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Technical Paper

Prediction of cooling flow rate through the front grille using flow analysis with a multi-level mesh system

A flow analysis method with quick turnaround time has been studied for application to flows in the engine compartment of vehicles. In this research, a rapid modeling method based on the Cartesian mesh system was developed to obtain flow field information quickly. With this modeling method, the original shape is approximated by many small cubic cells, allowing automatic mesh generation in significantly less time. Moreover, a hierarchical mesh system that reduces the total number of meshes has been introduced. This multi-level mesh system is also highly capable of representing shapes in detail. Another important issue in flow calculations in the engine bay is the treatment of the boundary conditions such as the radiator and cooling fan. With the proposed method, the fluid dynamics characteristics of such components are measured, and characteristics such as the pressure loss/gain and the rotational vector of the fan are reflected in the flow field as empirical models.
Technical Paper

Design of Lane-Keeping Control with Steering Torque Input for a Lane-Keeping Support System

This paper describes the method used to design the basic control algorithm of a lane-keeping support system that is intended to assist the driver's steering action. Lane-keeping control has been designed with steering torque as the control input without providing a minor loop for the steering angle. This approach was taken in order to achieve an optimum balance of lane-keeping control, ease of steering intervention by the driver and robustness. The servo control system was designed on the basis of H2 control theory. Robustness against disturbances, vehicle nonlinearity and parameter variation was confirmed by μ - analysis. The results of computer simulations and driving tests have confirmed that the control system designed with this method provides the intended performance.
Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine

A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Sensing System to Infer DriverS Intention

An approach to designing an intelligent vehicle controller for partially supporting driver operation of a vehicle is proposed. Vehicle behavior is regarded as a system performed by the interaction between the driving environment, vehicle as a machine and driver expectations for the vehicle movements. Driver intention to accelerate or decelerate is mainly generated by the perception of the driving environment. The model we propose involves information on the driving environment affecting driver intention taking driver differences in perceiving the driving environment into account. An engineering model for installing the vehicle controller is expressed by a multipurpose decision-maker allowing explicit treatment of the driving environment, vehicle action, and driver intention. A reasoning engine deals with differences in individual driver traits for generating intention to decelerate by using fuzzy integrals and fuzzy measures.
Technical Paper

Modeling NO Formation in Spark Ignition Engines with a Layered Adiabatic Core and Combustion Inefficiency Routine

A thermodynamic based cycle simulation which uses a thermal boundary layer, either, a fully mixed or layered adiabatic core, and a crevice combustion inefficiency routine has been used to explore the sensitivity of NO concentration predictions to critical physical modeling assumptions. An experimental database, which included measurements of residual gas fraction, was obtained from a 2.0 liter Nissan engine while firing on propane. A model calibration methodology was developed to ensure accurate predictions of in-cylinder pressure and burned gas temperature. Comparisons with experimental NO data then showed that accounting for temperature stratification during combustion with a layered adiabatic core and including a crevice/combustion inefficiency routine, improved the match of modeling predictions to data, in comparison to a fully mixed adiabatic core.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method for Reducing the Driver's Work Load Using a Human Body Model Based on Biomechanisms

A human body model has been developed for conducting personal computer simulations to evaluate physical work loads, especially muscle loads, associated with the driving position and arm and leg motions. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparing estimated work loads with electromyographic measurements. Correlation analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the estimated loads and subjective evaluations. The results indicated the regions of the body where loads had the largest impact on the perceived sensation of physical effort and were used to derive an index for evaluating the overall work load of the entire body. The simulation method was used to evaluate control switch positions, driving position and vehicle entry/exit motions.
Technical Paper

Increased Power Density via Variable Compression/Displacement And Turbocharging Using The Alvar-Cycle Engine

This paper presents the analysis and design of a variable compression-ratio and displacement engine concept - the Alvar Cycle using a four-stroke engine-performance simulation. The Alvar-Cycle engine uses secondary pistons which reciprocate in auxiliary chambers housed in the cylinder head, at adjustable phase-angle differences from the primary pistons. The phase difference provides both the variable total engine displacement and compression ratio. Results indicate that the Alvar engine can operate at higher power density via a combination of higher intake boost and lower compression ratio to avoid knock at high loads, and capture the better thermal efficiency at higher compression ratios at part loads.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Wake Flow Fields, Including Reverse Flow, of Scale Vehicle Models Using a New 13-Hole Pitot Tube

Among the various methods for measuring flow velocity vectors, multi-holed pitot tubes offer the advantages of facilitating pressure measurements, low cost and ease of use. On the negative side, the range of measurable flow angles is limited (e.g., to ± 40° with 5-hole tubes) and pitot tubes require time-consuming calibration before use. The authors have developed a new pitot tube with a spherical head and 13 holes arranged such that the pitot head shows a 5-hole pattern when viewed from different right angles. This hole arrangement is equivalent to having several multi-holed pitot tubes connected to one pitot head and expands the measurable range of flow angles substantially to ± 135°. In addition, a robot is used to achieve fully automatic calibration. These two improvements overcome the traditional drawbacks of multi-holed pitot tubes.
Technical Paper

Development of a Performance Prediction Program for EVs Powered by Lithium-ion Batteries

The performance capabilities which hold the key to the acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) includes range and acceleration. Range can be effectively extended by increasing the size of the batteries used, but it requires a trade-off with acceleration performance which deteriorates due to the increased weight. The FEV-II and Prairie Joy EV exhibited at the 1995 Tokyo Motor Show were equipped with high-performance lithium-ion batteries that achieve both high energy and power densities, to provide an excellent balance of range and acceleration. Futher more, the batteries exceptionally high charging efficiency enables them to accept regenerative energy effectively. This feature improves range, and also allows the battery state of charge (SOC) to be determined accurately. This characteristic was used to develop a highly accurate battery model which was incorporated in a simulation program for predicting EV performance.
Technical Paper

A Study of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in SI Engines Using a Modified Quasi-Dimensional Model

This paper describes the use of a modified quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation code to predict the extent of cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion. The modifications primarily relate to the combustion model and include the following: 1. A flame kernel model was developed and implemented to avoid choosing the initial flame size and temperature arbitrarily. 2. Instead of the usual assumption of the flame being spherical, ellipsoidal flame shapes are permitted in the model when the gas velocity in the vicinity of the spark plug during kernel development is high. Changes in flame shape influence the flame front area and the interaction of the enflamed volume with the combustion chamber walls. 3. The flame center shifts due to convection by the gas flow in the cylinder. This influences the flame front area through the interaction between the enflamed volume and the combustion chamber walls. 4. Turbulence intensity is not uniform in cylinder, and varies cycle-to-cycle.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study on the Effect of Introducing Low-Emission Vehicles on Air Quality Improvement

The effect of the introduction of low-emission vehicles on potential air quality improvement in the Los Angeles area was predicted using a three-dimensional airshed simulation model. The simulations were based on ozone concentration estimates made on the basis of data released by the California Air Resources Board concerning projected quantities of emissions from various sources in 2010. Analyses were made of three scenarios. One assumed that LEV, ULEV and ZEV regulations were enforced as planned, a second assumed that these planned regulations were modified; and a third assumed that emission levels from various sources were reduced in line with the goals of the Air Quality Management Plan formulated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District.
Technical Paper

3D Vortex Simulation of Intake Flow in a Port-Cylinder with a Valve Seat and a Moving Piston

A Lagrangian random vortex-boundary element method has been developed for the simulation of unsteady incompressible flow inside three-dimensional domains with time-dependent boundaries, similar to IC engines. The solution method is entirely grid-free in the fluid domain and eliminates the difficult task of volumetric meshing of the complex engine geometry. Furthermore, due to the Lagrangian evaluation of the convective processes, numerical viscosity is virtually removed; thus permitting the direct simulation of flow at high Reynolds numbers. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical methodology is given, followed by an example of induction flow in an off-centered port-cylinder assembly with a harmonically driven piston and a valve seat situated directly below the port. The predicted flow is shown to resemble the flow visualization results of a laboratory experiment, despite the crude approximation used to represent the geometry.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Torque Capacity of a Metal Pushing V-Belt for CVTs

The mechanism causing the micro slip characteristic of a metal CVT belt during torque transmission was analyzed, focusing on the gap distribution between the elements. It was hypothesized that gaps between the elements cause slip to occur between the elements and the pulleys when the belt is squeezed between the two halves of the pulleys, and the slip ratio was calculated theoretically on that assumption. The μ-v (friction coefficient versus sliding velocity) characteristic between the elements and the pulleys was measured and the results were used in calculating the slip ratio. As a result, a simulation procedure was developed for predicting the slip-limit torque of the belt on the basis of calculations. The slip ratio found by simulation and the calculated slip-limit torque showed good quantitative agreement with the experimental data, thereby confirming the validity of the simulation procedure.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Attainment of Low Fuel Consumption High Output Power and Low Exhaust Emissions in Direct Injection SI Engines

This paper describes simultaneous attainment in improving fuel consumption, output power and reducing HC emissions with a direct injection S.I. engine newly developed in Nissan. Straight intake port is adopted to increase discharge coefficient under WOT operation and horizontal swirl flow is generated by a swirl control valve to provide stable stratified charge combustion under part load conditions. As a result, fuel consumption is reduced by more than 20% and power output is improved by approximately 10%. Moreover, unburned HC is reduced by equivalently 30% in engine cold start condition. An application of diagnostic and numerical simulation tools to investigate and optimize various factors are also introduced.
Technical Paper

An Automatic Parameter Matching for Engine Fuel Injection Control

An automatic matching method for engine control parameters is described which can aid efficient development of new engine control systems. In a spark-ignition engine, fuel is fed to a cylinder in proportion to the air mass induced in the cylinder. Air flow meter characteristics and fuel injector characteristics govern fuel control. The control parameters in the electronic controller should be tuned to the physical characteristics of the air flow meter and the fuel injectors during driving. Conventional development of the engine control system requires a lot of experiments for control parameter matching. The new matching method utilizes the deviation of feedback coefficients for stoichiometric combustion. The feedback coefficient reflects errors in control parameters of the air flow meter and fuel injectors. The relationship between the feedback coefficients and control parameters has been derived to provide a way to tune control parameters to their physical characteristics.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Vehicle Frontal Crash Phenomena

Recent years have seen remarkable advances in the development and diffusion of numerical analysis techniques using the finite element method for examining vehicle crashworthiness. The importance of numerical analysis in vehicle development work has also increased. One reason for this is that the use of numerical analysis makes it possible to study crash phenomena in detail based on calculated data which can not be obtained experimentally. In this study, the non-linear dynamic finite element program PAM-CRASH was applied to a vehicle frontal crash simulation to calculate the body deformation modes, the force transmitted at different sections of the body structure and the internal energy accumulation of each component. The results obtained provide a quantitative explanation of the deformation mechanism of the body structure.
Technical Paper

Development and Analysis of New Traction Control System with Rear Viscous LSD

Traction control systems (TCSs) serve to control brake pressure and engine torque, thereby reducing driving wheel spin for improved stability and handling. Systems are divided into two basic types by the brake control configuration. One type is a one-channel left-right common control system and the other is a two-channel individual control system. This paper presents an analysis of these two types of TCS configurations in terms of handling, acceleration, stability, yaw convergence and other performance parameters. The systems are compared with and without a limited-slip differential (LSD) under various road conditions, based on experimental data and computer simulations. As a result of this work, certain Nissan models are now equipped with a new Nissan Traction Control System with a rear viscous LSD (Nissan V-TCS), which provides both the advantages of a rear viscous LSD in a small slip region and a two-channel TCS in a large slip region.
Technical Paper

Optimum Design Method for Hydraulic Engine Mounts

Hydraulic engine mounts(HEM) are replacing conventional rubber mounts to provide better ride quality and to reduce noise. However, detailed analysis of the HEM is needed to predict ideal performance conditions. In this study, the optimum design of a HEM is modelled using design optimization theory for a dynamic absorber. After determining ideal behavior by simulation, an experimental mounts is designed and tested to verify the model.
Technical Paper

The Application of Image Processing to Laser Displacement and Strain Analysis

New image processing procedures for speckle photography and holographic interferometry are described. The algorithm for speckle photography measures the displacement value and direction automatically within the accuracy of ±5% over a range of 10 µm to 150 µm. This algorithm has adopted the Maximum Entropy Method to measure fringe intervals with high accuracy. The algorithm for holographic interferometry detects the fringe line and determines the displacement distribution with an operator's assist. Through the experiments, it was shown that these procedures are effective and accurate for vibration and deformation analysis.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of the Oxidation of Unburned Hydrocarbons

The chemistry of unburned hydrocarbon oxidation in SI engine exhaust was modeled as a function of temperature and concentration of unburned gas for lean and rich mixtures. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were used to model isothermal reactions of unburned fuel/air mixture in an environment of burned gases at atmospheric pressure. Simulations were performed using five pure fuels (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and toluene) for which chemical kinetic mechanisms and steady state hydrocarbon (HC) emissions data were available. A correlation is seen between reaction rates and HC emissions for different fuels. Calculated relative amounts of intermediate oxidation products are shown to be consistent with experimental measurements.