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Technical Paper

Intelligent Sensing System to Infer DriverS Intention

An approach to designing an intelligent vehicle controller for partially supporting driver operation of a vehicle is proposed. Vehicle behavior is regarded as a system performed by the interaction between the driving environment, vehicle as a machine and driver expectations for the vehicle movements. Driver intention to accelerate or decelerate is mainly generated by the perception of the driving environment. The model we propose involves information on the driving environment affecting driver intention taking driver differences in perceiving the driving environment into account. An engineering model for installing the vehicle controller is expressed by a multipurpose decision-maker allowing explicit treatment of the driving environment, vehicle action, and driver intention. A reasoning engine deals with differences in individual driver traits for generating intention to decelerate by using fuzzy integrals and fuzzy measures.
Technical Paper

Chain Representations of Dimensional Control: A Producibility Input for Concurrent Concept Design

Two critical milestones that must be achieved during concept design are 1) definition of a product architecture that meets performance, producibility, and strategic objectives, and 2) estimation of the integration risk in each candidate concept. This paper addresses these issues by describing the role played by the producibility members of an Integrated Product Team (IPT) during concept design. Our focus is on the execution of the what we call the “chain method”, which illustrates the structure of function delivery in a concept in a simple pictorial way and helps the IPT to understand the advantages or disadvantages of using a modular or an integral product architecture. The producibility members play a central role in capturing and evaluating the chains for different candidate concepts and decompositions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Improvement of Vehicle Roll Behavior

Vehicle roll behavior has a large influence on how drivers evaluate handling performance. This paper describes an approach to quantifying roll behavior experimentally and presents a method for designing suspension properties to improve the sensation of roll. In this study, it was found that using pitch motion as an evaluation index results in good correspondence with subjective evaluations. To obtain acceptable roll behavior, it is important to control pitch motion during roll to a lower mode at the front end relative to the rear. This desirable behavior can be achieved by designing suitable roll center characteristics, nonlinear load changes and damping force coefficients.
Technical Paper

Factoring Nonlinear Kinematics into New Suspension Design: A CAE Approach to Vehicle Roll Dynamics

Over the past several decades, vehicle dynamics have been treated mainly on the basis of linear theories. An actual vehicle, however, also shows nonlinear properties such as roll behavior induced by movement of the roll axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the vehicle roll dynamics in the nonlinear range. Suspensions were divided into two categories and computer-aided engineering (CAE) was used to conduct analyses of complicated kinematics. The results obtained provided theoretical support for designing the Multi-Link Beam Rear Suspension, a new type of suspension for front-wheel-drive cars.
Technical Paper

A Study of Technology for Assembling Vehicle Endurance Reliability

The ways in which vehicles are used in the field are continually becoming more diverse. In order to provide the optimum solution with respect to performance and weight, it is necessary to be able to assure vehicle endurance reliability with a high degree of accuracy in relation to the manner of use in each market. This situation has increased the importance of accurately quantifying the ways in which vehicles are used in the field and of designing vehicles with sufficient endurance reliability to match the usage requirements. This report presents a “market model” by which the manner of usage in the field can be treated quantitatively using combinations of environmental factors that influence the road load, drive load and corrosion load, representing typical loads vehicles must withstand.
Technical Paper

ASICs for Electronic Instrument Cluster

ASICs (Application-specific ICs) offer one solution to the problems of quality, cost and installability associated with the increasingly larger-capacity Electronic Control Units (ECUs) in automobiles. A method was, therefore, created for designing automotive ASICs. Using the method, three ASICs were developed which, together, incorporate all of the functions of the electronic instrument cluster. The core ASIC contains the speedometer and system functions, and the other two ASICs contain the tachometer and gauge functions, respectively. This set of three ASICs allows an electronic instrument cluster design which is two times more reliable, and one-second the cost that conventional systems (with a micro-processor and discrete components).
Technical Paper

A New CAD/CAM System for the Car Design Process

Sophisticated product designs enrich people's lives and social demands for creation of good designs are quite strong. In the automobile industry, good design quality is one of the principal factors for determining market competitiveness. In this situation where good design quality is required of every product, the authors have developed a CAD/CAM system which makes it possible to create good and accurate designs by translating designers' ideas directly and quickly into high quality CAD models, a capability that has long been desired. With this high performance system, freely formed curves and surfaces can be easily manipulated with a man-machine interface familiar to industrial designers accutomed to the conventional design process. The system also integrates photo-realistic rendering, stereography and NC milling machines for verifying differences between the realized shape and the image in the designer's mind.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Mount Optimization Method Using Modal Parameters

The purpose of this study was to develop a simple optimization method for use in designing vibration insulators. With this method, stiffness, location and inclination of each insulator are used as design parameters. A performance index consisting of vehicle modal parameters expressed as eigenvalues and eigenvectors has been constructed to evaluate low-frequency idle/shake performance and higher frequency vibration performance involving road/engine inputs. Using this performance index and the sensitivity of the modal parameters, a designer can easily find a suitable direction for optimizing mount performance and thereby obtain a stable solution. The new method was employed to optimize an engine mount system. Experimental data obtained on the system validated the accuracy of the calculated results and showed an improvement in idle/shake performance. This method is a useful tool in designing optimum vibration insulators.
Technical Paper

Application of the AI Technique to a CAD System for Automobiles

An expert system has been developed for use in designing exhaust tube layout. Featuring artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, this system is included in our CAD system. It provides designers with information for detecting and correcting design mistakes, based on a body of rules consisting of design standards and accumulated know-how. As a result, it shortens design time and reduces errors. This system is also useful for standardizing design procedures and transmitting techniques accurately. This paper describes the new system and application to exhaust tube layout design. It discusses various problems that must be solved in applying AI techniques to the automobile design process as well as areas and methods of application.
Technical Paper

Color Shading Technology for Design CAD Systems

ONE ISSUE IN NEW VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT that has become increasingly more important is the need to put attractive vehicles on the market at the right time. In recent years vehicle design has become a very crucial factor in this effort. Automakers are required to create vehicles having a higher quality design in a shorter period of time and supply them to the market in a timely fashion. As part of the effort to meet these requirements the automakers have developed a variety of CAD/CAM systems, which counterparts in Industry in general. Although most CAD/CAM systems are currently being used primarily at the design and manufacturing stages, the full potential of CAD systems has yet to be realized at the design stage. At Nissan, we have developed a CAD styling system called the Digitized Image Modeling System (DIMS), which serves as a support tool for the creation of new vehicle designs.
Technical Paper

Variable Characteristic Permanent Magnet Motor for Automobile Application

This paper describes a variable magnetomotive force interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine for use as a traction motor on automobiles in order to reduce total energy consumption during duty cycles and cut costs by using Dy-free magnets. First, the principle of a variable magnetomotive force flux-intensifying IPM (VFI-IPM) machine is explained. A theoretical operating point analysis of the magnets using a simplified model with nonlinear B-H characteristics is presented and the results are confirmed by nonlinear finite element analysis. Four types of magnet layouts were investigated for the magnetic circuit design. It was found that a radial magnetization direction with a single magnet is suitable for the VFI-IPM machine. Magnetization controllability was investigated with respect to the magnet thickness, width and coercive force for the prototype design. The estimated variable motor speed and torque characteristics are presented.
Technical Paper

A Model Based Design Methodology for Variable Flux PMSMs to Obtain Desired Speed-Torque Characteristics

Variable flux permanent magnet synchronous machines (VFPMSMs) have been designed by using finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate speed-torque capability considering requirement for magnetization state (MS) manipulation. However, due to its unique characteristic to change the MS, numerous combinations of design parameters need to be evaluated to achieve a final design. To accelerate the design process, this paper presents a method that consists of an equivalent magnetic circuit model and a process to obtain magnet width and thickness that satisfy target maximum torque and power factor (P.F.) capability. This model includes magnet operating point analysis under given magnet width and thickness condition to achieve target MS and avoid demagnetization at full load. This analysis provides desired stator magnetomotive force, magnet and stator induced flux linkage. Therefore, expected torque and P.F. capability is calculated.
Technical Paper

Application of a Lean Cellular Design Decomposition to Automotive Component Manufacturing System Design

A design framework based on the principles of lean manufacturing and axiomatic design was used as a guideline for designing an automotive component manufacturing system. A brief overview of this design decomposition is given to review its structure and usefulness. Examples are examined to demonstrate how this design framework was applied to the design of a gear manufacturing system. These examples demonstrate the impact that low-level design decisions can have on high-level system objectives and the need for a systems-thinking approach in manufacturing system design. Results are presented to show the estimated performance improvements resulting from the new system design.
Technical Paper

The Production System Design and Deployment Framework

This session keynote paper presents a framework for designing and deploying production systems. The framework enables the communication and determination of objectives and design solutions from the highest level to the lowest level of a manufacturing enterprise. The design methodology ensures that the physical implementation, called Design Parameters (DPs), meets the objectives or Functional Requirements (FRs) of the production system design. This paper presents a revolutionary approach to determine the objectives and the implementation of a “lean” production system design for a manufacturing business as guided by the design axiom of independence.
Technical Paper

Introduction of Functional Periodicity to Prevent Long-Term Failure Mechanism

One of the goals of designing engineering systems is to maximize the system's reliability. A reliable system must satisfy its functional requirements without failure throughout its intended lifecycle. The typical means to achieve a desirable level of reliability is through preventive maintenance of a system; however, this involves cost. A more fundamental approach to the problem is to maximize the system's reliability by preventing failures from occurring. A key question is to find mechanisms (and the means to implement them into a system) that will prevent its system range from going out of the design range. Functional periodicity is a means to achieve this goal. Three examples are discussed to illustrate the concept. In the new electrical connector design, it is the geometric functional periodicity provided by the woven wire structure. In the case of integrated manufacturing systems, it is the periodicity in scheduling of the robot motion.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Powertrain Electrical System Simulator with Computer-Controlled Fault Generation

To manage the function of a vehicle's engine, transmission, and related subsystems, almost all modern vehicles make use of one or more electronic controllers running embedded software, henceforth referred to as a Powertrain Controller System or PCS. Fully validating this PCS is a necessary step of vehicle development, and the validation process requires extensive amounts of testing. Within the automotive industry, more and more of this validation testing is being performed using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulators to automate the extensive test sequences. A HIL simulation typically mates the physical PCS to a closed-loop real time computer simulation of a powertrain. Interfacing the physical PCS hardware to a powertrain simulation requires the HIL simulator to have extensive signal input/output (I/O) electronics and simulated actuator electrical loading.
Technical Paper

Achieving Design Target in the Presence of Functional Coupling

The primary objective of design is to achieve the target value of its function. While principles and techniques of Robust Design address the issue of achieving target values in the presence of different types of variations and disturbances, there exists a unique challenge in achieving design targets when multiple response functions are interrelated. In order to overcome the challenge, we must avoid functional couplings and obtain the interrelationship structure as flexible as possible. In the Axiomatic Design process, such interrelationships are represented by coupling terms in a design matrix. From the targeting aspect of design, it is important to achieve a desirable design matrix structure to, first, avoid any functional coupling in a design matrix and, secondly, maximize allowable sequences of adjusting DPs.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of a New Optimization Technique for the Vehicle Body Structure in the Initial Phase of the Design Process

This paper proposes a new hierarchical optimization technique for the vehicle body structure, by combining topology optimization and shape optimization based on the traction method. With the proposed approach, topology optimization is first performed on the overall allowable design domain in 3D. The surface is extracted from the optimization result and converted to a thin shell structure. Shape optimization based on the traction method is then applied to obtain an overall optimal body shape. In the shape optimization process, iterative calculations are performed in the course of consolidating parts by deleting those whose contribution is small. The result obtained by applying this method to the front frame structure of a vehicle is explained. The resultant optimal shape has stiffness greater than or equal to the original structure and is 35% lighter. This confirms the validity of the proposed technique. It was found, however, that some issues remain to be addressed.
Technical Paper

The Mars Gravity Biosatellite: Innovations in Murine Motion Analysis and Life Support

The MIT-based Mars Gravity Biosatellite payload engineering team has been engaged in designing and prototyping sensor and control systems for deployment within the rodent housing zone of the satellite, including novel video processing and atmospheric management tools. The video module will be a fully autonomous real-time analysis system that takes raw video footage of the specimen mice as input and distills those parameters which are of primary physiological importance from a scientific research perspective. Such signals include activity level, average velocity and rearing behavior, all of which will serve as indicators of animal health and vestibular function within the artificial gravity environment. Unlike raw video, these parameters require minimal storage space and can be readily transmitted to earth over a radio link of very low bandwidth.
Technical Paper

Optimization-Based Robust Architecture Design for Autonomous Driving System

With the recent advancement in sensing and controller technologies architecture design of an autonomous driving system becomes an important issue. Researchers have been developing different sensors and data processing technologies to solve the issues associated with fast processing, diverse weather, reliability, long distance recognition performance, etc. Necessary considerations of diverse traffic situations and safety factors of autonomous driving have also increased the complexity of embedded software as well as architecture of autonomous driving. In these circumstances, there are almost countless numbers of possible architecture designs. However, these design considerations have significant impacts on cost, controllability, and system reliability. Thus, it is crucial for the designers to make a challenging and critical design decision under several uncertainties during the conceptual design phase.