Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Video

High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine

2012-02-16
This session focuses on kinetically controlled combustion. Experimental and simulation studies pertaining to various means of controlling combustion are welcome. Examples are research studies dealing with temperature and composition distribution inside the cylinder and their impact on heat release process. Studies clarifying the role of fuel physical and chemical properties in autoignition are also welcome. Presenter Hanho Yun, General Motors Company
Video

Technical Keynote: Leading in Crazy Times

2012-02-09
Leading during normal times is plenty challenging. Leading in crazy times requires extra understanding and skill. This presentation explores how you and your team can be your best, regardless of what craziness may be going on around your organization, your team members, and you. Presenter Theresa Rich, General Motors Company
Video

Consumer Behavior and Risk Aversion

2011-11-04
Auto manufacturers have known and surveys confirm that consumers require short payback periods (2-4 years) for investments in fuel economy. Using societal discount rates, engineering-economic generally find substantial potential to increase fuel economy, cost-effectively. This phenomenon, often referred to as the ?energy paradox?, has been observed in nearly all consumers? choices of energy-using durable goods. Loss aversion, perhaps the most well established theory of behavioral economics, provides a compelling explanation. Engineering economic analyses generally overlook the fact that consumers? investments in fuel economy are not sure things but rather risky bets. Future energy prices, real world on-road fuel economy, and many other factors are uncertain. Loss aversion describes a fundamental human tendency to exaggerate the potential for loss relative to gain when faced with a risky bet. It provides a sufficient explanation for consumers?
Video

Hydrocarbon Fouling of SCR During PCCI Combustion

2012-06-18
The combination of advanced combustion with advanced selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst formulations was studied in the work presented here to determine the impact of the unique hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion on SCR performance. Catalyst core samples cut from full size commercial Fe- and Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts were exposed to a slipstream of raw engine exhaust from a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operating in conventional and PCCI combustion modes. The zeolites which form the basis of these catalysts are different with the Cu-based catalyst made on a chabazite zeolite which las smaller pore structures relative to the Fe-based catalyst. Subsequent to exposure, bench flow reactor characterization of performance and hydrocarbon release and oxidation enabled evaluation of overall impacts from the engine exhaust.
Video

OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
Video

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

2012-05-10
For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.
Video

Worldwide OBD

2012-01-30
OBD system requirements were first developed by the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Commission. New OBD requirements should be as consistent as possible with existing requirements to maximize reliability and to minimize system complexity, proliferation of configurations, and consumer cost. New OBD requirements from around the world are briefly reviewed and most are consistent with the original U.S. and European requirements. Worldwide OBD requirements are being further harmonized under the United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP29). Presenter David H. Ferris, General Motors Company
Video

Dynamometer Evaluation of Five Electric Vehicles Designed for Urban Deliver Route Services ?

2011-11-21
With nearly 220,000 vehicles, the United States Postal Service (USPS) has the largest non-military vehicle fleet in the world. This fleet requires over a billion dollars of fuel annually, and this figure does not include contracted vehicles. As a part of the business strategy, the USPS has embraced and invested in alternative fueled vehicles since 1899, when the first recorded use of an electric vehicle for USPS service was performed as a technology evaluation in Cleveland, OH. As part of a technology evaluation of advanced vehicle systems, the USPS has partnered with the DOE?s Vehicle Technology Program (VTP) to benchmark and quantify the capabilities of five vehicles in meeting specific Urban Route Delivery requirements, both with dynamometer and in-service testing. The all electric vehicle conversions have been developed by established electric vehicle systems manufacturers representing various perspectives on meeting the vehicle specific operation objectives.
Technical Paper

Performance of a NOX Adsorber and Catalyzed Particle Filter System on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2001-05-07
2001-01-1933
A prototype emissions control system consisting of a close-coupled lightoff catalyst, catalyzed diesel particle filter (CDPF), and a NOX adsorber was evaluated on a Mercedes A170 CDI. This laboratory experiment aimed to determine whether the benefits of these technologies could be utilized simultaneously to allow a light-duty diesel vehicle to achieve levels called out by U.S. Tier 2 emissions legislation. This research was carried out by driving the A170 through the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP), US06, and highway fuel economy test (HFET) dynamometer driving schedules. The vehicle was fueled with a 3-ppm ultra-low sulfur fuel. Regeneration of the NOX adsorber/CDPF system was accomplished by using a laboratory in-pipe synthesis gas injection system to simulate the capabilities of advanced engine controls to produce suitable exhaust conditions. The results show that these technologies can be combined to provide high pollutant reduction efficiencies in excess of 90% for NOX and PM.
Technical Paper

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials: Recent Progress and Future Plans

2001-05-14
2001-01-2061
The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program provides enabling materials technology for the U.S. DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program is based on an industry assessment and the technology roadmap for the OHVT. A five-year program plan was published in 2000. Major efforts in the program are materials for diesel engine fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, and air handling. Additional efforts include diesel engine valve-train materials, structural components, and thermal management. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications. Selected technical issues and planned and ongoing projects as well as brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Aftertreatment Research for Heavy Vehicles

2001-05-14
2001-01-2064
The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 emission regulations for light-duty vehicles will require effective exhaust emission controls (aftertreatment) for diesels in these applications. Diesel-powered heavy trucks face a similar situation for the 2007 regulations announced by EPA in December 2000. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and evaluation of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R&D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.
Technical Paper

Emissions From a 5.9 Liter Diesel Engine Fueled With Ethanol Diesel Blends

2001-05-07
2001-01-2018
A certification diesel fuel and blends containing 10 and 15 volume % ethanol were tested in a 5.9-liter Cummins B Series engine. For each fuel blend, an 8-mode AVL test cycle was performed. The resulting emissions were characterized and measured for each individual test mode (prescribed combination of engine speed and load). These individual mode results are used to create a weighted average that is designed to approximate the results of the Heavy-Duty Transient Federal Test Procedure. The addition of ethanol was observed to have no noticeable effect on the emission of NOx but produced small increases in CO and HC. However, the particulate matter was observed to decrease 20% and 30% with the addition of 10% and 15% ethanol, respectively.
Technical Paper

Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Innovations - U.S. GovernmentS Role in Pngv

2000-11-01
2000-01-C063
The U.S. Government plays an important role in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles' (PNGV) electrical and electronics technologies with a program consisting of high-risk research and development (R&D) projects. The Department of Energy (DOE) plays the largest role in supporting these technologies to specifically address automotive needs. DOE has three Automotive Integrated Power Module (AIPM) contractors and two Automotive Electric Motor Drive (AEMD) contractors working to become viable suppliers for PNGV. Materials development projects are working to improve materials and devices needed in automotive motors and drives, such as permanent magnets, capacitors, sensors, connectors, and thermal management materials. Advancements in inverters, controls, and motors and generators conducted at DOE's national laboratories are also presented.
Technical Paper

Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-0903
Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A Life-Cycle-Based Environmental Evaluation: Materials in New Generation Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0595
This project team conducted a life-cycle-based environmental evaluation of new, lightweight materials (e.g., titanium, magnesium) used in two concept 3XVs -- i.e., automobiles that are three times more fuel efficient than today's automobiles -- that are being designed and developed in support of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. The two concept vehicles studied were the DaimlerChrysler ESX2 and the Ford P2000. Data for this research were drawn from a wide range of sources, including: the two automobile manufacturers; automobile industry reports; government and proprietary databases; past life-cycle assessments; interviews with industry experts; and models.
Technical Paper

In Situ Measurement of Fuel Absorption into the Cylinder Wall Oil Film During Engine Cold Start

1998-02-01
981054
The absorption of unburned fuel into the engine cylinder wall oil film has been identified as a source of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from spark-ignited (SI)engines. While significant work has been done under steady-state operating conditions to quantify the contribution of this mechanism to overall unburned hydrocarbon emissions, little work has focused on cold starting conditions and in situ measurement of the fuel / oil film interaction. The work reported here shows how laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy can be used to make in situ measurements of the absorption of fuel into the cylinder wall oil film of a single cylinder engine. Measurements were made at two points in the engine cycle under cold start conditions. Results indicate that fuel concentration in the oil film reached a maximum of fifty percent (50%) during cold start operation, though fuel was present in the oil film throughout the engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Metal Compression Forming - A New Process for Structural Aluminum Alloy Castings

1998-08-11
982107
Metal Compression Forming (MCF) is a variant of the squeeze casting process, in which molten metal is allowed to solidify under pressure in order to close porosity and form a sound part. However, the MCF process applies pressure on the entire mold face, thereby directing pressure on all regions of the casting and producing a uniformly sound part. The process is capable of producing parts with properties close to those of forgings, while retaining the near net shape, complexity in geometry, and relatively low cost of the casting process. The paper describes the casting process development involved in the production of an aluminum A357 alloy motor mount bracket, including the use of a filling and solidification model to design the gating and determine process parameters. Tensile properties of the component are presented and correlated with those of forged components.
Technical Paper

Non-Thermal Plasma Exhaust Aftertreatment: A Fast Rise-Time Concept

1997-05-01
971718
Increases in efficiency may be possible by a new technique for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases. The new technique involves very short risetimes (40ps) high frequency (5Ghz) high power bursts of low duty factor microwaves to generate a dielectric barrier discharge. The technique is illustrated in the simplified example of the dissociation of NO in N2. Electric field distributions and enhancing improvements are briefly described for a number of configurations. The technique is meant to be used in conjunction with material catalyst and can, for a class of catalysts, cause a significant reactivity on the catalyst surface.
X