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Video

Consumer Behavior and Risk Aversion

2011-11-04
Auto manufacturers have known and surveys confirm that consumers require short payback periods (2-4 years) for investments in fuel economy. Using societal discount rates, engineering-economic generally find substantial potential to increase fuel economy, cost-effectively. This phenomenon, often referred to as the ?energy paradox?, has been observed in nearly all consumers? choices of energy-using durable goods. Loss aversion, perhaps the most well established theory of behavioral economics, provides a compelling explanation. Engineering economic analyses generally overlook the fact that consumers? investments in fuel economy are not sure things but rather risky bets. Future energy prices, real world on-road fuel economy, and many other factors are uncertain. Loss aversion describes a fundamental human tendency to exaggerate the potential for loss relative to gain when faced with a risky bet. It provides a sufficient explanation for consumers?
Video

Hydrocarbon Fouling of SCR During PCCI Combustion

2012-06-18
The combination of advanced combustion with advanced selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst formulations was studied in the work presented here to determine the impact of the unique hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion on SCR performance. Catalyst core samples cut from full size commercial Fe- and Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts were exposed to a slipstream of raw engine exhaust from a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operating in conventional and PCCI combustion modes. The zeolites which form the basis of these catalysts are different with the Cu-based catalyst made on a chabazite zeolite which las smaller pore structures relative to the Fe-based catalyst. Subsequent to exposure, bench flow reactor characterization of performance and hydrocarbon release and oxidation enabled evaluation of overall impacts from the engine exhaust.
Video

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

2012-05-10
For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.
Video

Dynamometer Evaluation of Five Electric Vehicles Designed for Urban Deliver Route Services ?

2011-11-21
With nearly 220,000 vehicles, the United States Postal Service (USPS) has the largest non-military vehicle fleet in the world. This fleet requires over a billion dollars of fuel annually, and this figure does not include contracted vehicles. As a part of the business strategy, the USPS has embraced and invested in alternative fueled vehicles since 1899, when the first recorded use of an electric vehicle for USPS service was performed as a technology evaluation in Cleveland, OH. As part of a technology evaluation of advanced vehicle systems, the USPS has partnered with the DOE?s Vehicle Technology Program (VTP) to benchmark and quantify the capabilities of five vehicles in meeting specific Urban Route Delivery requirements, both with dynamometer and in-service testing. The all electric vehicle conversions have been developed by established electric vehicle systems manufacturers representing various perspectives on meeting the vehicle specific operation objectives.
Technical Paper

Performance of a NOX Adsorber and Catalyzed Particle Filter System on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2001-05-07
2001-01-1933
A prototype emissions control system consisting of a close-coupled lightoff catalyst, catalyzed diesel particle filter (CDPF), and a NOX adsorber was evaluated on a Mercedes A170 CDI. This laboratory experiment aimed to determine whether the benefits of these technologies could be utilized simultaneously to allow a light-duty diesel vehicle to achieve levels called out by U.S. Tier 2 emissions legislation. This research was carried out by driving the A170 through the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP), US06, and highway fuel economy test (HFET) dynamometer driving schedules. The vehicle was fueled with a 3-ppm ultra-low sulfur fuel. Regeneration of the NOX adsorber/CDPF system was accomplished by using a laboratory in-pipe synthesis gas injection system to simulate the capabilities of advanced engine controls to produce suitable exhaust conditions. The results show that these technologies can be combined to provide high pollutant reduction efficiencies in excess of 90% for NOX and PM.
Technical Paper

Measuring Diesel Emissions with a Split Exhaust Configuration

2001-05-07
2001-01-1949
West Virginia University evaluated diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) and lean-NOX catalysts as part of Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) project. In order to perform thermal aging of the DOC and lean-NOX catalysts simultaneously and economically, each catalyst was sized to accommodate half of the engine exhaust flow. Simultaneous catalyst aging was then achieved by splitting the engine exhaust into two streams such that approximately half of the total exhaust flowed through the DOC and half through the lean-NOX catalyst. This necessitated splitting the engine exhaust into two streams during emissions measurements. Throttling valves installed in each branch of the split exhaust were adjusted so that approximately half the engine exhaust passed though the active catalyst under evaluation and into a full flow dilution tunnel for emissions measurement.
Technical Paper

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials: Recent Progress and Future Plans

2001-05-14
2001-01-2061
The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program provides enabling materials technology for the U.S. DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program is based on an industry assessment and the technology roadmap for the OHVT. A five-year program plan was published in 2000. Major efforts in the program are materials for diesel engine fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, and air handling. Additional efforts include diesel engine valve-train materials, structural components, and thermal management. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications. Selected technical issues and planned and ongoing projects as well as brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Aftertreatment Research for Heavy Vehicles

2001-05-14
2001-01-2064
The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 emission regulations for light-duty vehicles will require effective exhaust emission controls (aftertreatment) for diesels in these applications. Diesel-powered heavy trucks face a similar situation for the 2007 regulations announced by EPA in December 2000. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and evaluation of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R&D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.
Technical Paper

Emissions From a 5.9 Liter Diesel Engine Fueled With Ethanol Diesel Blends

2001-05-07
2001-01-2018
A certification diesel fuel and blends containing 10 and 15 volume % ethanol were tested in a 5.9-liter Cummins B Series engine. For each fuel blend, an 8-mode AVL test cycle was performed. The resulting emissions were characterized and measured for each individual test mode (prescribed combination of engine speed and load). These individual mode results are used to create a weighted average that is designed to approximate the results of the Heavy-Duty Transient Federal Test Procedure. The addition of ethanol was observed to have no noticeable effect on the emission of NOx but produced small increases in CO and HC. However, the particulate matter was observed to decrease 20% and 30% with the addition of 10% and 15% ethanol, respectively.
Technical Paper

Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Innovations - U.S. GovernmentS Role in Pngv

2000-11-01
2000-01-C063
The U.S. Government plays an important role in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles' (PNGV) electrical and electronics technologies with a program consisting of high-risk research and development (R&D) projects. The Department of Energy (DOE) plays the largest role in supporting these technologies to specifically address automotive needs. DOE has three Automotive Integrated Power Module (AIPM) contractors and two Automotive Electric Motor Drive (AEMD) contractors working to become viable suppliers for PNGV. Materials development projects are working to improve materials and devices needed in automotive motors and drives, such as permanent magnets, capacitors, sensors, connectors, and thermal management materials. Advancements in inverters, controls, and motors and generators conducted at DOE's national laboratories are also presented.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Fourth Generation Hybrid Electric Vehicle at West Virginia University

2001-03-05
2001-01-0682
As a part of the FutureTruck 2000 advanced technology student vehicle competition sponsored by the US Department of Energy and General Motors, West Virginia University has converted a full-size sport utility vehicle into a high fuel efficiency, low emissions vehicle. The environmental impact of the Chevrolet Suburban SUV, in terms of both greenhouse gas emissions and exhaust emissions, was reduced through hybridization without losing any of the functionality and utility of the base vehicle. The approach taken was one of using a high efficiency, state-of-the-art direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine coupled to a high output electric traction motor for power assist and to recover regenerative braking energy. The vehicle employs a state-of-the-art combination lean NOx catalyst, oxidation catalyst and particulate filter to ensure low exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

The Coaxial Cavity Resonator as a RF IC Engine Ignition Source

2001-03-05
2001-01-0987
The Quarter Wave Coaxial Cavity Resonator (QWCCR) plasma igniter is designed, from previous theoretical work, as an ignition source for an internal combustion engine. The present research has explored the implementation of the QWCCR into an internal combustion (IC) engine. The QWCCR design parameters of inner conductor length, loop geometry, and loop position were varied for two igniters of differing operating frequency. Variations of the QWCCR radio frequency (RF) parameters, as a function of engine geometry, were studied by placing the igniter in a combustion chamber and manually varying the crank position. Three identical igniters were fitted with dielectric inserts and the parameters were studied before and after ignition was sustained in a twin-cylinder engine. Optimal resonator geometries were determined. Radio frequency parameter invariance was found with respect to crank angle and piston distance. The first successful IC engine ignition using a QWCCR was achieved.
Technical Paper

Knock Prediction in Reciprocating Gas-Engines Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics

2001-03-05
2001-01-1012
Two and three-dimensional test cases were simulated using a detailed kinetic mechanism for di-methyl ether to represent methane combustion. A piston-bowl assembly for the compression and expansion strokes with combustion has been simulated at 1500 RPM. A fine grid was used for the 2-D simulations and a rather coarse grid was used for the 3-D calculations together with a k-ε subgrid-scale turbulence model and a partially stirred reactor model with three time scales. Ignition was simulated artificially by increasing the temperature at one point inside the cylinder. The results of these simulations were compared with experimental results. The simulation involved an engine with a homogeneous charge of methane as fuel. Results indicate that pressure fluctuations were captured some time after the ignition started, which indicates knock conditions.
Technical Paper

Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-0903
Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A Life-Cycle-Based Environmental Evaluation: Materials in New Generation Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0595
This project team conducted a life-cycle-based environmental evaluation of new, lightweight materials (e.g., titanium, magnesium) used in two concept 3XVs -- i.e., automobiles that are three times more fuel efficient than today's automobiles -- that are being designed and developed in support of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. The two concept vehicles studied were the DaimlerChrysler ESX2 and the Ford P2000. Data for this research were drawn from a wide range of sources, including: the two automobile manufacturers; automobile industry reports; government and proprietary databases; past life-cycle assessments; interviews with industry experts; and models.
Technical Paper

In Situ Measurement of Fuel Absorption into the Cylinder Wall Oil Film During Engine Cold Start

1998-02-01
981054
The absorption of unburned fuel into the engine cylinder wall oil film has been identified as a source of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from spark-ignited (SI)engines. While significant work has been done under steady-state operating conditions to quantify the contribution of this mechanism to overall unburned hydrocarbon emissions, little work has focused on cold starting conditions and in situ measurement of the fuel / oil film interaction. The work reported here shows how laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy can be used to make in situ measurements of the absorption of fuel into the cylinder wall oil film of a single cylinder engine. Measurements were made at two points in the engine cycle under cold start conditions. Results indicate that fuel concentration in the oil film reached a maximum of fifty percent (50%) during cold start operation, though fuel was present in the oil film throughout the engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Metal Compression Forming - A New Process for Structural Aluminum Alloy Castings

1998-08-11
982107
Metal Compression Forming (MCF) is a variant of the squeeze casting process, in which molten metal is allowed to solidify under pressure in order to close porosity and form a sound part. However, the MCF process applies pressure on the entire mold face, thereby directing pressure on all regions of the casting and producing a uniformly sound part. The process is capable of producing parts with properties close to those of forgings, while retaining the near net shape, complexity in geometry, and relatively low cost of the casting process. The paper describes the casting process development involved in the production of an aluminum A357 alloy motor mount bracket, including the use of a filling and solidification model to design the gating and determine process parameters. Tensile properties of the component are presented and correlated with those of forged components.
Technical Paper

Modularity in Spark Ignition Engines: A Review of its Benefits, Implementation and Limitations

1998-10-19
982688
A conceptual understanding of modularity in internal combustion engines (defined as design, operation, and sensing on an individual cylinder basis) is presented. Three fundamental modular concepts are identified. These are dissimilar component sizing and operation, component deactivation, and direct sensing. The implementation of these concepts in spark ignition internal combustion engines is presented. Several modular approaches are reviewed with respect to breathing, fueling, power generation, and sensing. These include dissimilar orientation, geometry, and activation of multiple induction runners, partial or total disablement of valves through direct or indirect means, dissimilar fueling of individual cylinders, skipping the combustion event of one or more cylinders, deactivation of dissimilar individual cylinders or a group of cylinders, and individual cylinder gas pressure and mixture strength sensing.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Gas Recirculation in a Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine

1998-05-04
981395
Lean-burn natural gas engines offer attractively low particulate matter emissions and enjoy higher efficiencies than their stoichiometric counterparts. However, even though oxides of nitrogen emissions can be reduced through operation at lambda ratios of greater than 1.3, catalysts cannot reduce the oxides of nitrogen emissions in the oxidizing exhaust environment. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) offers the potential to reduce engine out oxides of nitrogen emissions by reducing the flame temperature and oxygen partial pressure that encourages their formation during the combustion process. A comparative study involving a change in the nature of primary diluent (air replaced by EGR) in the intake of a Hercules, 3.7 liter, lean-burn natural gas engine has been undertaken in this research. The Hercules engine was equipped with a General Motors electronically controlled EGR valve for low EGR rates, and a slide valve, constructed in house, for high EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Trucks and Buses Powered by Cummins L-10 Natural Gas Engines

1998-05-04
981393
Both field research and certification data show that the lean burn natural gas powered spark ignition engines offer particulate matter (PM) reduction with respect to equivalent diesel power plants. Concerns over PM inventory make these engines attractive despite the loss of fuel economy associated with throttled operation. Early versions of the Cummins L-10 natural gas engines employed a mixer to establish air/fuel ratio. Emissions measurements by the West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories on Cummins L-10 powered transit buses revealed the potential to offer low emissions of PM and oxides of nitrogen, (NOx) but variations in the mixture could cause emissions of NOx, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to rise. This was readily corrected through mixer repair or readjustment. Newer versions of the L-10 engine employ a more sophisticated fueling scheme with feedback control from a wide range oxygen sensor.
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