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Technical Paper

Model-Based Safety Assessment for the Three Stages of Refinement of the System Development Process in ARP4754A

Model Based Safety techniques have been developed for a number of years, though the models have not been customised to help address the safety considerations/ actions at each refinement level. The work performed in the MISSA Project looked at defining the content of “safety models” for each of the refinement levels. A modelling approach has been defined that provides support for the initial functional hazard analysis, then for the systems architectural definition level and finally for the systems implementation level. The Aircraft functional model is used to apportion qualitative and quantitative requirements, the systems architectural level is used to perform a preliminary systems safety analysis to demonstrate that a system architecture can satisfy qualitative and quantitative requirements.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Multi-Disciplinary Optimisation for Aircraft Preliminary Design

The ACARE 2020 vision for commercial transport aircraft targets a 50% reduction per passenger kilometer in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, with a 20-25% reduction to be achieved through airframe improvements. This step change in performance is dependent on the successful integration and down-selection of breakthrough technologies at early stage of aircraft development process, supported by advanced multidisciplinary design capabilities. Conceptual design capabilities, integrating more disciplines are routinely used at Future Project Office. The challenge considered here is to transition smoothly from conceptual to preliminary design whilst maintaining a true multidisciplinary approach. The design space must be progressively constrained, whilst at the same time increasing the level of modelling fidelity and keeping as many design options open for as long as possible.
Journal Article

A Personal Plane Air Transportation System - The PPlane Project

The seventh European Framework Program (FP7) “Personal Plane” project (PPlane) aims at developing system ideas to enable personal air transport in the long term (2030 and beyond). Such a system will avoid the ever increasing congestion on European roads and offer an alternative to the current conventional transport system across Europe, in particular in those states that still have poor highway and railway networks. The preliminary assumption made in the PPlane project is that automatisms should be developed to enable a “regular Joe” to use a personal aircraft, in various weather conditions, without any command and control difficulties, using a “push button” navigation interface. An on-board automatic system will take care of the complex issues of integration into the airspace (other sky users, class of airspace, Special Use Airspace…), navigation and emergency management.
Technical Paper

The NACRE Innovative Evaluation Platform and its Navigation & Control Strategies

Within the European Integrated Project NACRE (New Aircraft Concept REsearch) led by Airbus, a team of research centers and universities developed a multidisciplinary flying testbed called IEP (Innovative Evaluation Platform). Under the form of a dynamically scaled model of a future civil transport aircraft, its role is to assist engineers during the assessment of flight dynamics characteristics and noise reduction capabilities. After the feasibility study during which potential scientific and economical benefits of such new test facility have been identified, the team decided to design and manufacture the IEP. Because of the dual aspect of the system (it is a flying unmanned aerial vehicle and a test facility), an extensive requirement analysis has been carried out by the partners in order to identify the necessary operational modes and their associated navigation and control strategies.
Technical Paper

EXTICE: EXTreme Icing Environement

Recent aircraft incidents and accidents have highlighted the existence of icing cloud characteristics beyond the actual certification envelope defined by the JAR/FAR Appendix C, which accounts for an icing envelope comprising water droplets up to a diameter of 50 μm. The main concern is the presence of SLD (Supercooled Large Droplets), with droplet diameters well beyond 50 microns. In a previous European-funded project, EURICE, in-flight icing conditions and theoretical studies were performed to demonstrate the existence of SLD and to help characterize SLD clouds. Within the EXTICE project the problem of SLD simulation is addressed with both numerical and experimental tools is being addressed. In this paper the objectives and main achievements of the EXTICE project will be described.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Analysis of the Electromagnetic Environment on Aircraft and Helicopter Part 2: Coupling to Complex Cable Networks

This paper presents a work carried out within the FULMEN lightning-on-aircraft oriented European project. It is the second part of the general presentation on the analysis of EM environment inside the aircraft. Therefore, it focuses on numerical calculations of voltage and current transfer functions on the ports of the same prototype wiring harness installed in several aircraft structures. The calculations have been carried out with the cable network CRIPTE code and rely on 3D field calculations performed by Ericsson Saab Avionics. The link between the cable code and the 3D code is achieved through the component of the incident electric field tangent to the running path of the wiring.
Journal Article

MUSIC-haic: 3D Multidisciplinary Tools for the Simulation of In-Flight Icing due to High Altitude Ice Crystals

Icing is a major hazard for aviation safety. Over the last decades an additional risk has been identified when flying in clouds with high concentrations of ice-crystals where ice accretion may occur on warm parts of the engine core, resulting in engine incidents such as loss of engine thrust, strong vibrations, blade damage, or even the inability to restart engines. Performing physical engine tests in icing wind tunnels is extremely challenging, therefore, the need for numerical simulation tools able to accurately predict ICI (Ice Crystal Icing) is urgent and paramount for the aeronautics industry, especially regarding the development of new generation engines (UHBR = Ultra High Bypass Ratio, CROR = Counter rotating Open Rotor, ATP = Advanced Turboprop) for which analysis methods largely based on previous engines experience may be less and less applicable. The European research project MUSIC-haic has been conceived to fill this gap and has started in September 2018.