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Technical Paper

A Look at the Automotive-Turbine Regenerator System and Proposals to Improve Performance and Reduce Cost

1997-02-24
970237
The adoption of turbine engines for automotive power plants has been hampered by the high cost, high leakage and high wear rate of present designs of ceramic-matrix regenerators. Proposals are made and analyzed here for design directions to achieve substantial improvements in all three areas. These include lower-cost extruded and pressed matrices; and clamping seals coupled with incremental movement of the rotary-regenerator matrix.
Technical Paper

Nissan's New Production System: Intelligent Body Assembly System

1991-02-01
910816
Car makers are working hard today to shorten development and production lead times through the use of flexibile manufacturing systems(FMSs)to meet diversified and individualized customer requirements. To achieve this goal, Nissan has been developing many kinds of new technologies and systems such as: (1) the intelligent body assembly system for body assembly processes; (2) a press die stamping simulation method and unified database for press die manufacturing; (3) a robot and facility teaching system using CAD data; (4) an automated assembly line for trim and chassis assembly operations. These new FMS methods have been implemented in many manufacturing areas, including the stamping shop, body assembly shop, painting shop and trim and chassis shop. This paper focuses mainly on the intelligent body assembly system as a typical example of the new production systems and technologies being developed at Nissan.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-Layer Plastic Fuel Tanks for Nissan Research Vehicle-II

1987-02-01
870304
Plastic fuel tanks are light in weight and rustproof, and have good design flexibility. For those currently in use, however, which are made of mono-layer high-density polyethylene, fuel permeability is too high to meet U.S. evaporative emission standards, which are stricter than those in Japan or the EEC. For minimize fuel permeation, the formation of a harrier layer of polyamide resin by multilayer (three-resin five-layer) blow molding is considered more promising than sulphonation or fluorination treatment of the polyethylene resin. This paper describes the fuel permeation mechanism, then outlines the development of a multi-layer plastic fuel tank, discussion its structural features and the development of resins.
Technical Paper

Extremely Formable Cold Rolled Sheet Steel with Ultra-High Lankford and n Values - Metallurgy and Formabilities

1993-03-01
930783
Extremely formable cold sheet steel with an ultra-high Lankford value of more than 2.5 and an n value of more than 0.27 has been developed. This steel is obtained due to the following factors; using extremely pure IF (Interstitial free) steel, immediate rapid cooling upon completion of rolling in the hot rolling process, a high reduction in the cold rolling process, and a high soaking temperature in the continuous annealing process. This steel sheet shows excellent deep drawability and stretch formability compared with conventional steel sheet (former IF steel and low carbon aluminum-killed steel) as a result of evaluating the limiting drawing ratio and limiting dome height, respectively. This excellent formability is also shown by the model forming tests for simulating the actual stamping of an oilpan and a side-panel. Furthermore, this steel shows the same spot-weldability as that of former IF steel, and zinc phosphatability similar to that of low carbon aluminum-killed steel.
Technical Paper

Development of Laser-Textured Dull Steel Sheets with Superior Press Formability

1993-03-01
930808
Surface roughness of steel sheet for automotive use is one of the most important control items, because the surface roughness influences image clarity of painted surface, press formability and easiness in handling during manufacturing and processing of steel sheets. Laser texturing technology is introduced into a roll finishing process of cold rolling, and new type of regular surface roughness profile can be processed on the surface of steel sheets. Effective application method of this technology is investigated at the present day. In Japan, Laser-textured dull steel sheets are used for outer-panels of automotive body as the first application. And image clarity after painting of outer panels has been successful in improving. Nowadays, Laser texturing technology is actually used for manufacturing the high image clarity steel sheets, and they are manufactured in large quantities. Another application of Laser texturing technology is for the inner parts which require pressformability.
Technical Paper

Draw Bead Penetration as a Control Element of Material Flow

1993-03-01
930517
Draw beads are widely utilized as a mechanism for providing proper restraining force to a sheet in a forming operation. In this paper, numerical simulations using the nonlinear finite element method are conducted to model the process of drawing a sheet through various draw bead configurations to study the mechanics of draw bead restraint. By examing the sensitivity of the draw bead restraining force due to the change of the draw bead penetration, the work shows that the penetration has the potential to be a very good element for varying and controlling restraining force during the process. A closed-loop feedback control of draw bead penetration using a proportional-integral controller is achieved by the combination of the original finite element simulation and a special element which links penetration to a pre-defined restraining force trajectory.
Technical Paper

A CAD-Driven Flexible Forming System for Three-Dimensional Sheet Metal Parts

1993-03-01
930282
A novel system for the forming of three dimensional sheet metal parts is described that can form a variety of part shapes without the need for fixed tooling, and given only geometry (CAD) information about the desired part. The central elements of this system are a tooling concept based on a programmable discrete die surface and closed-loop shape control. The former give the process the degrees of freedom to change shape rapidly, and the latter is used to insure that the correct shape is formed with a minimum of forming trials. A 540 kN (60 ton) lab press has been constructed with a 0.3 m (12 in) square pair of discrete tools that can be rapidly re-shaped between forming trials. The shape control system uses measured part shapes to determine a shape error and to correct the tooling shape. This correction is based on a unique “Deformation Transfer Function” approach using a spatial frequency decomposition of the surface.
Technical Paper

Optimal Forming of Aluminum 2008-T4 Conical Cups Using Force Trajectory Control

1993-03-01
930286
In this paper we investigate the optimal forming of conical cups of AL 2008-T4 through the use of real-time process control. We consider a flat, frictional binder the force of which can be determined precisely through closed-loop control. Initially the force is held constant throughout the forming of the cup, and various levels of force are tested experimentally and with numerical simulation. Excellent agreement between experiment and simulation is observed. The effects of binder force on cup shape, thickness distribution, failure mode and cup failure height are investigated, and an “optimal” constant binder force is determined. For this optimal case, the corresponding punch force is recorded as a function of punch displacement and is used in subsequent closed-loop control experiments. In addition to the constant force test, a trial variable binder force test was performed to extend the failure height beyond that obtained using the “optimal” constant force level.
Technical Paper

On-Line Painted Thermal Plastic Exterior Body Panels for Nissan Be-1 and Application to CAE

1988-02-01
880034
This paper describes the plastic body panels developed for the Nissan Be-1 which was released and put on sale in Japan in January 1987. The panels include four body parts: left and right front fenders, front apron and rear apron. They are made of a thermoplastic resin and are produced by injection molding. The top paint coat can be sprayed on all four panels simultaneously with other steel body panels. The panels provide a high-quality appearance that is in no way inferior to the paint quality of steel panels. This is true during initial use as well as over long periods of time. Besides providing weight reductions, they also deliver improved resistance to impacts. CAE process was applied to develop these panels and proved to be quite effective.
Technical Paper

Application of 980 MPa Grade Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0625
There are strong demands for vehicle weight reductions so as to improve fuel economy. At the same time, it is also necessary to ensure crash safety. One effective measure for accomplishing such both requirements conflicting each other is to apply advanced high strength steel (AHSS) of 780 MPa grade or higher to the vehicle body. On the other hand, higher strength steels generally tend to display lower elongation causing formability deterioration. Nissan Motor Corporation have jointly developed with steel manufacturers a new 980 MPa grade AHSS with high formability with the aim of substituting it for the currently used 590 MPa grade high-tensile steel. Several application technologies have been developed through the verifications such as formability, resistance spot weldability, crashworthiness, and delayed fracture.
Technical Paper

The Development on Cold Forging Technique to form a Component of the Constant Velocity Joint

1985-02-01
850353
Cold forging has been applied to form a component of the constant velocity joint. This part, slide joint housing, is made of JIS S48C (SAE 1048) high carbon steel. As it has been very difficult to form this part by cold forging, it has been formed by hot forging up until now. Success was obtained in forming this part by cold forging through improving the chemical composition of S48C high carbon steel and tool design, determining the optimum condition for heat treating the slug, and using a TiC coated punch. Since this slide joint housing, which is nearly net shape, was able to be formed through this cold forging technique, material saving was improved about 40% and machining time was reduced much in comparison with hot forging. Manufacturing cost can be greatly reduced through this cold forging which has been developed.
Technical Paper

Low-cost FC Stack Concept with Increased Power Density and Simplified Configuration: Utilizing an Advanced MEA with Integrated Molded Frame

2011-05-17
2011-39-7260
In 2006, Nissan began limited leasing of the X-TRAIL FCV equipped with their in-house developed Fuel Cell (FC) stack. Since then, the FC stack has been improved in durability, cold start-up capability, cost and size with the aim of promoting full-scale commercialization of FCVs. However, reduction of cost and size has remained a significant challenge because limited mass transport through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) has made it difficult to increase the rated current density of the FC. Furthermore, it has been difficult to reduce the variety of FC stack components due to the complex stack configuration. In this study, improvements have been achieved mainly by adopting an advanced MEA to overcome these difficulties. First, the adoption of a new MEA and separators has improved mass transport through the MEA for increased rated current density. Second, an integrated molded frame (IMF) has been adopted as the MEA support.
Technical Paper

Development of GF-5 0W-20 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil for DLC-Coated Valve Lifters

2014-04-01
2014-01-1478
A suitable GF-5 engine oil formulation is investigated to improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines with hydrogen-free DLC-coated valve lifters. Molybdenum dithocarbamate (MoDTC) is shown to be a suitable friction modifier for low viscosity grade engine oils like 0W-20. A suitable Ca salicylate detergent is also determined from several types examined for maximizing the friction reduction effects of MoDTC. The most suitable Ca salicylate has a chemical structure capable of forming a borophosphate glass film on metal surfaces, which is known to improve the effects of MoDTC. A high viscosity index Group III base oil (VI>140) is also effective in improving fuel efficiency. It is further clarified that the structural design of the polymethacrylate viscosity modifier is another important factor in reducing engine friction.
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Hydro-Mechanical Sheet Metal Forming

1999-09-28
1999-01-3207
Recent industry trends have resulted in growing interest among automakers in low to medium volume manufacturing. The expansion of automobile production into developing economies and the desire to produce specialized vehicles for niche markets have pressed the automakers to find cost effective solutions for manufacturing at low volumes, particularly with regard to sheet metal forming. Conventional high volume stamping operations rely heavily on achieving minimum scale economies which occur at about 200,000 parts per year. These scale economies are mainly dictated by the efficient use of the standard, expensive cast iron dies. These dies can cost well over one million dollars depending on the part, and in return offer tool lives over 5 million strokes. Die investment can be reduced by changing the stamping process technology. Hydro-mechanical forming has been proposed as a promising low volume alternative to conventional stamping.
Technical Paper

Alternative Tooling Technologies for Low Volume Stamping

1999-09-28
1999-01-3216
Low volume manufacturing has become increasingly important for the automotive industry. Globalization trends have led automakers and their suppliers to operate in developing regions where minimum efficient scales can not always be achieved. With proper maintenance, standard cast iron stamping tools can be used to produce millions of parts, but require large investments. Thus at high production volumes, the impact of the tooling investment on individual piece costs is minimized. However, at low volumes there is a substantial cost penalty. In light of the trends towards localized manufacturing and relatively low demands in some developing markets, low cost stamping tools are needed. Several alternate tooling technologies exist, each of which require significantly lower initial investments, but suffer from greatly reduced tool lives. However, the use of these technologies at intermediate to high volumes requires multiple tool sets thus eliminating their cost advantage.
Technical Paper

Development of a Technique for Using Oil Viscosity to Reduce Noise Radiated from the Oil Pan

1999-05-17
1999-01-1759
We have developed a vibration damping technique for the Oil Pan to reduce radiation noise. This technique makes use of oil viscosity. To increase vibration damping of oil pan, we use oil viscosity by forming a thin oil film between the oil pan bottom and an added inner plate. This paper presents the results of vibration tests that were conducted to study the oil damping mechanism and results of applying to a small high-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Detailed Calculation of Heating, Evaporation, and Reaction Processes of a Thin Liquid Layer of Hydrocarbon Fuel

2000-03-06
2000-01-0959
A one-dimensional model has been developed for the species and energy transfer over a thin (0.1-0.5 mm) layer of liquid fuel present on the wall of a spark-ignition engine. Time-varying boundary conditions during compression and flame passage were used to determine the rate of methanol vaporization and oxidation over a mid-speed, mid-load cycle, as a function of wall temperature. The heat of vaporization and the boiling point of the fuel were varied about a baseline to determine the effect of these characteristics, at a fixed operating point and lean conditions (ϕ = 0.9). The calculations show that the evaporation of fuels from layers on cold walls starts during flame passage, peaking a few milliseconds later, and continuing through the exhaust phase.
Technical Paper

Engine Wear Modeling with Sensitivity to Lubricant Chemistry: A Theoretical Framework

2007-04-16
2007-01-1566
The life of an automotive engine is often limited by the ability of its components to resist wear. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) is an engine oil additive that reduces wear in an engine by forming solid antiwear films at points of moving contact. The effects of this additive are fairly well understood, but there is little theory behind the kinetics of antiwear film formation and removal. This lack of dynamic modeling makes it difficult to predict the effects of wear at the design stage for an engine component or a lubricant formulation. The purpose of this discussion is to develop a framework for modeling the formation and evolution of ZDDP antiwear films based on the relevant chemical pathways and physical mechanisms at work.
Technical Paper

Application of Hydroforming Simulation on Development of Automobile Parts

2002-03-04
2002-01-0786
Hydrofrorming is an efficient forming process to produce automotive parts for reducing weight of cars. In order to reduce the period of development of hydrofoming parts, numerical simulation using FEM is applied to evaluate formability. A pipe needs to be bent before hydroforming for forming complicated shape parts. A pipe bending process is also necessary to FEM simulation. In this paper, a highly effective method to create a bent pipe FEM model based on geometrical changing between a pipe before and after bending is proposed. The widely used draw bending process is supposed to be applied. The method can construct the model in a short time. Therefore total computation time can be reduced drastically. The effects of number of integration points and elements to the computed results and springback prediction after bending are also investigated. The proposed method are applied to a actual part, the computed results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Development of a Highly Efficient Manufacturing Method for a Plastic Intake Manifold

2002-03-04
2002-01-0605
A plastic intake manifold has been developed for the new QR engine. This manifold has an intricate shape owing to its performance and layout requirements. The die slide injection (DSI) method was selected to manufacture this complicated shape using the world's first application of a common mold forming technique for a three-piece structure. This paper describes the manufacturing technology and the measures adopted to ensure the strength of welded parts, which is a key point of this method. The benefits obtained by applying this plastic intake manifold to the new engine are also described.
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