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Technical Paper

Investigation of the Dilution Process for Measurement of Particulate Matter from Spark-Ignition Engines

1998-10-19
982601
Measurements of particulate matter (PM) from spark ignition (SI) engine exhaust using dilution tunnels will become more prevalent as emission standards are tightened. Hence, a study of the dilution process was undertaken in order to understand how various dilution related parameters affect the accuracy with which PM sizes and concentrations can be determined. A SI and a compression ignition (CI) engine were separately used to examine parameters of the dilution process; the present work discusses the results in the context of SI exhaust dilution. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the size distribution, number density, and volume fraction of PM. Temperature measurements in the exhaust pipe and dilution tunnel reveal the degree of mixing between exhaust and dilution air, the effect of flowrate on heat transfer from undiluted and diluted exhaust to the environment, and the minimum permissible dilution ratio for a maximum sample temperature of 52°C.
Technical Paper

Development of a New-Generation Lightweight 3-Liter V6 Nissan Engine

1994-03-01
940991
This paper presents a new-generation, lightweight, 3-liter V6 engine that has been developed for use in the next Nissan Maxima. The distinctive features of this new engine, VQ30DE, is its compact, lightweight design and excellent fuel economy. The basic construction of the engine is characterized by its 60-degree V6 configuration, chain-driven DOHC and high-pressure die cast aluminum cylinder block. A two-way cooling system was adopted with the aim of shortening the warm-up time of the cylinder liners. The new engine has been designed to comply with the tougher emission standards, the OBD-II requirements and California's new evaporative emission standard.
Technical Paper

Aggregate Vehicle Emission Estimates for Evaluating Control Strategies

1994-03-01
940303
Currently, states that are out of compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards must, according to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), develop and implement control strategies that demonstrate specific degrees of reduction in emissions-with the degree of reduction depending upon the severity of the problem. One tool that has been developed to aid regulators in both deciding an appropriate course of action and to demonstrate the desired reductions in mobile emissions is EPA's Mobile 5a emission estimation model. In our study, Mobile 5a has been used to examine the effects of regulatory strategies, as applied to the Northeast United States, on vehicle emissions under worst-case ozone-forming conditions.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Lambda Control Based on an Exhaust Emission Simulation Model that Takes into Account Fuel Transportation in the Intake Manifold

1990-02-01
900612
This paper presents an improved exhaust emission simulation model that takes into account fuel transportation behavior in order to obtain more precise air-fuel ratio control, which is needed to meet stringent exhaust emission standards. This simulation model is based on experimental formulas for air and fuel behavior in the intake manifold, especially during transient engine operation. Fuel behavior, including the effect of wall flow on the air-fuel ratio, is obtained analytically. Predictions are then made of the exhaust emissions from a car operated under official driving schedules. The new simulation model is a useful tool in the design and development of fuel supply control systems. An outline of the new model is presented first along with a comparison of the calculated and experimental results. The air-fuel ratio control strategy derived with this model is then described.
Technical Paper

Warm-Up Characteristics of Thin Wall Honeycomb Catalysts

1991-02-01
910611
HC emission standards will be tightened during the 1990's in the US. A key issue in reducing HC emission is improving the warm-up characteristics of catalysts during the cold start of engines. For this purpose, studies are under way on reduction of heat mass of ceramic substrates. Reduction of cell walls in substrates to thickness smaller than the current thickness of 12mil or 6mil has resulted in reduced heat mass, and also reduced flow restriction of substrates. The warm-up characteristics of low bulk density catalysts are better than those of high bulk density, i.e., the warm-up characteristics of thinner wall or lower cell density catalysts are better than those of thicker wall or higher cell density catalysts. A relationship between geometric surface area and warm-up characteristics is observed.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-Layer Plastic Fuel Tanks for Nissan Research Vehicle-II

1987-02-01
870304
Plastic fuel tanks are light in weight and rustproof, and have good design flexibility. For those currently in use, however, which are made of mono-layer high-density polyethylene, fuel permeability is too high to meet U.S. evaporative emission standards, which are stricter than those in Japan or the EEC. For minimize fuel permeation, the formation of a harrier layer of polyamide resin by multilayer (three-resin five-layer) blow molding is considered more promising than sulphonation or fluorination treatment of the polyethylene resin. This paper describes the fuel permeation mechanism, then outlines the development of a multi-layer plastic fuel tank, discussion its structural features and the development of resins.
Technical Paper

An Electronic Carburetor Controller

1979-02-01
790743
An electronically controlled closed-loop carburetor system has been developed for production application in Datsun car models. Providing a means of complying with Japanese Emission Standards, this design features the electronic control of carburetor supplied fuel with significantly improved emission performance and fuel economy. Technological advances include the noteworthy compensation of oxygen sensor output variations and improved transient emission.
Technical Paper

Current Trends of Passenger Car Gasoline Engine Oils in Japan - Report by JASO Engine Oil Subcommittee

1986-10-01
861512
Engines in Japan have higher output versus small displacement (bhp/liter) and require low phosphorus content in the engine oils to meet the most stringent exhaust emission regulation in the world. The market survey of typical API SF oils in Japan showed that the average phosphorus content was approximately 0.07 %. Under such circumstances engine oils provide good performance with the usage of secondary zinc di-alkyldithiophosphates (Zn DTP) for valve train wear protection, addition of friction modifiers for fuel economy, etc.
Technical Paper

Venturi Vacuum Transducer Enables Heavy EGR Control

1980-06-01
800824
In order to significantly reduce NOx levels by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), while maintaining good fuel economy and driveability, the EGR flow rate must be properly and accurately controlled under a variety of engine operating conditions. Toward this objective, a new EGR control system was developed. It utilizes a carburetor venturi vacuum for a stable reference signal that represents the engine operating condition and it controls the EGR flow rate by using a feedback principle to obtain sufficient flexibility compatible with several different engines. Its control characteristics were mathematically analyzed. And it has also been confirmed that the system can automatically compensate for the drift in EGR characteristics. This EGR control system has been utilized in Nissan’s emission control systems in order to comply with the 1978 Japanese Emission Standards and the 1980 U.S. Federal and California Emission Standards.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion on a Diesel VCR Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1187
A variable compression ratio (VCR) technology, that has a new piston-crankshaft mechanism with multi links, has been patented and developed by Nissan for some years (This technology has been detailed in previous SAE paper 2003-01-0921 and 2005-01-1134). This paper will present the use of this VCR technology for Diesel engine. The objective set with the use of VCR for Diesel engine is mainly to reduce as much as possible engine out emission to prepare for long-term, more strict emission standards. Results presented will include the description of the 2l Diesel VCR engine and its VCR mechanism adapted to Diesel constraints. Combustion tests have been performed with the use of HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion. This technology is still in a research phase in Renault: the adaptation of VCR technology to a Diesel engine consists in the modification of several parts with the addition of lower links, control links and control shaft.
Technical Paper

Microfluidic Simulation of Diesel Exhaust Gas and Soot Oxidation in Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-03-25
2013-01-0009
Particulate matter (PM) including soot in diesel exhaust gas is a serious atmospheric pollutant, and stricter exhaust emission standards are being set in many countries. As one of the key technologies, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) for PM trap in the after-treatment of the exhaust gas has been developed. Typically, the inlet size of filter monolith is about 2 mm, and the thickness of the filter wall is only 0.2 mm, where soot particles are removed. It is impossible to observe the small-scale phenomena inside the filter, experimentally. Then, in the present study, we conducted microfluidic simulation with soot oxidation. Here, a real cordierite filter was used in the simulation. The inner structure of the filter was scanned by a 3D X-ray CT Computed Tomography) technique. The advantage is that it is non-intrusive system, and it has a high spatial resolution in the micrometer.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the Rotary Engine Apex Seal Lubrication

2015-09-01
2015-01-2035
The Wankel rotary engine is more compact than conventional piston engines, but its oil and fuel consumption must be reduced to satisfy emission standards and customer expectations. A key step toward this goal is to develop a better understanding of the apex seal lubrication to reduce oil injection while reducing friction and maintaining adequate wear. This paper presents an apex seal dynamics model capable of estimating relative wear and predicting friction, by modeling the gas and oil flows at the seal interfaces with the rotor housing and groove flanks. Model predictions show that a thin oil film can reduce wear and friction, but to a limited extent as the apex seal running face profile is sharp due to the engine kinematics.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Sulfur and Phosphorus on Diesel NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst - JCAP II Oil WG Report

2006-10-16
2006-01-3312
Emission regulations for diesel-powered vehicles have been gradually tightening. Installation of after-treatment devices such as diesel particulate filters (DPF), NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalysts, and so on is indispensable to satisfy rigorous limits of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Japan Clean Air Program II Oil Working Group (JCAPII Oil WG) has been investigating the effect of engine oil on advanced diesel after-treatment devices. First of all, we researched the impact of oil-derived ash on continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF), and already reported that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF [1]. In this paper, impact of oil-derived sulfur and phosphorus on NSR catalyst was investigated using a 4L direct injection common-rail diesel engine with turbo-intercooler. This engine equipped with NSR catalyst meets the Japanese new short-term emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of Method for Predicting Efficiency of Oil Mist Separators

2000-03-06
2000-01-1234
The inflow of oil mist particles contained in blow-by gas into the intake system worsens emissions. A higher performance oil mist separator system is required to meet emission regulations which will inevitably become stricter in the future. In developing the oil mist separator, however, much of the development time in the past was spent in carrying out repeated tests and studying separator designs. We, therefore, have improved the separator development process by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) which added several new ideas to improve the analysis accuracy. The comparison of calculated results and experimental results has confirmed that a sufficient accuracy can be obtained to make this method applicable for practical use.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies for Turbocharged Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3629
It is projected that compliance with Japanese new exhaust emission regulations set to be enforced in 2000 year will be difficult for turbocharged engines with conventional technologies. This is mainly because of the delay in catalyst lightoff at engine start due to the lower exhaust gas temperature of turbocharged engines compared with that of their naturally aspirated counterparts. Compliance will be particularly difficult for V-6 engines on account of the large heat mass of the exhaust system, resulting in a slower temperature rise. Previously, improvement of hydrocarbon (HC) conversion rates following engine start depended solely on the low-temperature characteristic of the catalyst. The catalyst system described here adopts a completely new mechanism that traps HCs before the catalyst lights off and then desorbs them for conversion after the engine warms up.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Engine System with DPF for the European Market

2007-04-16
2007-01-1061
Nissan Motor has put on the European SUV market a 2.2-L direct-injection diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system that complies with the EURO IV emission regulations. This paper describes the DPF system, cooperative control of a variable geometry turbo (VGT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a high-accuracy lambda control adopted for this engine. In order to achieve a compact DPF, the high-accuracy lambda control was developed to reduce variation in engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions. Moreover, the accuracy of the technique for predicting the quantity of PM accumulation was improved for reliable detection of the DPF regeneration. Prediction error for PM accumulation increases during transient operation. Control logic was adopted to correct the PM prediction according to lambda fluctuation detected by an observer for lambda at cylinder under transient operating conditions. The observer is corrected lambda sensor output.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies Adopted for Japan U-LEV Certified Vehicles

2003-05-19
2003-01-1872
This paper describes the emission reduction technologies applied to 4- and 6-cylinder engines used on Japanese market models certified as ultra-low emission vehicles (U-LEVs) in Japan. To qualify for this rigorous U-LEV certification, a vehicle must reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by an additional 75% from the levels mandated by Japan's 2000 exhaust emission regulations. Nearly all Nissan Japanese models fitted with a gasoline engine, ranging from in-line 4-cylinder engines to V6 engines, have now been certified as U-LEVs. This has been accomplished by further improving the emission reduction technologies that were developed for the Sentra CA, which was launched in the U.S. market in 2000 as the world's first gasoline-fueled vehicle to qualify for Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (P-ZEV) credits from the California Air Resources Board. The specific new technologies involved are as follows.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Cobalt-Free Exhaust Valve Seat Insert

2004-03-08
2004-01-0502
Generally, cobalt-contained sintered materials have mainly been applied for exhaust valve seat inserts (VSI). However, there is a trend to restrict the use of cobalt as well as lead environmental law, and cobalt is expensive. To solve these problems, a new exhaust VSI on the assumption of being cobalt and lead free, applicable for conventional engines, having good machinability, and with a reduced cost was developed. The new exhaust VSI is a material dispersed with two types of hard particles, Fe-Cr-C and Fe-Mo-Si, in the matrix of an Fe-3.5mass%Mo at the ratio of 15 mass % and 10 mass % respectively.
Technical Paper

Soot Regeneration Model for SiC-DPF System Design

2004-03-08
2004-01-0159
The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system has been developed as one of key technologies to comply with tight diesel PM emission regulations. For the DPF control system, it is necessary to maintain temperature inside the DPF below the allowable service temperature, especially during soot regeneration to prevent catalyst deterioration and cracks. Therefore, the evaluation of soot regeneration is one of the key development items for the DPF system. On the other hand, regeneration evaluation requires a lot of time and cost since many different regeneration conditions should be investigated in order to simulate actual driving. The simulation tool to predict soot regeneration behavior is a powerful tool to accelerate the development of DPF design and safe regeneration control strategies. This paper describes the soot regeneration model applied to fuel additive and catalyzed types, and shows good correlation with measured data.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Ash on Continuous Regeneration-type Diesel Particulate Filter - JCAPII Oil WG Report

2004-06-08
2004-01-1887
Impact of oil-derived ash on the pressure drop of continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF) was investigated through 600hrs running test at maximum power point on a 6.9L diesel engine, which meets the Japanese long-term emission regulations enacted in 1998, using approximately 50ppm sulfur content fuel. Sulfated ash content of test oils were varied as 0.96, 1.31, and 1.70 mass%, respectively. During the running test, the exhaust pressure drop through CR-DPF was measured. And after the test, the ventilation resistance through CR-DPF was also evaluated before and after the baking process, which was applied to eliminate the effect of soot accumulated in CR-DPF. The results revealed that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF. According to microscope examination of the baked DPF, ash was mainly accumulated on the wall surface of CR-DPF, and that seemed to be related to the magnitude of pressure drop caused by ash.
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