friction between pads and rotor, and occurs as a function of their relative sliding velocities. Its vibration frequency can be calculated in relation to the mass and stiffness of the pad sliding surface. Frequency responses of the brake assembly were measured and the vibration modes of the pad, disc and caliper during squeal were identified through modal analysis. Further study led to the development of a computer simulation method for analyzing the vibration modes of brake parts. Analytical results obtained using the method agreed well with the corresponding experimental data.
Technical Paper

Development of a Ball Bearing Turbocharger

1990-02-01
900125
Nissan has added ball bearings to its “High-flow Ceramic Turbocharger”(1) (introduced in 1987) to improve acceleration response by reducing friction loss. The following programs were carried out in applying ball bearings to the turbocharger: Optimum bearing size and material were selected to assure long life; lubrication techniques were employed to achieve compatibility between acceleration response and durability; a thrust support system was designed to assure that the ball bearings endure thrust load which varies in direction and magnitude during engine operation; and the squeeze film damper was optimized to keep the turbocharger silent. These innovations have resulted in a practical ball-bearing turbocharger, which has been installed in Nissan's most recent Skyline model(released in May 1989). This is the first time a ball-bearing turbocharger has been applied to a passenger car.
Technical Paper

IGNITION OF FUELS BY RAPID COMPRESSION

1950-01-01
500178
THE autoignition characteristics of several fuels under various conditions of mixture strength, compression ratio, and temperature have been studied by means of a rapid-compression machine. The behaviors of a knock inhibitor, tetraethyl lead, and a knock inducer, ethyl nitrite, have also been studied. Simultaneous records of pressure, volume, and the inflammation have been obtained. These records show the diverse aspects of the autoignition phenomenon and indicate, among other things, according to the authors, that a comparison of the detonating tendencies of fuels must include not only a consideration of the length of the delay period but also an evaluation of the rate of pressure rise during autoignition. Physical interpretations of the data are presented but chemical interpretations have been avoided. The work was exploratory in nature. The authors hope that the results will stimulate activity in this important branch of combustion research.
Technical Paper

Driver’s Sight Point and Dynamics of the Driver-Vehicle-System Related to It

1968-02-01
680104
Since the motor vehicle is controlled by the driver, dynamic consideration of the driver-vehicle system is necessary. In this sytem, eye sight is the most important sense with which the driver gets information from the course. In the present research, first, sighting distance in steady straight running was measured by the “slit method”. Next, sighting distance and sighting angle in various curvilinear runnings were measured by use of a “sight point camera” devised by the authors. Introducing the conception of sighting distance and sighting angle, dynamics of the driver-vehicle system is contrived. Theoretical calculation showed that sighting distance should be longer than a certain critical value to make the system stable.
Technical Paper

Small Engine - Concept Emission Vehicles

1971-02-01
710296
Three Japanese automobile manufacturers-Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., and Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd.-have been making efforts over the past three years to design and develop effective thermal reactor-exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter systems suitable for small engines. The work is being done by members participating in the IIEC (Inter-Industry Emission Control) Program, and the exhaust emission levels of the concept vehicles developed by these companies have met the goal established by the IIEC Program at low mileage. Each system, however, has a characteristic relationship between exhaust emission level and loss of fuel economy. Much investigation is required, particularly with respect to durability, before any system that will fully satisfy all service requirements can be completed. This paper reports the progress of research and development of the individual concept vehicles.
Technical Paper

Scavenging the 2-Stroke Engine

1954-01-01
540258
THE indicated output of a 2-stroke engine is primarily dependent upon the success with which the products of combustion are driven from the cylinder and are replaced by fresh air or mixture during the scavenging period. Such replacement must, of course, be accomplished with a minimum of blower power. This paper deals with various aspects of 2-stroke research conducted at M.I.T. during the past 10 years. Among the subjects discussed are the methods used in the prediction and measurement of scavenging efficiency, and the effect of engine design and operating variables on the scavenging blower requirements as reflected by the scavenging ratio.
Technical Paper

Spot-weld Layout Optimization for Body Stiffness by Topology Optimization

2008-04-14
2008-01-0878
In general, the improvement of vehicle body stiffness involves a trade-off with the body weight. The objective of this research is to derive the lightest-weight solution from the original vehicle model by finding the optimized spot-weld layout and body panel thickness, while keeping the body stiffness and number of spot welds constant. As the first step, a method of deriving the optimal layout of spot welds for maximizing body stiffness was developed by applying the topology optimization method. While this method is generally used in shape optimization of continuous solid structures, it was applied to discontinuous spot-weld positions in this work. As a result, the effect of the spot-weld layout on body stiffness was clarified. In the case of the body used for this research, body stiffness was improved by about 10% with respect to torsion and vertical and lateral bending.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Analysis Technology Development for Impact Noise

2014-04-01
2014-01-0895
In order to enhance product attraction, it is important to reduce the impact noise when a vehicle go over bumps such as bridge joints. Vehicle performance to transitional noise phenomena is not yet analyzed well. In this paper, a prediction method is established by vector composition and inverse Fourier transform with the combination of Multibody Dynamics (MBD) and FEM. Also, a root cause analysis method is established with the following three mechanism analysis methods; transfer path analysis, mode contribution analysis, and panel contribution analysis.
Technical Paper

New Demands from an Older Population: An Integrated Approach to Defining the Future of Older Driver Safety

2006-10-16
2006-21-0008
The nearly 77 million baby boomers, born between 1946 and 1964, can say that they are the automobile generation. Now turning 60 one every seven seconds, what are the new safety challenges and opportunities posed by the next generation of older adults? This paper presents a modified Haddon matrix to identify key product development, design and liability issues confronting the automobile industry and related stakeholders. The industry is now at a critical juncture to address the development of key technological innovations as well as the changing policy and liability environments being reshaped by an aging population.
Technical Paper

Recommendations for Real-Time Decision Support Systems for Lunar and Planetary EVAs

2007-07-09
2007-01-3089
Future human space exploration includes returning to the Moon and continuing to Mars. Essential to these missions is each planetary extravehicular activity, or EVA, where astronauts and robotic agents will explore lunar and planetary surfaces. Real-time decision support systems will help these explorers in efficiently planning and re-planning under time pressure sorties. Information and functional requirements for such a system are recommended and are based on on-going human-computer collaboration research.
Technical Paper

Method of Fatigue Life Estimation for Arc–Welded Structures

2000-03-06
2000-01-0781
Two working groups in the JSAE Committee of Fatigue–Reliability Section1 are currently researching the issue of fatigue life by both experimental and the CAE approach. Information regarding frequent critical problems on arc–welded structures were sought from auto–manufacturers, vehicle component suppliers, and material suppliers. The method for anti–fatigue design on arc–welded structures was established not only by a database created by physical test results in accordance with the collected information but also with design procedure taking Fracture–Mechanics into consideration. This method will be applied to vehicle development as one of the virtual laboratories in the digital prototype phase. In this paper, both the database from bench–test results on arc welded structures and FEA algorithm unique to JSAE are proposed some of the analysis results associated with the latter proposal are also reported.
Technical Paper

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute Education and Public Outreach Program: Engaging the Public and Inspiring the Next Generation of Space Explorers

2005-07-11
2005-01-3105
The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997, is a twelve-university consortium dedicated to research that will impact mankind's next exploratory steps. The NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP), is supporting NASA's education mission to, “Inspire the next generations…as only NASA can,” through a comprehensive Kindergarten through post-doctoral education program. The goals of the EPOP are to: communicate space exploration biology to schools; support undergraduate and graduate space-based courses and degrees; fund postdoctoral fellows to pursue space life sciences research; and engage national and international audiences to promote understanding of how space exploration benefits people on Earth. NSBRI EPOP presents its accomplishments as an educational strategy for supporting science education reform, workforce development, and public outreach.
Technical Paper

Noise Detection Technology Development for Car Cabin

2008-04-14
2008-01-0272
Recently, it has been very important to reduce the noise, especially the Squeak and Rattle noise, for improving customer appeal of passenger vehicles. The Squeak and Rattle noise occurring inside the car cabin during vehicle operation is an especially large problem. This paper describes a newly developed measurement technology that uses the developed signal processing using the Beam-forming method and vibration sensor to identify the Squeak and Rattle noise sources, making it possible to determine effective countermeasures quickly. This new technology is used to identify all Squeak and Rattle noises at a time among many different noises, for example Wind noise, Engine noise and Road noise occurring during vehicle operation, and is expected to shorten substantially the time needed for noise analysis and contribute to quality improvements.
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