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Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

2012-05-10
For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.
Technical Paper

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

2011-04-12
2011-01-1218
Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.01 LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions Mapping of RCCI in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0289
In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Varying the premixed gasoline fraction changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This added control over the combustion process has been shown to allow rapid engine operating point exploration without direct modeling guidance.
Technical Paper

The Electric Drive Advanced Battery (EDAB) Project: Development and Utilization of an On-Road Energy Storage System Testbed

2013-04-08
2013-01-1533
As energy storage system (ESS) technology advances, vehicle testing in both laboratory and on-road settings is needed to characterize the performance of state-of-the-art technology and also identify areas for future improvement. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), through its support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), is collaborating with ECOtality North America and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct on-road testing of advanced ESSs for the Electric Drive Advanced Battery (EDAB) project. The project objective is to test a variety of advanced ESSs that are close to commercialization in a controlled environment that simulates usage within the intended application with the variability of on-road driving to quantify the ESS capabilities, limitations, and performance fade over cycling of the ESS.
Journal Article

Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

2014-04-01
2014-01-1614
To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. In addition, two minivans were subjected to coastdowns to examine the similarity in derived coefficients for two duplicate vehicles of the same model. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2206
In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline with diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 5.5 bar net mean effective pressure (NMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system.
Journal Article

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods

2010-04-12
2010-01-1266
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple “cold” start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts.
Journal Article

Failure Stress and Apparent Elastic Modulus of Diesel Particulate Filter Ceramics

2012-04-16
2012-01-1252
Three established mechanical test specimen geometries and test methods used to evaluate mechanical properties of brittle materials are adapted to the diesel particulate filter (DPF) architecture to evaluate failure initiation stress and apparent elastic modulus of the ceramics comprising DPFs. The three custom-designed test coupons are harvested out of DPFs to promote a particular combination of orientation of crack initiation and crack plane. The testing of the DPF biaxial flexure disk produces a radial tensile stress and a crack plane parallel with the DPF's longitudinal axis. The testing of the DPF sectored flexural specimen produces axial tension at the DPF's OD and a crack plane perpendicular to the DPF's longitudinal axis. The testing of the DPF o-ring specimen produces hoop tension at the DPF's original outer diameter (OD) and at the inner diameter of the test coupon, and a crack plane parallel to the DPF's longitudinal axis.
Journal Article

Removal of EGR Cooler Deposit Material by Flow-Induced Shear

2013-04-08
2013-01-1292
A number of studies have identified a tendency for exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers to foul to a steady-state level and subsequently not degrade further. One possible explanation for this behavior is that the shear force imposed by the gas velocity increases as the deposit thickens. If the shear force reaches a critical level, it achieves a removal of the deposit material that can balance the rate of deposition of new material, creating a stabilized condition. This study reports efforts to observe removal of deposit material in-situ during fouling studies as well as an ex-situ removal through the use of controlled air flows. The critical gas velocity and shear stress necessary to cause removal of deposit material is identified and reported. In-situ observations failed to show convincing evidence of a removal of deposit material. The results show that removal of deposit material requires a relatively high velocity of 40 m/s or higher to cause removal.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

2007-10-29
2007-01-3994
Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp (134 kW) on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal Efficiency in an HCCI Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4076
The effects of variable compression ratio (CR) and fuel composition on thermal efficiency were investigated in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using blends of n-heptane and toluene with research octane numbers (RON) of 0 to 90. Experiments were conducted by performing CR sweeps at multiple intake temperatures using both unthrottled operation, and constant Φ conditions by throttling to compensate for varying air density. It was found that CR is effective at changing and controlling the HCCI combustion phasing midpoint, denoted here as CA 50. Thermal efficiency was a strong function of CA 50, with overly advanced CA 50 leading to efficiency decreases. Increases in CR at a constant CA 50 for a given fuel composition did, in most cases, increase efficiency, but the relationship was weaker than the dependence of efficiency on CA 50.
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

2009-06-15
2009-01-1939
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

Effects of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends on Conventional Vehicle Emissions

2009-11-02
2009-01-2723
Tests were conducted during 2008 on 16 late-model, conventional vehicles (1999 through 2007) to determine short-term effects of mid-level ethanol blends on performance and emissions. Vehicle odometer readings ranged from 10,000 to 100,000 miles, and all vehicles conformed to federal emissions requirements for their federal certification level. The LA92 drive cycle, also known as the Unified Cycle, was used for testing as it was considered to more accurately represent real-world acceleration rates and speeds than the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) used for emissions certification testing. Test fuels were splash-blends of up to 20 volume percent ethanol with federal certification gasoline. Both regulated and unregulated air-toxic emissions were measured. For the aggregate 16-vehicle fleet, increasing ethanol content resulted in reductions in average composite emissions of both NMHC and CO and increases in average emissions of ethanol and aldehydes.
Technical Paper

Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

2009-11-02
2009-01-2709
Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOx trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOx emissions downstream of the LNT.
Journal Article

Influence of High Fuel Rail Pressure and Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction on PM Formation in an Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2497
The influence of fuel rail pressure (FRP) and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on particulate matter (PM) formation is investigated in this paper along with notes regarding the NOx and other emissions. Increasing FRP was shown to reduce the overall soot and total PM mass for four operating conditions. These conditions included two high speed conditions (2400 rpm at 540 and 270 Nm of torque) and two moderated speed conditions (1400 rpm at 488 and 325 Nm). The concentrations of CO2 and NOx increased with fuel rail pressure and this is attributed to improved fuel-air mixing. Interestingly, the level of unburned hydrocarbons remained constant (or increased slightly) with increased FRP. PM concentration was measured using an AVL smoke meter and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS); and total PM was collected using standard gravimetric techniques. These results showed that the smoke number and particulate concentrations decrease with increasing FRP.
Journal Article

Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling

2008-10-06
2008-01-2475
The buildup of deposits in EGR coolers causes significant degradation in heat transfer performance, often on the order of 20-30%. Deposits also increase pressure drop across coolers and thus may degrade engine efficiency under some operating conditions. It is unlikely that EGR cooler deposits can be prevented from forming when soot and HC are present. The presence of cooled surfaces will cause thermophoretic soot deposition and condensation of HC and acids. While this can be affected by engine calibration, it probably cannot be eliminated as long as cooled EGR is required for emission control. It is generally felt that “dry fluffy” soot is less likely to cause major fouling than “heavy wet” soot. An oxidation catalyst in the EGR line can remove HC and has been shown to reduce fouling in some applications. The combination of an oxidation catalyst and a wall-flow filter largely eliminates fouling. Various EGR cooler designs affect details of deposit formation.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Physical Properties on Diesel Engine Combustion using Diesel and Bio-diesel Fuels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1379
A computational study using multi-dimensional CFD modeling was performed to investigate the effects of physical properties on diesel engine combustion characteristics with bio-diesel fuels. Properties of typical bio-diesel fuels that were either calculated or measured are used in the study and the simulation results are compared with those of conventional diesel fuels. The sensitivity of the computational results to individual physical properties is also investigated, and the results provide information about the desirable characteristics of the blended fuels. The properties considered in the study include liquid density, vapor pressure, surface tension, liquid viscosity, liquid thermal conductivity, liquid specific heat, latent heat, vapor specific heat, vapor diffusion coefficient, vapor viscosity and vapor thermal conductivity. The results show significant effects of the fuel physical properties on ignition delay and burning rates at various engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1506
EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Nondestructive X-ray Inspection of Thermal Damage, Soot and Ash Distributions in Diesel Particulate Filters

2009-04-20
2009-01-0289
We describe novel results of ongoing research at 3DX-RAY Ltd and Oak Ridge National Laboratory using new, commercially available, nondestructive x-ray techniques to make engineering measurements of diesel particulate filters (DPF). Nondestructive x-ray imaging and data-analysis techniques were developed to detect and visualize the small density changes corresponding to the addition of substances such as soot and ash to DPF monoliths. The usefulness of this technique was explored through the analysis of field-aged samples, accelerated-aged samples, and the synthetic addition of ash and soot to clean DPF samples. We demonstrate the ability to visualize and measure flaws in substrates and quantify the distribution of ash and soot within the DPF. We also show that the technology is sensitive enough for evaluations of soot and ash distribution and thermal damage without removing the DPF from its metal casing.
Technical Paper

A Novel Capability for Crush Testing Crash Energy Management Structures at Intermediate Rates

2002-06-03
2002-01-1954
The crush performance of lightweight composite automotive structures varies significantly between static and dynamic test conditions. This paper discusses the development of a new dynamic testing facility that can be used to characterize crash performance at high loads and constant speed. Previous research results from the Energy Management Working Group (EMWG) of the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) showed that the static crush resistance of composite tubes can be significantly greater than dynamic crush results at speeds greater than 2 m/s. The new testing facility will provide the unique capability to crush structures at high loads in the intermediate velocity range. A novel machine control system was designed and projections of the machine performance indicate its compliance with the desired test tolerances. The test machine will be part of a national user facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and will be available for use in the summer of 2002.
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