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Technical Paper

Design of Lane-Keeping Control with Steering Torque Input for a Lane-Keeping Support System

This paper describes the method used to design the basic control algorithm of a lane-keeping support system that is intended to assist the driver's steering action. Lane-keeping control has been designed with steering torque as the control input without providing a minor loop for the steering angle. This approach was taken in order to achieve an optimum balance of lane-keeping control, ease of steering intervention by the driver and robustness. The servo control system was designed on the basis of H2 control theory. Robustness against disturbances, vehicle nonlinearity and parameter variation was confirmed by μ - analysis. The results of computer simulations and driving tests have confirmed that the control system designed with this method provides the intended performance.
Technical Paper

Research Alliances, A Strategy for Progress

In today's business climate rapid access to, and implementation of, new technology is essential to enhance competitive advantage. In the past, universities have been used for research contracts, but to fully utilize the intellectual resources of education institutions, it is essential to approach these relationships from a new basis: alliance. Alliances permit both parties to become active participants and achieve mutually beneficial goals. This paper will examine the drivers and challenges for industrial -- university alliances from both the industrial and academic perspectives.
Technical Paper

Development of a Headway Distance Control System

This paper describes a headway distance control system for platoon driving on an automated highway system (AHS). The system implemented on a test vehicle is described first, followed by a description of a vehicle control method based on the use of throttle and brake actuators. This method makes it possible to obtain the target acceleration and deceleration regardless of the vehicle speed range and the rate of acceleration or deceleration. Experimental and simulation results obtained with this method are presented. A control method is then described that uses inter-vehicle communication and laser radar to maintain a constant headway between vehicles. The results of simulations and driving tests conducted with three vehicles are presented to illustrate that the use of inter-vehicle communication is highly effective in improving headway control performance.
Technical Paper

A Graphical Workstation Based Part-Task Flight Simulator for Preliminary Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Displays

Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) has developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator has been successfully used to evaluate graphical microburst alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.
Technical Paper

A Robotic Driver on Roller Dynamometer with Vehicle Performance Self Learning Algorithm

A robotic driver has been designed on the basis of an analysis of a human driver's action in following a given driving schedule. The self-learning algorithm enables the robot to learn the vehicle characteristics without human intervention. Based on learned relationships, the robotic driver can determine an appropriate accelerator position and execute other operations through sophisticated calculations using the future scheduled vehicle speed and vehicle characteristics data. Compensation is also provided to minimize vehicle speed error. The robotic driver can reproduce the same types of exhaust emission and fuel economy data obtained with human drivers with good repeatability. It doesn't require long preparation time. Thereby making it possible to reduce experimentation work in the vehicle development process while providing good accuracy and reliability.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Deceleration Curve on Dummy Injury Criteria

This paper discusses the influence of variations in the vehicle deceleration curve on dummy injury criteria for a passive seat belt-restrained dummy using MVMA-2D crash victim simulation and sled tests for frontal crash analysis. The MVMA-2D simulation and sled tests verified that the vehicle deceleration curve exhibiting the higher Residual Deformation (RD) produces smaller dummy injury criteria. Also, using MVMA-2D simulation, the peak levels of the first and second waves were changed as parameters to ensure accurate evaluation of the influence of the deceleration curve on dummy injury criteria. Moreover, this paper also discusses Nissan's use of both occupant kinematic simulation and vehicle structural sisulation for frontal crash in the development of its vehicles.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of an Open-grill Vehicle Aerodynamics Simulation Method Considering Dirty CAD Geometries

In open-grille vehicle aerodynamics simulation using computational fluid dynamics, in addition to basic flow characteristics, such as turbulent flow with a Reynolds number of several million on the bluff body, it is important to accurately estimate the cooling air flow introduced from the front opening. It is therefore necessary to reproduce the detailed geometry of the entire vehicle including the engine bay as precisely as possible. However, there is a problem of generating a good-quality calculation grid with a small workload. It usually takes several days to a week for the pretreatment process to make the geometry data ‘clean’ or ‘watertight’. The authors proposed a computational method for complex geometries with a hierarchical Cartesian grid and a topology-independent immersed boundary method with dummy cells that discretize the geometry on a cell-by-cell basis and can set an imaginary point arbitrarily.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Vehicle Fuel Economy and Performance

A simulation system has been developed for making comprehensive predictions and assessments of the various and interrelated indices of vehicle performance. This system draws upon a data base containing information on the characteristics of the different units making up a vehicle. The system includes fuel economy and emissions calculation programs incorporating a large number of evaluation items. It also features an acceleration calculation program by which the transient characteristics of a turbocharger can be studied and a vehicle exterior noise program that makes accurate predictions of the pass-by noise level during acceleration. Equipped with a large number of calculation functions the system is an effective tool for improving total vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Appling CAE to Understand the Causality of Dummy Neck Injury Readings

The progress of computer technology and CAE methodology makes it possible to simulate dummy injury readings in vehicle crash simulations. Dummy neck injuries are generally more difficult to simulate than injuries to other regions such as the head or chest. Accordingly, improving the accuracy of dummy neck injury data is a major concern in frontal occupant safety simulations. This paper describes the use of an advanced airbag modeling methodology to improve the accuracy of dummy neck injury readings. First, the following items incorporated in the advanced airbag model are explained. (1) The Finite Point Method (FPM) is used to simulate the flow of gas. (2) A folding model is applied to simulate the folded condition. (3) The fabric material properties used in the simulation take into account anisotropy in the fiber directions and the nonlinear, hysteresis characteristics of stiffness.
Technical Paper

Road-load Input Contribution Analysis for Suspension Durability using a Multi-axial Road Simulator

The durability test with road-load input is necessary for evaluating durability of body and chassis structure in automotive applications. This paper shows the method to analyze road-load input to a suspension system for development of a simple component level bench test. This method enables the extraction of the essential inputs to evaluate the durability of suspension parts using the transfer function (frequency response function) measured by Multi-axial Road Simulator and wheel force transducers. These extracted inputs contribute to development of a new realistic component bench test.
Technical Paper

Application of CAP to Analyze Mechanisms Producing Dummy Injury Readings under U.S. Side Impact Test Conditions

Evaluations of dummy injury readings obtained in regulatory crash tests and new car assessment program tests provide indices for the development of crash safety performance in the process of developing new vehicles. Based on these indices, vehicle body structures and occupant restraint systems are designed to meet the required occupant injury criteria. There are many types of regulatory tests and new car assessment program tests that are conducted to evaluate vehicle safety performance in side impacts. Factoring all of the multiple test configurations into the development of new vehicles requires advanced design capabilities based on a good understanding of the mechanisms producing dummy injury readings. In recent years, advances in computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools and computer processing power have made it possible to run simulations of occupant restraint systems such as side airbags and seatbelts.
Technical Paper

Development of a Prediction Method for Passenger Vehicle Aerodynamic Lift using CFD

Increasing expectations for stability at high speed call for the improvement of cars' aerodynamic performance, in particular lift reduction. However, due to styling constraints, traditional spoilers must be avoided and replaced by other solutions like underfloor components. Flow simulation is expected to be a useful tool for lift prediction, but the conventional models used so far did not represent complex geometry details such as the engine compartment and underfloor, and accuracy was insufficient. In the present study, a full vehicle simulation model, including the engine compartment and underfloor details, was used. Other improvements were also made such as optimization of the computational grid and the setting of boundary conditions for reproducing wind tunnel experiments or actual driving, making it possible to predict lift variations due to vehicle geometry changes.
Technical Paper

Development of a SIL, HIL and Vehicle Test-Bench for Model-Based Design and Validation of Hybrid Powertrain Control Strategies

Hybrid powertrains with multiple sources of power have generated new control challenges in the automotive industry. Purdue University's participation in EcoCAR 2, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition managed by the Argonne National Laboratories and sponsored by GM and DOE, has provided an exciting opportunity to create a comprehensive test-bench for the development and validation of advanced hybrid powertrain control strategies. As one of 15 competing university teams, the Purdue EcoMakers are re-engineering a donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel- through-the-road hybrid-electric vehicle, to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance, safety or consumer acceptability. This paper describes the Purdue team's control development process for the EcoCAR 2 competition.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Robust Driver Gaze Classification

The challenge of developing a robust, real-time driver gaze classification system is that it has to handle difficult edge cases that arise in real-world driving conditions: extreme lighting variations, eyeglass reflections, sunglasses and other occlusions. We propose a single-camera end-toend framework for classifying driver gaze into a discrete set of regions. This framework includes data collection, semi-automated annotation, offline classifier training, and an online real-time image processing pipeline that classifies the gaze region of the driver. We evaluate an implementation of each component on various subsets of a large onroad dataset. The key insight of our work is that robust driver gaze classification in real-world conditions is best approached by leveraging the power of supervised learning to generalize over the edge cases present in large annotated on-road datasets.
Technical Paper

Development of Regenerative Cooperative Braking System with Conventional ESC

HEV and EV markets are in a rapid expansion tendency. Development of low-cost regenerative cooperation brake system is needed in order to respond to the consumers needs for HEV and EV. Regenerative cooperation brake system which HEV and EV are generally equipped with has stroke simulator. We developed simple composition brake system based on the conventional ESC unit without the stroke simulator, and our system realized a low-cost regenerative cooperation brake. The key technologies are the quiet pressurization control which can be used in the service application, which is to make brake force depending on brake travel, by gear pump and the master cylinder with idle stroke to realize regenerative cooperation brake. Thanks to the key technologies, both the high regenerative efficiency and the good service brake feeling were achieved.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Automotive Powertrain Choices for the Next 25 Years

This paper assesses the potential improvement of automotive powertrain technologies 25 years into the future. The powertrain types assessed include naturally-aspirated gasoline engines, turbocharged gasoline engines, diesel engines, gasoline-electric hybrids, and various advanced transmissions. Advancements in aerodynamics, vehicle weight reduction and tire rolling friction are also taken into account. The objective of the comparison is the potential of anticipated improvements in these powertrain technologies for reducing petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions at the same level of performance as current vehicles in the U.S.A. The fuel consumption and performance of future vehicles was estimated using a combination of scaling laws and detailed vehicle simulations. The results indicate that there is significant potential for reduction of fuel consumption for all the powertrains examined.
Technical Paper

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute Education and Public Outreach Program: Engaging the Public and Inspiring the Next Generation of Space Explorers

The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997, is a twelve-university consortium dedicated to research that will impact mankind's next exploratory steps. The NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP), is supporting NASA's education mission to, “Inspire the next generations…as only NASA can,” through a comprehensive Kindergarten through post-doctoral education program. The goals of the EPOP are to: communicate space exploration biology to schools; support undergraduate and graduate space-based courses and degrees; fund postdoctoral fellows to pursue space life sciences research; and engage national and international audiences to promote understanding of how space exploration benefits people on Earth. NSBRI EPOP presents its accomplishments as an educational strategy for supporting science education reform, workforce development, and public outreach.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Powertrain Electrical System Simulator with Computer-Controlled Fault Generation

To manage the function of a vehicle's engine, transmission, and related subsystems, almost all modern vehicles make use of one or more electronic controllers running embedded software, henceforth referred to as a Powertrain Controller System or PCS. Fully validating this PCS is a necessary step of vehicle development, and the validation process requires extensive amounts of testing. Within the automotive industry, more and more of this validation testing is being performed using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulators to automate the extensive test sequences. A HIL simulation typically mates the physical PCS to a closed-loop real time computer simulation of a powertrain. Interfacing the physical PCS hardware to a powertrain simulation requires the HIL simulator to have extensive signal input/output (I/O) electronics and simulated actuator electrical loading.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Voice-Activated System Using a Driving Simulator

On-board voice-interaction systems such as a voice-activated system or a text -to-speech (TTS) system enable drivers to operate devices or to obtain desired information without relying on visual processes. These systems are aimed to reduce the driver's workload, but there is a concern about their possible effect on mental distraction. This paper describes driving simulator tests that were conducted to examine the potential influence of such systems on driver's mental distraction. The results obtained for all of the indices show that the mental distraction level when operating a voice-activated system is significantly lower than that of a traditional manually operated system.
Technical Paper

Requirements and Potential for Enhanced EVA Information Interfaces

NASA has long recognized the advantages of providing improved information interfaces to EVA astronauts and has pursued this goal through a number of development programs over the past decade. None of these activities or parallel efforts in industry and academia has so far resulted in the development of an operational system to replace or augment the current extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) Display and Controls Module (DCM) display and cuff checklist. Recent advances in display, communications, and information processing technologies offer exciting new opportunities for EVA information interfaces that can better serve the needs of a variety of NASA missions. Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI) has been collaborating with Simon Fraser University and others on the NASA Haughton Mars Project and with researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boeing, and Symbol Technologies in investigating these possibilities.