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Technical Paper

Development of Pitting Resistant Steel for Transmission Gears

It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Performance TiA1 Exhaust Valve

A new high-performance and lightweight TiA1 intermetallic compound exhaust valve has been developed. The TiA1 valve can improve power output and fuel economy by contributing higher engine speeds and a reduction in valvetrain friction. It was achieved by developing a Ti-33.5A1-0.5Si-1Nb-0.5Cr (mass%) intermetallic compound, a precision casting method for TiA1 that provides a low-cost, high-quality process, and a plasma carburizing technique for assuring good wear resistance on the valve stem end, stem and face.
Technical Paper

A Look at the Automotive-Turbine Regenerator System and Proposals to Improve Performance and Reduce Cost

The adoption of turbine engines for automotive power plants has been hampered by the high cost, high leakage and high wear rate of present designs of ceramic-matrix regenerators. Proposals are made and analyzed here for design directions to achieve substantial improvements in all three areas. These include lower-cost extruded and pressed matrices; and clamping seals coupled with incremental movement of the rotary-regenerator matrix.
Technical Paper

Development of a Valve Train Wear Test Procedure for Gasoline Engine Oil

An analysis was made of wear factors by investigating the effect of engine operating conditions on valve train wear. It was found that cam nose wear increased as larger amounts of combustion products, including nitrogen oxides and unburned gasoline, became intermixed with the engine oil. Based on these results, a valve train wear test procedure has been developed for evaluating cam nose and rocker arm wear under engine firing conditions. It has been confirmed that this test procedure correlates will with ASTM Sequence VE test and CCMC TU-3 test.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Belt-Drive CVT Fluid on the Friction Coefficient Between Metal Components

A block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine (LFW-1) was used as a test method for making fundamental evaluations of the effect of the Belt-Drive Continuously Variable Transmission(B-CVT) fluid on the friction coefficient between the belt and pulleys. The results confirmed that this method can simulate the friction phenomena between the belt and pulleys of an actual transmission. The mechanism whereby ZDDP and some Ca detergents improve the torque capacity of a B-CVT was also investigated along with the effect of the deterioration of these additives on the friction coefficient. It was found that these additives form a film, 80-90 nm in thickness, on the sliding surface, which is effective in increasing the friction coefficient. The friction coefficient declined with increasing additive deterioration. The results of a 31P-NMR analysis indicated that the decline closely correlated with the amount of ZDDP in the B-CVT fluid.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston-Ring Dynamics on Ring/Groove Wear and Oil Consumption in a Diesel Engine

The wear patterns of the rings and grooves of a diesel engine were analyzed by using a ring dynamics/gas flow model and a ring-pack oil film thickness model. The analysis focused primarily on the contact pressure distribution on the ring sides and grooves as well as on the contact location on the ring running surfaces. Analysis was performed for both new and worn ring/groove profiles. Calculated results are consistent with the measured wear patterns. The effects of groove tilt and static twist on the development of wear patterns on the ring sides, grooves, and ring running surfaces were studied. Ring flutter was observed from the calculation and its effect on oil transport was discussed. Up-scraping of the top ring was studied by considering ring dynamic twist and piston tilt. This work shows that the models used have potential for providing practical guidance to optimizing the ring pack and ring grooves to control wear and reduce oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Establishment of a Method for Predicting Cam Follower Wear in the Material Development Process

Many studies have been reported concerning fundamental tribological research aimed at reducing the severe valve train wear that occurs in internal combustion engines. In this paper, cam follower wear was theoretically and experimentally analyzed at the material development stage. Statistical methods have been applied to practical use in determining the material properties quantitatively. Based on the results, a method for predicting cam follower wear has been derived which has made it possible to develop new valve train systems more efficiently. Further, a guideline for developing new wear resistant materials was also clarified. Finally, the precision high chrominum cast iron rocker arm is described, along with its application to a new NISSAN high-performance 4-cylinder DOHC engine, as an example of the use of this method to develop new wear-resistant materials.
Technical Paper

Decoupled Design of Cylinder Liner for IC Engines

Concept of a new decoupled cylinder liner design for internal combustion (IC) engines is presented from the framework of axiomatic design to improve friction and wear characteristics. In the current design, the piston rings fail to satisfy their functional requirements at the two dead centers of the piston stroke where lubrication is poor. It is proposed that by using undulated cylindrical surfaces selectively along the cylinder liner, much of the existing friction and wear problems of IC engines may be solved. The main idea behind undulated surface is to trap wear particles at the piston-cylinder interface in order to minimize plowing, and thus maintain low friction even in areas where lubrication fails to be hydrodynamic. In dry sliding tests using a modified engine motored at low speeds, undulated cylinders operated for significantly longer time than smooth cylinders without catastrophic increase in friction.
Technical Paper

Development of Practical Heads-Up Display for Production Vehicle Application

THIS PAPER presents an advanced heads-up display which has been newly developed for use in 88 Nissan Silvia model. The HUD consists of a projector with a newly developed high brightness VFD and light-selective film used as a combiner which is coated on the windshield. This combination provides good display legibility even under bright sunlight. The display shows the vehicle speed in a three-digit reading at distance of more than one meter from the driver's eyes. The windshield-coated combiner conforms to U.S. safety standards concerning light transmittance, abrasion and other performance requirements. Experimental data are also presented which substantiate the HUD's high legibility and confirm its effect in enhancing the driver's attention toward the road ahead
Technical Paper

A Method for Predicting Connecting Rod Bearings Reliability Based on Seizure and Wear Analysis

Maintaining reliability of the connecting rod bearing is a very important subject, and the following is a problem that needs to be overcome. Predicting reliability has generally depended on minimum oil film thickness (M.O.F.T), but recently, the engines of passenger cars which have greater power and speed potential than conventional ones are sometimes run beyond their M.O.F.T. limit (a degree of roughness around the crank shaft's axis.) In such a case, it is so difficult to predict reliability according to M.O.F.T., that we need a new index which directly shows seizure and wear. For this purpose, we found that the crank shaft pin temperature can be a key cause of seizure and wear according to an analysis of the relationship between its temperature and the seizure and wear caused intentionally. Using this method, we confirmed that the combination of bearing and crank shaft materials is very important for preventing seizure and wear.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Passenger Car Gasoline Engine Oils by JASO Test Procedures—Report by JASO Engine Oil Subcommittee

Japan Automobile Standards Organization (JASO) Engine Oil Sub-committee have been working on the unification of the engine oil evaluation test procedures in Japan. The Engine Oil Sub-committee participated in the recent activity of the worldwide engine oil standardization of SAE and ISO. As one of the chain of activities, JASO tests M328, M331, and M333 (valve train wear, detergency and high temperature oxidation respectively) were conducted on the REOs of ASTM and CEC to find the correlation. The detergency tests (varnish and sludge) showed good correlation with the ASTM REOs. CEC good and poor reference oils seemed to give good results in JASO valve train wear test, while ASTM reference oils unexpectedly gave opposite results in Japanese valve train wear tests.
Technical Paper

New PM Valve Seat Insert Materials for High Performance Engines

Internal combustion engines experience severe valve train wear and the reduction of valve seat and seat insert wear has been a long-standing issue. In this work, worn valve seats and inserts were examined to obtain a fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms and the results were applied in developing new valve seat insert materials. The new exhaust valve insert material for gasoline engines is a sintered alloy steel containing Co-base hard particles, with lead infiltrated only for inserts used in unleaded gasoline engines. The new intake valve insert material for gasoline engines is a high-Mo sintered steel, obtained through transient liquid phase sintering and with copper precipitated uniformly. This material can be used for both leaded and unleaded gasoline engines. Valve and valve seat insert wear has long been an issue of concern to engine designers and manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Current Trends of Passenger Car Gasoline Engine Oils in Japan - Report by JASO Engine Oil Subcommittee

Engines in Japan have higher output versus small displacement (bhp/liter) and require low phosphorus content in the engine oils to meet the most stringent exhaust emission regulation in the world. The market survey of typical API SF oils in Japan showed that the average phosphorus content was approximately 0.07 %. Under such circumstances engine oils provide good performance with the usage of secondary zinc di-alkyldithiophosphates (Zn DTP) for valve train wear protection, addition of friction modifiers for fuel economy, etc.
Technical Paper

Deterioration of Heat Resistant Alloys for Automobile Emission Control Equipment

Various heat resistant alloys are being introduced for use in automobile emission equipment, such as thermal reactors and catalytic converters. For the past several years Japan has been developing alloys which emphasize oxidation resistance. Therefore, oxidation phenomena have been thoroughly researched and clarified. On the other hand, embrittlement, which is a marked deterioration similar to oxide deterioration, has not been studied sufficiently. The major subjects of investigation were the two forms of embrittlement in austenitic heat resistant alloys, caused by the precipitation of σ phase and the absorption of Nitrogen. Useful information was obtained from these results.
Technical Paper

Development of Digital Tire Pressure Display Device

Basic vehicle performance, such as Safety, Comfort and Economy, are by dependent on tire performance, and it is the air pressure in the tire which assures this performance. However, tire air has a tendency to leak naturally, making it necessary to check them periodically. Since a deterioration in vehicle performance resulting from a drop on tire air pressure can not be directly felt by the driver, the number of people maintaining their tires sufficiently is relatively few. There have been many tire pressure warning devices developed which advise the driver when the pressure drops below a prescribed level. Differing from conventional devices, the TWD-III features a 7-step digital display (at a pitch of 0.1 kgf/cm2) which shows the pressure of each tire within an optional range, and it also has a flat tire warning function. The employment of echo effect from clystal vibrator resonance precludes the need to attach a power source on the tire.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

In Situ Control of Lubricant Properties for Reduction of Power Cylinder Friction through Thermal Barrier Coating

Lowering lubricant viscosity to reduce friction generally carries a side-effect of increased metal-metal contact in mixed or boundary lubrication, for example near top ring reversal along the engine cylinder liner. A strategy to reduce viscosity without increased metal-metal contact involves controlling the local viscosity away from top-ring-reversal locations. This paper discusses the implementation of insulation or thermal barrier coating (TBC) as a means of reducing local oil viscosity and power cylinder friction in internal combustion engines with minimal side-effects of increased wear. TBC is selectively applied to the outside diameter of the cylinder liner to increase the local oil temperature along the liner. Due to the temperature dependence of oil viscosity, the increase in temperature from insulation results in a decrease in the local oil viscosity.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Base Oil Viscosity Temperature Dependence For Power Cylinder Friction Reduction

Lubricant viscosity along the engine cylinder liner varies by an order of magnitude due to local temperature variation and vaporization effects. Tremendous potential exists for fuel economy improvement by optimizing local viscosity variations for specific operating conditions. Methods for analytical estimation of friction and wear in the power-cylinder system are reviewed and used to quantify opportunities for improving mechanical efficiency and fuel economy through lubricant formulation tailored specifically to liner temperature distributions. Temperature dependent variations in kinematic viscosity, density, shear thinning, and lubricant composition are investigated. Models incorporating the modified Reynolds equation were used to estimate friction and wear under the top ring and piston skirt of a typical 11.0 liter diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the Rotary Engine Apex Seal Lubrication

The Wankel rotary engine is more compact than conventional piston engines, but its oil and fuel consumption must be reduced to satisfy emission standards and customer expectations. A key step toward this goal is to develop a better understanding of the apex seal lubrication to reduce oil injection while reducing friction and maintaining adequate wear. This paper presents an apex seal dynamics model capable of estimating relative wear and predicting friction, by modeling the gas and oil flows at the seal interfaces with the rotor housing and groove flanks. Model predictions show that a thin oil film can reduce wear and friction, but to a limited extent as the apex seal running face profile is sharp due to the engine kinematics.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Bearing Wear and Its Influence Upon Bearing Performance Based on Elastohydrodynamic Analysis

This paper reports attempts to gain better understanding of the influence of bearing wear on the performance of hydrodynamically lubricated bearings. An analysis was carried out on bearings from a Sapphire bearing test rig using an elastohydrodynamic model. This involved the use of both the original and worn bearing surface profiles. The results indicated that bearing wear could improve the lubrication conditions. Also the progress of wear in the bearing was simulated using a simple model of the wear process. This model predicted that the wear would progress at a reducing rate. The predicted wear agreed well with measurements both in terms of the wear profile and the location of wear.