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Technical Paper

Model-based Generation of Scaling Laws for Radial-Gap Permanent Magnet Motors

2000-04-02
2000-01-1570
Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) computer code PMM_IDT (Permanent Magnet Motor Interactive Design Tool) was used to study the sensitivity to changes in design parameters at constant power output and scaling laws for similar designs with different rated power outputs. The base design used was a radial-gap motor with 30 kW of net output characteristic of the PNGV “Series” vehicles. Sensitivity parameters studied were active length, magnet and air gap thicknesses, and number of magnets. Power output variation approaches considered were active length, stator external diameter, and rotor external diameter. The impact on efficiency, cost, weight, specific power, cooling requirements, drive current and voltage requirements, and demagnetization margins are presented. Common constraints in this study are: Hollow rotor, trapezoidal back emf - 212 V maximum - and double layer winding leading to an even number of turns per slot
Technical Paper

Advanced Materials Characterization at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

1999-04-28
1999-01-2256
The HTML (High Temperature Materials Laboratory) is a U.S. Department of Energy User Facility, offering opportunities for in-depth characterization of advanced materials, specializing in high-temperature-capable structural ceramics. Available are electron microscopy for micro-structural and microchemical analysis, equipment for measurement of the thermophysical and mechanical properties of ceramics to elevated temperatures, X-ray and neutron diffraction for structure and residual stress analysis, and high speed grinding machines with capability for measurement of component shape, tolerances, surface finish, and friction and wear properties. This presentation will focus on structural materials characterization, illustrated with examples of work performed on heat engine materials such as silicon nitride, industrial refractories, metal-and ceramic-matrix composites, and structural alloys.
Technical Paper

DOE Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Results Related to the U.S. Automotive Industry

2006-04-03
2006-01-0594
Forty-nine plant-wide energy efficiency assessments have been undertaken under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program. Plant-wide assessments are comprehensive, systematic investigations of plant energy efficiency, including plant utility systems and process operations. Assessments in industrial facilities have highlighted opportunities for implementing best practices in industrial energy management, including the adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies and process and equipment improvements. Total annual savings opportunities of $201 million have been identified from the 40 completed assessments. Many of the participating industrial plants have implemented efficiency-improvement projects and already have realized total cost savings of more than $81 million annually. This paper provides an overview of the assessment efforts undertaken and presents a summary of the major energy and cost savings identified to date.
Technical Paper

Microstructures and Failure Mechanisms of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 5754 Sheets

2005-04-11
2005-01-1256
Microstructures and failure mechanisms of spot friction welds (SFW) in aluminum 5754 lap-shear specimens were investigated. In order to study the effect of tool geometry on the joint strength of spot friction welds, a concave tool and a flat tool were used. In order to understand the effect of tool penetration depth on the joint strength, spot friction welds were prepared with two different penetration depths for each tool. The results indicated that the concave tool produced slightly higher joint strength than the flat tool. The joint strength did not change for the two depths for the flat tool whereas the joint strength slightly increases as the penetration depth increases for the concave tool. The experimental results show that the failure mechanism is necking and shearing for the spot friction welds made by both tools. The failure was initiated and fractured through the upper sheet under the shoulder indentation near the crack tip.
Journal Article

Neutron Diffraction Studies of Intercritically Austempered Ductile Irons

2011-04-12
2011-01-0033
Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool that can be used to identify the phases present and to measure the spacing of the atomic planes in a material. Thus, the residual stresses can be determined within a component and/or the phases present. New intercritically austempered irons rely on the unique properties of the austenite phase present in their microstructures. If these materials are to see widespread use, methods to verify the quality (behavior consistency) of these materials and to provide guidance for further optimization will be needed. Neutron diffraction studies were performed at the second generation neutron residual stress facility (NRSF2) at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a variety of intercritically austempered irons. For similar materials, such as TRIP steels, the strengthening mechanism involves the transformation of metastable austenite to martensite during deformation.
Journal Article

Friction Stir Spot Welding for Structural Aluminum Sheets

2009-04-20
2009-01-0023
The Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) process is a derivative of the friction stir welding (FSW) process, without lateral movement of the tool during the welding process. It has been applied in the production of aluminum joining for various Mazda and Toyota vehicles. Most of the applications and published studies were concentrated in aluminum sheet in the range of 1.0 to 1.5 mm, suitable for non-structural automotive closure applications. The objective of this study is to study the feasibility of FSSW process for automotive structural aluminum joining, up to 3 mm in thickness, for potentially replacement of self-piercing rivets (SPR) process. Joining thicker aluminum with FSSW tooling with a typical smooth concave shoulder and threaded probing pin, requires long process time, which would not be appropriate in mass-production automotive body construction. In this paper, an innovative FSSW tool with grooved shoulder was developed.
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