In the pursuit of a sustainable transportation systems, Toyota is considering a comprehensive approach pursuing multiple advanced technologies to address three primary issues: GHG, Petroleum Use, and Air Quality. Vehicles must be ready for and affordable to the mass market to provide the customer choices to meet their transportation needs whether it is EV's, Hybrids, Plug-In Hybrids or Fuel Cell Hydrogen Hybrids. Our studies have shown that EVs have the potential to provide significant improvements in energy utilization especially combined with other advanced technologies. Toyota believes that a combination of these technolgies will provide complementary solution that enables a sustainable transportation system. Presenter Takehito Yokoo, Toyota Motor Corporation
Nissan has released our original HEV system in Japan on November 2010, and will release it in US market on March 2011. The 1 motor 2 clutch parallel type using conventional 7 speed automatic transmission has been employed without torque converter and with a manganese cathode and laminated type Li-ion Battery. This system is well recognized its higher efficiency but lower weight and cost, however, has never realized due to technical difficulties of smoothness. At this session, performance achievements and hinged breakthrough technologies will be presented. Presenter Tetsuya Takahashi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
A flow analysis method with quick turnaround time has been studied for application to flows in the engine compartment of vehicles. In this research, a rapid modeling method based on the Cartesian mesh system was developed to obtain flow field information quickly. With this modeling method, the original shape is approximated by many small cubic cells, allowing automatic mesh generation in significantly less time. Moreover, a hierarchical mesh system that reduces the total number of meshes has been introduced. This multi-level mesh system is also highly capable of representing shapes in detail. Another important issue in flow calculations in the engine bay is the treatment of the boundary conditions such as the radiator and cooling fan. With the proposed method, the fluid dynamics characteristics of such components are measured, and characteristics such as the pressure loss/gain and the rotational vector of the fan are reflected in the flow field as empirical models.
A new monitoring system predicts the progression of welding temperature fields during resistance spot welding. The system captures welding voltages and currents to predict contact diameters and simulate temperature fields. The system accurately predicts fusion lines and heat-affected zones. Accuracy holds even for electrode tips used for a few thousand welds of zinc coated steels.
A method for predicting body deformation during operation, which cannot be measured by conventional methods, has been developed. The method creates a body model based on the characteristics extracted by modal analysis of the results of a vibration testing of an actual vehicle. The model is combined with a suspension model, using multibody dynamics software, and body deformation calculations are performed. In this paper, the influence of body deformation on vehicle controllability and stability is studied and the usefulness of the method is verified.
This paper describes the method used to design the basic control algorithm of a lane-keeping support system that is intended to assist the driver's steering action. Lane-keeping control has been designed with steering torque as the control input without providing a minor loop for the steering angle. This approach was taken in order to achieve an optimum balance of lane-keeping control, ease of steering intervention by the driver and robustness. The servo control system was designed on the basis of H2 control theory. Robustness against disturbances, vehicle nonlinearity and parameter variation was confirmed by μ - analysis. The results of computer simulations and driving tests have confirmed that the control system designed with this method provides the intended performance.
The world's first mass production gasoline hybrid passenger car, the “Prius”, was introduced into the Japanese market in 1997. By the time it was introduced into the American and European markets in Mid-2000, its fuel consumption and exhaust emissions had been further improved while achieving superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with 1.5-liter engines even in these competitive markets. This paper describes NV reduction technology for problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise and vibration at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also compares the overall NV performance of the hybrid vehicle with conventional gasoline engine vehicles.
We developed a progressive system, “virtual and real simulator (V&R-S)” for engine. To innovate the process of engine development, the test system creates dynamic load of drivetrain, wheel, body and road with the virtual vehicle model. We set the phenomena such as drivetrain vibration for reproducing object of this system. The load is transmitted to the engine crankshaft end as torque with the connecting shaft made of fiberglass. The mainly developed technologies are the dynamometer with rotational inertia as low as engine, correction method of transmitted torque error of connecting shaft by H-infinity control. Thanks to these, we achieved the capability of optimization for most of dynamic characteristics (emission, fuel consumption, drivability) on engine test bench. And we now be able to limit real vehicle test to the final tuning. As a result, we have realized new engine evaluation and optimization process.
It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
An Adaptive Cruise Control system with stop-and-go capability has been developed to reduce the driver's workload in traffic jams on expressways. Based on an analysis of driving behavior characteristics in expressway traffic jams, a control system capable of modeling those characteristics accurately has been constructed to provide natural vehicle behavior in low-speed driving. The effectiveness of the system was evaluated with an experimental vehicle, and the results confirmed that it reduces the driver's workload. This paper presents an outline of the system and its effectiveness along with the experimental results.
This paper describes an image processing system for tracking a traffic lane by recognizing white lines on the road ahead. The system utilizes the features of the white lines and the Hough transformation to detect white line candidate points in images taken with a CCD camera. The parameters of the road configuration and vehicle attitude are estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This system has been applied to achieve a lane-keeping assistance system that provides steering control based on the host vehicle’s lateral position in its lane.
A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
This paper describes the analyses to improve both stratified and homogeneous charge combustion of a gasoline direct injection engine. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and high-speed hydrocarbon (HC) measurement were employed to observe the mixture formation process. The analysis of the combustion flame propagation was conducted by in-cylinder visualization and ion current measurement. As a result of the analyses, the following conclusions were made: 1 An oval shaped wall cavity can direct the mixture gas to the vicinity of the spark plug better than a conventional shell-shaped wall cavity. The oval shaped wall cavity can improve fuel consumption and HC emission at stratified charge combustion. 2 A shallow cavity improves the homogenization of mixture gases and wide open throttle (WOT) performance.
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
It has been reported that engine oils containing magnesium detergents gel under special conditions. The authors have previously reported on the mechanism by which magnesium detergents form needle crystals, which is the main cause of the gelation. For this article, the authors conducted tests in actual vehicles using several types of engine oils containing magnesium detergents, including oils for which gelation problems have been reported in the market. The gelation was reproduced, and the test oils were ranked by their propensity to gel. In addition, a laboratory test method was used in which water and CO2 were mixed into engine oil under controlled conditions, then left stored in a bottle for twenty days, after which the kinematic viscosity and the quantity of insolubles of the mixture were measured. The study demonstrated the correlation between the laboratory test method and the actual vehicle tests.
Determining the fundamental role of gravity in vital biological systems in space is one of six science and research areas that provides the philosophical underpinning for why NASA exists. The study of cells, tissues, and microorganisms in a spaceflight environment holds the promise of answering multiple intriguing questions about how gravity affects living systems. To enable these studies, specimens must be maintained in an environment similar to that used in a laboratory. Cell culture studies under normal laboratory conditions involve maintaining a highly specialized environment with the necessary temperature, humidity control, nutrient, and gas exchange conditions. These same cell life support conditions must be provided by the International Space Station (ISS) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) in the unique environment of space. The CCU is a perfusion-based system that must function in microgravity, at unit gravity (1g) on earth, and from 0.1g up to 2g aboard the ISS centrifuge rotor.
An approach to designing an intelligent vehicle controller for partially supporting driver operation of a vehicle is proposed. Vehicle behavior is regarded as a system performed by the interaction between the driving environment, vehicle as a machine and driver expectations for the vehicle movements. Driver intention to accelerate or decelerate is mainly generated by the perception of the driving environment. The model we propose involves information on the driving environment affecting driver intention taking driver differences in perceiving the driving environment into account. An engineering model for installing the vehicle controller is expressed by a multipurpose decision-maker allowing explicit treatment of the driving environment, vehicle action, and driver intention. A reasoning engine deals with differences in individual driver traits for generating intention to decelerate by using fuzzy integrals and fuzzy measures.
This paper introduces a new design for alternator systems that provides dramatic increases in peak and average power output from a conventional Lundell alternator, along with substantial improvements in efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate these capability improvements. Additional performance and functionality improvements of particular value for high-voltage (e.g., 42 V) alternators are also demonstrated. Tight load-dump transient suppression can be achieved using this new design and the alternator system can be used to implement jump charging (the charging of the high-voltage system battery from a low-voltage source). Dual-output extensions of the technique (e.g., 42/14 V) are also introduced. The new technology preserves the simplicity and low cost of conventional alternator designs, and can be implemented within the existing manufacturing infrastructure.
Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.