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Technical Paper

Development of a New-Generation Lightweight 3-Liter V6 Nissan Engine

1994-03-01
940991
This paper presents a new-generation, lightweight, 3-liter V6 engine that has been developed for use in the next Nissan Maxima. The distinctive features of this new engine, VQ30DE, is its compact, lightweight design and excellent fuel economy. The basic construction of the engine is characterized by its 60-degree V6 configuration, chain-driven DOHC and high-pressure die cast aluminum cylinder block. A two-way cooling system was adopted with the aim of shortening the warm-up time of the cylinder liners. The new engine has been designed to comply with the tougher emission standards, the OBD-II requirements and California's new evaporative emission standard.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Performance TiA1 Exhaust Valve

1996-02-01
960303
A new high-performance and lightweight TiA1 intermetallic compound exhaust valve has been developed. The TiA1 valve can improve power output and fuel economy by contributing higher engine speeds and a reduction in valvetrain friction. It was achieved by developing a Ti-33.5A1-0.5Si-1Nb-0.5Cr (mass%) intermetallic compound, a precision casting method for TiA1 that provides a low-cost, high-quality process, and a plasma carburizing technique for assuring good wear resistance on the valve stem end, stem and face.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Pitting Resistance of Transmission Gears by Plasma Carburizing Process

1994-03-01
940727
The application of both high strength gear steels and shot peening technology has succeeded in strengthening automotive transmission gears. This technology, though, improves mainly the fatigue strength at the tooth root, but not the pitting property at the tooth face. Therefore, demand has moved to the development of new gear steels with good pitting resistance. In order to improve pitting resistance, the authors studied super carburizing which is characterized by carbide dispersion in the case, especially processed with a plasma carburizing furnace. Firstly, the influence of the carburizing temperature and carburizing period on the carbide morphology was investigated and the optimum carburizing conditions were determined. Secondly, the fatigue strength and pitting resistance was evaluated using carbide dispersed specimens.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Speed Steel Based Sintered Material for High Performance Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts

1998-02-23
980328
The demands on valve seat insert materials, in terms of providing greater wear-resistance at higher temperatures, enhanced machinability and using non-environmentally hazardous materials at a reasonably low cost have intensified in recent years. Due therefore to these strong demands in the market, research was made into the possibility of producing a new valve seat insert material. As a result a high speed steel based new improved material was developed, which satisfies the necessary required demands and the evaluation trials, using actual gasoline engine endurance tests, were found to be very successful.
Technical Paper

Effect of Composition, Particle Size, and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Al-4.5 wt.% Cu Based Alumina Particulate Reinforced Composites

1998-02-23
980700
The quest for higher efficiency and performance of automotive vehicles requires application of materials with high strength, stiffness and lower weight in their construction. Particulate-reinforced aluminum-matrix composites are cost-competitive materials, which can meet these requirements. MMCC, Inc. has been optimizing particulate-reinforced alloy systems and developing the Advanced Pressure Infiltration Casting (APIC™) process for the manufacture of components from these materials. This paper discusses the results of a recent study in which composites reinforced with 55 vol.% alumina were cast using two sizes of alumina particulate and eight different matrix alloys based on Al-4.5 wt.% Cu with varying amounts of silicon and magnesium. Optimum heat treatments for each alloy were determined utilizing microhardness studies. The tensile strength and fracture toughness were evaluated as a function of alloy chemistry, particulate size, and heat treatment.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Strength Valve Spring

1989-02-01
890220
Development of a high strength valve spring for automotive engines achieves higher power output and better fuel economy. New material which consists of finely structure and subjected to advanced shot peening, has been developed. Stress analysis of the valve spring moving edge, using the finite element method, has been done for effective application. The merits of this new spring have been confirmed by engine experiments.
Technical Paper

New PM Valve Seat Insert Materials for High Performance Engines

1992-02-01
920570
Internal combustion engines experience severe valve train wear and the reduction of valve seat and seat insert wear has been a long-standing issue. In this work, worn valve seats and inserts were examined to obtain a fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms and the results were applied in developing new valve seat insert materials. The new exhaust valve insert material for gasoline engines is a sintered alloy steel containing Co-base hard particles, with lead infiltrated only for inserts used in unleaded gasoline engines. The new intake valve insert material for gasoline engines is a high-Mo sintered steel, obtained through transient liquid phase sintering and with copper precipitated uniformly. This material can be used for both leaded and unleaded gasoline engines. Valve and valve seat insert wear has long been an issue of concern to engine designers and manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Development of High Strength Transmission Gears

1992-02-01
920761
High strength transmission gears have been developed for use in the final gear set of front-wheel-drive vehicles. The steel used as the gear material has a higher molybdenum content, allowing more austenite to be retained following carburizing than is possible with chromium steel. As a result, the steel can be subjected to higher intensity shot peening by using harder peening particles which are projected by an air-nozzle peening system. With this procedure, the fatigue strength of the gears can be increased 1.6 times over that of conventional gears.
Technical Paper

Metallurgical and Process Variables Affecting the Resistance Spot Weldability of Galvanized Sheet Steels

1984-02-01
840113
Zinc coating integrity, composition, thickness, roughness, and the presence of Fe-Zn intermetallics are being investigated with regard to the mechanisms of weld nugget formation. This information is being used in conjunction with the optimization of the weld process parameters; such as upsloping, down-sloping, preheating, postheating, and double pulsing, to provide the widest range of acceptable welding conditions. Dynamic inspection monitoring of the welding current, voltage, force, and nugget displacement is being used to follow the progression of nugget formation and to assist in the evaluation of optimum process and material characteristics. It has been found that hot-dipped galvanized materials with coatings which have a very thin Fe-Zn alloy layer, have a wider range of acceptable welding conditions than the commercial galvannealed products, which have a fully alloyed Fe-Zn coating.
Technical Paper

The Development on Cold Forging Technique to form a Component of the Constant Velocity Joint

1985-02-01
850353
Cold forging has been applied to form a component of the constant velocity joint. This part, slide joint housing, is made of JIS S48C (SAE 1048) high carbon steel. As it has been very difficult to form this part by cold forging, it has been formed by hot forging up until now. Success was obtained in forming this part by cold forging through improving the chemical composition of S48C high carbon steel and tool design, determining the optimum condition for heat treating the slug, and using a TiC coated punch. Since this slide joint housing, which is nearly net shape, was able to be formed through this cold forging technique, material saving was improved about 40% and machining time was reduced much in comparison with hot forging. Manufacturing cost can be greatly reduced through this cold forging which has been developed.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Noise Abatement with Porous Sintered Metal Silencer

1985-02-01
850326
The exhaust system is often one of the main sources of vehicle noise. A new type of exhaust silencer made of porous sintered aluminum and installed at the end of the exhaust tube considerably reduces this noise, with no rise in back pressure. The mechanism of noise abatement is analyzed utilizing fluid dynamic analysis techniques. It is concluded that noise reduction results mainly from the fluid dynamic effects arising from the gas permeability of the material. Among these effects are the boundary layer control effect of the inner flow, flattening of the velocity profile, heat dispersion effect, decrease in turbulence of flow, smoothing of exhaust pulsation, contraction of the mixing region, and the resulting large decrease in the volume of the noise source. In regard to acoustical effect, the sintered metal can be thought of as Helmholtz resonators. The change in the end condition as an acoustic tube also reduces the peak level of acoustic resonance.
Technical Paper

High Strength Steel for Cylinder Head Bolt

1984-02-01
840573
JIS SCM440M (SAE4140H), heat treated to the strength level of 120 to 140 kgf/mm2(171 to 199 ksi) -ISO 12.9 class-, is currently used for cylinder head bolts of Japanese passenger cars. Lower alloy steels, such as SAE 1541 for example, have not been substituted for JIS SCM440H so far because of their high susceptibility to delayed fracture. Daido Steel has tackled this problem and succeeded in applying the lower alloy SAE 1541 steel to 12.9 class cylinder head bolts by enhancing the resistance to delayed fracture by reducing impurities, especially sulphur. In this paper mechanical properties and delayed fracture characteristics of SAE 1541-ULS (Ultra Low Sulphur) steel are reported. 1541-ULS (S<0.005%, S+P< 0.020%) shows outstanding resistance to delayed fracture compared to conventional steel. Furthermore, the amount of MnS inclusions decreases remarkably in ULS steel, which results in high toughness.
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Hydro-Mechanical Sheet Metal Forming

1999-09-28
1999-01-3207
Recent industry trends have resulted in growing interest among automakers in low to medium volume manufacturing. The expansion of automobile production into developing economies and the desire to produce specialized vehicles for niche markets have pressed the automakers to find cost effective solutions for manufacturing at low volumes, particularly with regard to sheet metal forming. Conventional high volume stamping operations rely heavily on achieving minimum scale economies which occur at about 200,000 parts per year. These scale economies are mainly dictated by the efficient use of the standard, expensive cast iron dies. These dies can cost well over one million dollars depending on the part, and in return offer tool lives over 5 million strokes. Die investment can be reduced by changing the stamping process technology. Hydro-mechanical forming has been proposed as a promising low volume alternative to conventional stamping.
Technical Paper

Novel Near-Net-Shape Tool-Less Method for Manufacturing of Cast Metal Matrix Composites: Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP) of Ceramic Preforms Combined with Investment Casting Technology

2000-03-06
2000-01-0675
New three-dimensional printing technology (3DP) developed at MIT was tried as a manufacturing method to fabricate ceramic preforms for a discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. Minor modifications to the “legacy” 3DP technology allowed to produce such preforms successfully. Preforms were then infiltrated with liquid aluminum resulting in composite materials as strong as produced via conventional methods. Net shape connecting rod preforms were 3D-printed and used to produce composite connecting rods without building any molds or tooling using novel Tool-less Mold™ technology.
Technical Paper

Development of Nissan's New Generation 4-Cylinder Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0328
This paper describes the new inline 4-cylinder QR engine series that is available in 2.0-liter and 2.5-liter versions. The next-generation QR engine series incorporates new and improved technologies to provide an optimum balance of power, quietness and fuel economy. Its quiet operation results from the adoption of a compact balancer system and the reduced weight of major moving parts. Power and fuel economy have been enhanced by a two-stage cooling system, a continuous variable valve timing control system, a dual close coupled catalyst system, electronic throttle control and an improved direct-injection system. The latter includes an improved combustion chamber concept and improved fuel spray characteristics achieved by driving the injector by battery voltage. A lightweight and compact engine design has been achieved by adopting a high-pressure die cast aluminum cylinder block, resin intake manifold and rocker cover and a serpentine belt drive.
Technical Paper

Development of High Impact Strength Case Hardening Steel

2003-03-03
2003-01-1310
Improving the impact strength of the differential gears is one way to reduce the size and weight of the final drive unit. Previously, we developed high-strength steel for gear use by adding molybdenum and reducing impurities such as phosphorus and sulfur. However, additional improvement of impact strength is required these days due to higher engine torque and demands for further weight reductions. Toward that end, we focused on boron, which has been used as an element for improving hardenability, and analyzed what effect its addition would have on impact strength. Useful knowledge was obtained for improving impact strength through enhancement of grain boundary toughness. Various steels were then produced experimentally and used in gear strength tests. The results made it possible to improve impact strength while reducing the content of other alloys, resulting in the development of a chromium-molybdenum-boron case hardening steel with superior cold forgeabilty.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Cobalt-Free Exhaust Valve Seat Insert

2004-03-08
2004-01-0502
Generally, cobalt-contained sintered materials have mainly been applied for exhaust valve seat inserts (VSI). However, there is a trend to restrict the use of cobalt as well as lead environmental law, and cobalt is expensive. To solve these problems, a new exhaust VSI on the assumption of being cobalt and lead free, applicable for conventional engines, having good machinability, and with a reduced cost was developed. The new exhaust VSI is a material dispersed with two types of hard particles, Fe-Cr-C and Fe-Mo-Si, in the matrix of an Fe-3.5mass%Mo at the ratio of 15 mass % and 10 mass % respectively.
Technical Paper

Research on High Strength Material and Its Surface Modification for Parts Used Under Rolling Contact Cycles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0633
This paper describes a newly developed steel composition and surface modification methods for improving the rolling contact fatigue strength of parts used in transmission systems, especially continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) to increase their torque capacity. The mechanisms of two types of typical rolling contact fatigue phenomenon in case hardening steel were examined with the aim of improving rolling contact fatigue strength. One concerned white etching constituents (WEC) and the other one concerned peculiar microstructural changes caused by hydrogen originating from decomposition of the lubrication oil as a result of repeated rolling contact stress cycles. The rolling contact fatigue strength limit due to WEC has been improved markedly by dispersing fine M23C6 alloy carbides in the martensite matrix at the subsurface layer of parts.
Technical Paper

Axiomatic Design of Automobile Suspension and Steering Systems: Proposal for a Novel Six-Bar Suspension

2004-03-08
2004-01-0811
The existing vehicle designs exhibit a high level of coupling. For instance the coupling in the suspension and steering systems manifests itself through the change in wheel alignment parameters (WAP) due to suspension travel. This change in the WAP causes directional instability and tire-wear. The approach of the industry to solve this problem has been twofold. The first approach has been optimization of suspension link lengths to reduce the change in WAP to zero. Since this is not possible with the existing architecture, the solution used is the optimization of the spring stiffness K to get a compromise solution for comfort (which requires significant suspension travel and hence a soft spring) and directional stability (which demands least possible change in wheel alignment parameters and hence a stiff spring).
Technical Paper

Development of a Wear Resistant Aluminum Alloy for Automotive Components

1999-03-01
1999-01-0350
Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy 390, containing large amounts of hard silicon particles, has mainly been used for wear-resistant alloy applications. In the case of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys, the primary silicon particle size and distribution must be controlled to obtain stable wear resistance. The service life of furnaces and molds is shortened by the high melting and casting temperatures required for controlling primary silicon. Furthermore, machinability is degraded by large primary silicon particles. To overcome these problems, a new wear-resistant Al-Si alloy has been developed which provides good castability and machinability. This alloy also has wear resistance and mechanical properties similar to those of the 390 alloy. Specifically, the problems regarding castability and machinability were solved by decreasing the silicon content of the 390 alloy, but that also reduced wear resistance.
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