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Technical Paper

Emission Performance of Low Cetane Naphtha as Drop-In Fuel on a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment System

Greenhouse gas regulations and global economic growth are expected to drive a future demand shift towards diesel fuel in the transportation sector. This may create a market opportunity for cost-effective fuels in the light distillate range if they can be burned as efficiently and cleanly as diesel fuel. In this study, the emission performance of a low cetane number, low research octane number naphtha (CN 34, RON 56) was examined on a production 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using only production hardware, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions were examined during the heavy-duty emission testing cycles using naphtha and ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. Without any modifications to the hardware and software, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using either naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty test cycles.
Technical Paper

SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
Technical Paper

Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NOx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NOx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%).
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. Data are examined from a direct-injection single-cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR.
Technical Paper

Comparative Urban Drive Cycle Simulations of Light-Duty Hybrid Vehicles with Gasoline or Diesel Engines and Emissions Controls

We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines. Our simulations utilize previously published models of transient engine-out emissions and models of aftertreatment devices for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions were estimated for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles operating over single and multiple urban drive cycles. Comparisons between the gasoline and diesel vehicle fuel consumptions and emissions were used to identify potential advantages and technical barriers for diesel hybrids.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter and Aldehyde Emissions from Idling Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

As part of a multi-agency study concerning emissions and fuel consumption from heavy-duty diesel truck idling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory personnel measured CO, HC, NOx, CO2, O2, particulate matter (PM), aldehyde and ketone emissions from truck idle exhaust. Two methods of quantifying PM were employed: conventional filters and a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). A partial flow micro-dilution tunnel was used to dilute the sampled exhaust to make the PM and aldehyde measurements. The work was performed at the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Test Center's (ATC) climate controlled chamber. ATC performed 37 tests on five class-8 trucks (model years ranging from 1992 to 2001). One was equipped with an 11 hp diesel auxiliary power unit (APU), and another with a diesel direct-fired heater (DFH). The APU powers electrical accessories, heating, and air conditioning, whereas a DFH heats the cab in cold weather. Both devices offer an alternative to extended truck-engine idling.

Impacting Commercialization of Rapid Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV)

Alternative propulsion technologies are becoming increasingly important with the rise of stricter regulations for vehicle efficiency, emission regulations, and concerns over the sustainability of crude oil supplies. The fuel cell is a critical component of alternative propulsion systems, and as such has many aspects to consider in its design. Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) powered by proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEFC) and fueled by hydrogen, offer the promise of zero emissions with excellent driving range of 300-400 miles, and fast refueling times; two major advantages over battery electric vehicles (BEVs). FCEVs face several remaining major challenges in order to achieve widespread and rapid commercialization. Many of the challenges, especially those from an FCEV system and subsystem cost and performance perspective are addressed in this book.
Journal Article

Application of a Tractive Energy Analysis to Quantify the Benefits of Advanced Efficiency Technologies for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks Using Characteristic Drive Cycle Data

Accurately predicting the fuel savings that can be achieved with the implementation of various technologies developed for fuel efficiency can be very challenging, particularly when considering combinations of technologies. Differences in the usage of highway vehicles can strongly influence the benefits realized with any given technology, which makes generalizations about fuel savings inappropriate for different vehicle applications. A model has been developed to estimate the potential for reducing fuel consumption when advanced efficiency technologies, or combinations of these technologies, are employed on highway vehicles, particularly medium- and heavy-duty trucks. The approach is based on a tractive energy analysis applied to drive cycles representative of the vehicle usage, and the analysis specifically accounts for individual energy loss factors that characterize the technologies of interest.
Journal Article

Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg−1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%.
Journal Article

Comparative Study of Hybrid Powertrains on Fuel Saving, Emissions, and Component Energy Loss in HD Trucks

Two hybrid powertrain configurations, including parallel and series hybrids, were simulated for fuel economy, component energy loss, and emissions control in Class 8 trucks over both city and highway driving conditions. A comprehensive set of component models describing engine fuel consumption, emissions control, battery energy, and accessory power demand interactions was developed and integrated with the simulated hybrid trucks to identify heavy-duty (HD) hybrid technology barriers. The results show that series hybrid is absolutely negative for fuel-economy improvement of long-haul trucks due to an efficiency penalty associated with the dual-step conversions of energy (i.e. mechanical to electric to mechanical).
Journal Article

Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at λ=0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the λ=0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant.
Journal Article

Fuel Consumption Sensitivity of Conventional and Hybrid Electric Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles to Driving Style

Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation.
Journal Article

Decomposing Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulatory Standards in the Energy Conversion Efficiency and Tractive Energy Domain

The three foundational elements that determine mobile source energy use and tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the tractive energy requirements of the vehicle, the energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system, and the energy source. The tractive energy requirements are determined by the vehicle's mass, aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and parasitic drag. The energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system is dictated by the tractive efficiency, non-tractive energy use, kinetic energy recovery, and parasitic losses. The energy source determines the mobile source CO2 emissions. For current vehicles, tractive energy requirements and overall energy conversion efficiency are readily available from the decomposition of test data. For future applications, plausible levels of mass reduction, aerodynamic drag improvements, and tire rolling resistance can be transposed into the tractive energy domain.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Compression Ignition with Gasoline-Range Fuels

Low temperature combustion (LTC) engine technologies offer opportunities for higher efficiency and lower NOx emissions. Light-end distillate fuels have been shown to help promote LTC and produce very low soot emissions compared to ULSD fuel. In a previous study, a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was shown to produce lower PM emissions when using a light-end distillate fuel as a substitution for ULSD. In this study, the compression ratio of a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was lowered and the split injection strategy was developed to promote the partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion. Various gasoline-like light-end distillate fuels were compared with ULSD fuel for performance and emissions. The PM was characterized with particle mass, size, and number measurements, organic/elemental carbon analysis, chemical speciation and thermogravimetric analysis.
Technical Paper

Engine-Aftertreatment in Closed-Loop Modeling for Heavy Duty Truck Emissions Control

An engine-aftertreatment computational model was developed to support in-loop performance simulations of tailpipe emissions and fuel consumption associated with a range of heavy-duty (HD) truck drive cycles. For purposes of this study, the engine-out exhaust dynamics were simulated with a combination of steady-state engine maps and dynamic correction factors that accounted for recent engine operating history. The engine correction factors were approximated as dynamic first-order lags associated with the thermal inertia of the major engine components and the rate at which engine-out exhaust temperature and composition vary as combustion heat is absorbed or lost to the surroundings. The aftertreatment model included catalytic monolith components for diesel exhaust oxidation, particulate filtration, and selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with urea.
Journal Article

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple “cold” start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts.
Journal Article

Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation

A spark-assist homogeneous charge compression ignition (SA-HCCI) operating strategy is presented here that allows for stoichiometric combustion from 1000-3000 rpm, and at loads as high as 750 kPa net IMEP. A single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with direct fuel injection and fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is used for this experimental study. The HVA system enables negative valve overlap (NVO) valve timing for hot internal EGR. Spark-assist stabilizes combustion over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, and allows for stoichiometric operation at all conditions. Characteristics of both spark-ignited combustion and HCCI are present during the SA-HCCI operating mode, with combustion analysis showing a distinctive spark ignited phase of combustion, followed by a much more rapid HCCI combustion phase. At high load, the maximum cylinder pressure rise rate is controlled by a combination of spark timing and retarding the intake valve closing angle.