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Technical Paper

Design of Lane-Keeping Control with Steering Torque Input for a Lane-Keeping Support System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0480
This paper describes the method used to design the basic control algorithm of a lane-keeping support system that is intended to assist the driver's steering action. Lane-keeping control has been designed with steering torque as the control input without providing a minor loop for the steering angle. This approach was taken in order to achieve an optimum balance of lane-keeping control, ease of steering intervention by the driver and robustness. The servo control system was designed on the basis of H2 control theory. Robustness against disturbances, vehicle nonlinearity and parameter variation was confirmed by μ - analysis. The results of computer simulations and driving tests have confirmed that the control system designed with this method provides the intended performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method for Reducing the Driver's Work Load Using a Human Body Model Based on Biomechanisms

1996-02-01
960948
A human body model has been developed for conducting personal computer simulations to evaluate physical work loads, especially muscle loads, associated with the driving position and arm and leg motions. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparing estimated work loads with electromyographic measurements. Correlation analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the estimated loads and subjective evaluations. The results indicated the regions of the body where loads had the largest impact on the perceived sensation of physical effort and were used to derive an index for evaluating the overall work load of the entire body. The simulation method was used to evaluate control switch positions, driving position and vehicle entry/exit motions.
Technical Paper

An Automatic Parameter Matching for Engine Fuel Injection Control

1992-02-01
920239
An automatic matching method for engine control parameters is described which can aid efficient development of new engine control systems. In a spark-ignition engine, fuel is fed to a cylinder in proportion to the air mass induced in the cylinder. Air flow meter characteristics and fuel injector characteristics govern fuel control. The control parameters in the electronic controller should be tuned to the physical characteristics of the air flow meter and the fuel injectors during driving. Conventional development of the engine control system requires a lot of experiments for control parameter matching. The new matching method utilizes the deviation of feedback coefficients for stoichiometric combustion. The feedback coefficient reflects errors in control parameters of the air flow meter and fuel injectors. The relationship between the feedback coefficients and control parameters has been derived to provide a way to tune control parameters to their physical characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development and Analysis of New Traction Control System with Rear Viscous LSD

1991-02-01
910700
Traction control systems (TCSs) serve to control brake pressure and engine torque, thereby reducing driving wheel spin for improved stability and handling. Systems are divided into two basic types by the brake control configuration. One type is a one-channel left-right common control system and the other is a two-channel individual control system. This paper presents an analysis of these two types of TCS configurations in terms of handling, acceleration, stability, yaw convergence and other performance parameters. The systems are compared with and without a limited-slip differential (LSD) under various road conditions, based on experimental data and computer simulations. As a result of this work, certain Nissan models are now equipped with a new Nissan Traction Control System with a rear viscous LSD (Nissan V-TCS), which provides both the advantages of a rear viscous LSD in a small slip region and a two-channel TCS in a large slip region.
Technical Paper

New Design of Cooling System with Computer Simulation and Engine Compartment Simulator

1993-04-01
931075
The engine cooling system is required to provide much higher performance today owing to the improved power output of engines and the trend toward a more compact engine compartment. For front engine/rear drive vehicles equipped with a fluid coupling drive fan, one of the main problems that must be dealt with is the rise in coolant temperature during idling. This paper presents a new method to simulate the engine coolant temperature under idling condition, and an improved engine cooling system that features a totally redesigned fan blade for maximum efficiency. This new system, consisting of a high performance cooling fan shroud and coupling, achieves a substantial noise reduction and contributes to fuel economy and power output improvements.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Disc Brake Squeal, 1992

1992-02-01
920553
Eliminating squeal noise generated during braking is an important task for the improvement of vehicle passengers' comfort. Considerable amount of research and development works have been done on the problem to date. In this study, we focused on the analyses of friction self-excited vibration and brake part resonance during high frequency brake squeal. Friction self-excited vibration is caused by the dry friction between pads and rotor, and occurs as a function of their relative sliding velocities. Its vibration frequency can be calculated in relation to the mass and stiffness of the pad sliding surface. Frequency responses of the brake assembly were measured and the vibration modes of the pad, disc and caliper during squeal were identified through modal analysis. Further study led to the development of a computer simulation method for analyzing the vibration modes of brake parts. Analytical results obtained using the method agreed well with the corresponding experimental data.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics Through Braking Force Distribution Control

1992-02-01
920645
The influence on vehicle dynamics of braking force distribution to four wheels has been analyzed by computer simulation and experimentation. The analytical results indicate that a suitable braking force distribution control method can improve handling and stability during braking. A new braking force distribution cintrol strategy,using a steering wheel angle feedforward function and a yaw velocity feedback function,is shown to improve vehicle dynamic behavior.
Technical Paper

Development of ROM Management and Evaluation System for Electronic Transmission Control Units

1992-02-01
920768
Electronic control of automatic transmission systems have become indispensable in order to satisfy driver expectations of comfort and vehicle response. The increasing complexity of such systems has resulted in a huge increase of control data volumes handled by electronic transmission control units (ETCUs). This paper describes the development, operation and evaluation by JATCO Corporation and Nissan Motor Co., Ltd of a Read Only Memory (ROM) management system for use with ETCUs. The system makes extensive use of computer aided design(CAD) techniques to create ROM data from standard format drawings, and vice-versa. The paper also presents the evaluation system developed for ETCU use. Making use of computer simulated testing, this increases the reliability of units and reduces testing time.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Spark Ignition Engine Warm-Up Process to Predict Component Temperatures and Hydrocarbon Emissions

1991-02-01
910302
In order to understand better the operation of spark-ignition engines during the warm-up period, a computer model had been developed which simulates the thermal processes of the engine. This model is based on lumped thermal capacitance methods for the major engine components, as well as the exhaust system. Coolant and oil flows, and their respective heat transfer rates are modeled, as well as friction heat generation relations. Piston-liner heat transfer is calculated based on a thermal resistance method, which includes the effects of piston and ring material and design, oil film thickness, and piston-liner crevice. Piston/liner crevice changes are calculated based on thermal expansion rates and are used in conjunction with a crevice-region unburned hydrocarbon model to predict the contribution to emissions from this source.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of an Open-grill Vehicle Aerodynamics Simulation Method Considering Dirty CAD Geometries

2018-04-03
2018-01-0733
In open-grille vehicle aerodynamics simulation using computational fluid dynamics, in addition to basic flow characteristics, such as turbulent flow with a Reynolds number of several million on the bluff body, it is important to accurately estimate the cooling air flow introduced from the front opening. It is therefore necessary to reproduce the detailed geometry of the entire vehicle including the engine bay as precisely as possible. However, there is a problem of generating a good-quality calculation grid with a small workload. It usually takes several days to a week for the pretreatment process to make the geometry data ‘clean’ or ‘watertight’. The authors proposed a computational method for complex geometries with a hierarchical Cartesian grid and a topology-independent immersed boundary method with dummy cells that discretize the geometry on a cell-by-cell basis and can set an imaginary point arbitrarily.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vibrational Modes of Vehicle Steering Mechanisms

1971-02-01
710627
An analysis was made of vibration phenomena in the steering system of a vehicle, when the front wheels have some amount of unbalance. The program included vehicle running tests and bench tests to ascertain some of the factors influencing vibration behavior. A mathematical model of the vibration system was simulated on a digital computer in as much detail as possible. The resultant understanding of the dynamics of the system as a whole led to an extensive theoretical analysis of selected key parameters.
Technical Paper

Analysis on Idle Speed Stability in Port Fuel Injection Engines

1986-10-01
861389
It has been reported by several researchers that the L-jetronic fuel injection system offers better idle speed stability than the D-jetronic one in port fuel injection engines. However, the volume between the throttle valve and the intake valves in the L-jetronic system acts as a first order lag element in the system and causes air-fuel ratio fluctuation which, in turn, induces idle speed hunting under certain conditions. This study employs computer simulation to determine the influence of three parameters on idle speed stability: (1) flywheel inertia, (2) intake manifold volume, and (3) air-fuel ratio calibration. It also explores means of improving idle speed stability by controlling the air-fuel ratio and ignition timing. The use of actual engine torque data to estimate the generated torque from the amount of air and fuel in each combustion cycle was the unique feature of this study.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Vehicle Fuel Economy and Performance

1986-03-01
860364
A simulation system has been developed for making comprehensive predictions and assessments of the various and interrelated indices of vehicle performance. This system draws upon a data base containing information on the characteristics of the different units making up a vehicle. The system includes fuel economy and emissions calculation programs incorporating a large number of evaluation items. It also features an acceleration calculation program by which the transient characteristics of a turbocharger can be studied and a vehicle exterior noise program that makes accurate predictions of the pass-by noise level during acceleration. Equipped with a large number of calculation functions the system is an effective tool for improving total vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

The Turbocharged 2.8 Liter Engine for the Datsun 280ZX

1982-02-01
820442
Nissan’s new 2.8 liter in-line 6-cylinder turbocharged engine was developed for Che Datsun 280ZX in order to achieve higher performance and improved fuel economy. The Electronic Concentrated Engine Control System (ECCS), controlled by microprocessor, is provided for this 2.8 liter turbocharged engine. ECCS controls fuel injection, ignition timing, EGR rate and idling speed. It solved the problems related to power and fuel economy by optimizing the control parameters. Further, this system contains a barometric pressure compensator and a detonation controller; thus, the performance of this engine is efficient over a wide range of circumstances and fuel octane ratings. During the development of the engine, computer simulation was employed to predict engine performance and select turbocharger size, valve timing and other important factors.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Inside DPF Inlet Channels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1584
Ash inside a honeycomb-configured diesel particulate filter (DPF) inlet channel accumulates both as a cake layer along the channel walls and as a “plug” towards the back of the channel. Experimental studies of DPF ash distribution have shown both an axial variation of deposits along channels and accumulation towards the end plugs. This study evaluates the sensitivity of DPF pressure drop on ash axial distribution and the potential to reduce flow restrictions by controlling and optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF channels. A computational model has been used in conjunction with experimental data to illustrate the sensitivity of ash spatial distribution on DPF performance. The classical constant-thickness DPF one-dimensional models have substantially been updated to include layer thickness axial variations. Material properties, such as ash characteristics, are provided by recent experiments at the authors' laboratory.
Technical Paper

A Model For Estimating Oil Vaporization From The Cylinder Liner As A Contributing Mechanism to Engine Oil Consumption

1999-05-03
1999-01-1520
A model has been developed for estimating the oil vaporization rate from the cylinder liner of a reciprocating engine. The model uses input from an external cycle simulator and an external liner oil film thickness model. It allows for the change in oil composition and the change in oil film thickness due to vaporization. It also estimates how the passage of the compression and scraper rings combine with the vaporization to influence the steady-state composition of the oil layer in the upper ring pack. Computer model results are presented for a compression-ignition engine using a range of liner temperatures, several engine speeds, and two different oils. Vaporization is found to be highly dependent on liner temperature and steady-state oil composition. The steady-state oil composition near the top of the cylinder is found to be significantly different than the composition of the oil near the bottom of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Space Suit: Physiological Implications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

2000-07-10
2000-01-2257
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is investigated through experiments testing an actual extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) performing several EVA tasks in the laboratory, and a dynamic model of the EMU space suit is developed. Building directly on earlier work in EVA simulation, the space suit model was created from mass, inertia, and performance data to augment the unsuited 12-segment human model used in previous studies. A modified Preisach model was used to mathematically describe the hysteretic torque characteristics of joints in a pressurized space suit, and implemented numerically based on observed suit parameters. Computational simulations, based loosely on a 1995 EVA involving manipulation of the Spartan astrophysics payload, were performed to observe the effect of suit constraints on simulated astronaut performance.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Powertrain Electrical System Simulator with Computer-Controlled Fault Generation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1599
To manage the function of a vehicle's engine, transmission, and related subsystems, almost all modern vehicles make use of one or more electronic controllers running embedded software, henceforth referred to as a Powertrain Controller System or PCS. Fully validating this PCS is a necessary step of vehicle development, and the validation process requires extensive amounts of testing. Within the automotive industry, more and more of this validation testing is being performed using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulators to automate the extensive test sequences. A HIL simulation typically mates the physical PCS to a closed-loop real time computer simulation of a powertrain. Interfacing the physical PCS hardware to a powertrain simulation requires the HIL simulator to have extensive signal input/output (I/O) electronics and simulated actuator electrical loading.
Technical Paper

Modeling Space Suit Mobility: Applications to Design and Operations

2001-07-09
2001-01-2162
Computer simulation of extravehicular activity (EVA) is increasingly being used in planning and training for EVA. A space suit model is an important, but often overlooked, component of an EVA simulation. Because of the inherent difficulties in collecting angle and torque data for space suit joints in realistic conditions, little data exists on the torques that a space suit’s wearer must provide in order to move in the space suit. A joint angle and torque database was compiled on the Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit (EMU), with a novel measurement technique that used both human test subjects and an instrumented robot. Using data collected in the experiment, a hysteresis modeling technique was used to predict EMU joint torques from joint angular positions. The hysteresis model was then applied to EVA operations by mapping out the reach and work envelopes for the EMU.
Technical Paper

Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries Towards Development of a Computational Model

2010-04-12
2010-01-1078
Battery packs for Hybrids, Plug-in Hybrids, and Electric Vehicles are assembled from a system of modules (sheets) with a tight sheet metal casing around them. Each module consists of an array of individual cells which vary in the composition of electrodes and separator from one manufacturer to another. In this paper a general procedure is outlined on the development of a constitutive and computational model of a cylindrical cell. Particular emphasis is placed on correct prediction of initiation and propagation of a tearing fracture of the steel can. The computational model correctly predicts rupture of the steel can which could release aggressive chemicals, fumes, or spread the ignited fire to the neighboring cells. The initiation site of skin fracture depends on many factors such as the ductility of the casing material, constitutive behavior of the system of electrodes, and type of loading.
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