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Technical Breakthroughs in Development of a Single Motor Full Hybrid System

2011-11-18
Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
Technical Paper

Testing Elastomers - Can Correlation Be Achieved Between Machines, Load Cells, Fixtures and Operators?

2001-04-30
2001-01-1443
At present, testing elastomeric parts is performed at a level dictated by the users of the testing equipment. No society or testing group has defined a formal standard of testing or a way to calibrate a testing machine. This is in part due to the difficulty involved with testing a material whose properties are in a constant state of flux. To further complicate this issue, testing equipment, testing procedures, fixtures, and a host of other variables including the operators themselves, all can have an impact on the characterization of elastomers. The work presented in this paper looks at identifying some of the variables of testing between machines, load cells, fixtures and operators. It also shows that correlation can be achieved and should be performed between companies to ensure data integrity.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Simulation of Tire Impact Response

2001-04-30
2001-01-1481
One of the major NVH concerns for automobile manufacturers is the response of a vehicle to the impact of the tire as it encounters a road discontinuity or bump. This paper describes methods for analyzing the impact response of a vehicle to such events. The test vehicle is driven on a dynamometer, on which a bump simulating cleat is mounted. The time histories of the cleat impact response of the vehicle can be classified as a transient and a repeated signal, which should be processed in a special way. This paper describes the related signal processing issues, which include converting the time data into a continous spectrum, determination of the correct scaling factor for the analyzed spectrum, and smoothing out harmonics and fluctuations in the signal. This procedure yields a smooth frequency spectrum with a correctly scaled amplitude, in which the frequency contents can be easily identified.
Technical Paper

Understanding Laboratory Versus In-Vehicle Performance of Sprayable and Sheet Applied Damping Materials

2001-04-30
2001-01-1465
Liquid spray applied damping materials have potential advantages over conventional sheet damping materials in automotive body panel vibration applications. In order to understand the acoustical impact, a laboratory based NVH study was conducted to compare the damping and stiffness performance characteristics of various sprayable damping materials versus the production damping treatment. Based on this comparison, a criteria was developed to select potentially viable sprayable damping materials for vehicle testing. In-vehicle tests were also performed and compared to the laboratory findings to understand how well the results correlate. This paper discusses a criteria for selecting sprayable damping materials based on bench-top tests for vehicle applications, and the potential benefits of sprayable materials.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Requirements of an Advanced Designed High Performance, Fuel Efficient Low Emissions V-6 Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-1899
Modern high power density gasoline fueled engines place an ever-increasing demand on the engine lubricant. In this study, it is shown that advances in engine design to increase performance, improve fuel economy and lower emissions have outpaced the development of typical commercial engine lubricants. Advanced designed engines began to experience oil starvation as a result of a combination of driving cycles, oil quality and poor maintenance practices. The cause was traced to excessive increases in borderline pumping viscosity as measured by MRV TP-1 (ASTM D4684). Used oil analysis for MRV TP-1 showed viscosity greatly increased in excess of stay-in-grade requirements and in many cases the crankcase lubricant was solid at the temperature appropriate for its viscosity grade. However, at the same time CCS values were in grade or only slightly (1W grade) elevated.
Technical Paper

Prediction of cooling flow rate through the front grille using flow analysis with a multi-level mesh system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0306
A flow analysis method with quick turnaround time has been studied for application to flows in the engine compartment of vehicles. In this research, a rapid modeling method based on the Cartesian mesh system was developed to obtain flow field information quickly. With this modeling method, the original shape is approximated by many small cubic cells, allowing automatic mesh generation in significantly less time. Moreover, a hierarchical mesh system that reduces the total number of meshes has been introduced. This multi-level mesh system is also highly capable of representing shapes in detail. Another important issue in flow calculations in the engine bay is the treatment of the boundary conditions such as the radiator and cooling fan. With the proposed method, the fluid dynamics characteristics of such components are measured, and characteristics such as the pressure loss/gain and the rotational vector of the fan are reflected in the flow field as empirical models.
Technical Paper

Inverse Method for Measuring Weld Temperatures during Resistance Spot Welding

2001-03-05
2001-01-0437
A new monitoring system predicts the progression of welding temperature fields during resistance spot welding. The system captures welding voltages and currents to predict contact diameters and simulate temperature fields. The system accurately predicts fusion lines and heat-affected zones. Accuracy holds even for electrode tips used for a few thousand welds of zinc coated steels.
Technical Paper

Design of Lane-Keeping Control with Steering Torque Input for a Lane-Keeping Support System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0480
This paper describes the method used to design the basic control algorithm of a lane-keeping support system that is intended to assist the driver's steering action. Lane-keeping control has been designed with steering torque as the control input without providing a minor loop for the steering angle. This approach was taken in order to achieve an optimum balance of lane-keeping control, ease of steering intervention by the driver and robustness. The servo control system was designed on the basis of H2 control theory. Robustness against disturbances, vehicle nonlinearity and parameter variation was confirmed by μ - analysis. The results of computer simulations and driving tests have confirmed that the control system designed with this method provides the intended performance.
Technical Paper

Estimation Of Damping Loss Factors By Using The Hilbert Transform And Exponential Average Method

2001-04-30
2001-01-1408
The damping loss factor of a structural panel plays a significant role in its vibro-acoustic performance. The objective of this paper is to present a new procedure for evaluating the damping loss factors of these panels. Traditionally, the damping loss factors are determined by using the decay rate of the decay curves which are experimentally obtained from the structure. However, this is time consuming and the accuracy is limited by fluctuations in the decay curve. In this paper, the envelope signal of each decay curve is determined through its Hilbert transform, and the remaining small fluctuations in the envelope signal are further smoothed out by the exponential average method. Finally, the damping loss factor is estimated based on the smoothed envelope signal of each decay curve. A computer program has been developed to implement this procedure. It is shown that this procedure improves both accuracy and efficiency of the decay rate method for estimating damping loss factor.
Technical Paper

Development of Pitting Resistant Steel for Transmission Gears

2001-03-05
2001-01-0827
It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
Technical Paper

Development of an Adaptive Cruise Control System with Stop-and-Go Capability

2001-03-05
2001-01-0798
An Adaptive Cruise Control system with stop-and-go capability has been developed to reduce the driver's workload in traffic jams on expressways. Based on an analysis of driving behavior characteristics in expressway traffic jams, a control system capable of modeling those characteristics accurately has been constructed to provide natural vehicle behavior in low-speed driving. The effectiveness of the system was evaluated with an experimental vehicle, and the results confirmed that it reduces the driver's workload. This paper presents an outline of the system and its effectiveness along with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Road Configuration and Vehicle Attitude by Lane Detection for a Lane-Keeping System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0799
This paper describes an image processing system for tracking a traffic lane by recognizing white lines on the road ahead. The system utilizes the features of the white lines and the Hough transformation to detect white line candidate points in images taken with a CCD camera. The parameters of the road configuration and vehicle attitude are estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This system has been applied to achieve a lane-keeping assistance system that provides steering control based on the host vehicle’s lateral position in its lane.
Technical Paper

Air Bag Loading on In-Position Hybrid III Dummy Neck

2001-03-05
2001-01-0179
The Hybrid III family of dummies is used to estimate the response of an occupant during a crash. One recent area of interest is the response of the neck during air bag loading. The biomechanical response of the Hybrid III dummy's neck was based on inertial loading during crash events, when the dummy is restrained by a seat belt and/or seat back. Contact loading resulting from an air bag was not considered when the Hybrid III dummy was designed. This paper considers the effect of air bag loading on the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummies. The response of the neck is presented in comparison to currently accepted biomechanical corridors. The Hybrid III dummy neck was designed with primary emphasis on appropriate flexion and extension responses using the corridors proposed by Mertz and Patrick. They formulated the mechanical performance requirements of the neck as the relationship between the moment at the occipital condyles and the rotation of the head relative to the torso.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Diesel Fuels Test Program

2001-03-05
2001-01-0150
This paper reports on DaimlerChrysler's participation in the Ad Hoc Diesel Fuels Test Program. This program was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy and included major U.S. auto makers, major U.S. oil companies, and the Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to identify diesel fuels and fuel properties that could facilitate the successful use of compression ignition engines in passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the United States at Tier 2 and LEV II tailpipe emissions standards. This portion of the program focused on minimizing engine-out particulates and NOx by using selected fuels, (not a matrix of fuel properties,) in steady state dynamometer tests on a modern, direct injection, common rail diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2022
A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2001-05-07
2001-01-1991
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

Space Life Support from the Cellular Perspective

2001-07-09
2001-01-2229
Determining the fundamental role of gravity in vital biological systems in space is one of six science and research areas that provides the philosophical underpinning for why NASA exists. The study of cells, tissues, and microorganisms in a spaceflight environment holds the promise of answering multiple intriguing questions about how gravity affects living systems. To enable these studies, specimens must be maintained in an environment similar to that used in a laboratory. Cell culture studies under normal laboratory conditions involve maintaining a highly specialized environment with the necessary temperature, humidity control, nutrient, and gas exchange conditions. These same cell life support conditions must be provided by the International Space Station (ISS) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) in the unique environment of space. The CCU is a perfusion-based system that must function in microgravity, at unit gravity (1g) on earth, and from 0.1g up to 2g aboard the ISS centrifuge rotor.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Sensing System to Infer DriverS Intention

2000-11-01
2000-01-C056
An approach to designing an intelligent vehicle controller for partially supporting driver operation of a vehicle is proposed. Vehicle behavior is regarded as a system performed by the interaction between the driving environment, vehicle as a machine and driver expectations for the vehicle movements. Driver intention to accelerate or decelerate is mainly generated by the perception of the driving environment. The model we propose involves information on the driving environment affecting driver intention taking driver differences in perceiving the driving environment into account. An engineering model for installing the vehicle controller is expressed by a multipurpose decision-maker allowing explicit treatment of the driving environment, vehicle action, and driver intention. A reasoning engine deals with differences in individual driver traits for generating intention to decelerate by using fuzzy integrals and fuzzy measures.
Technical Paper

A New Design for Automotive Alternators

2000-11-01
2000-01-C084
This paper introduces a new design for alternator systems that provides dramatic increases in peak and average power output from a conventional Lundell alternator, along with substantial improvements in efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate these capability improvements. Additional performance and functionality improvements of particular value for high-voltage (e.g., 42 V) alternators are also demonstrated. Tight load-dump transient suppression can be achieved using this new design and the alternator system can be used to implement jump charging (the charging of the high-voltage system battery from a low-voltage source). Dual-output extensions of the technique (e.g., 42/14 V) are also introduced. The new technology preserves the simplicity and low cost of conventional alternator designs, and can be implemented within the existing manufacturing infrastructure.
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