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Technical Paper

Measurement of Strain Distribution for Hole Expansion with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0993
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in automotive industry. A major issue for AHSS stamping is edge cracking. This failure mode is difficult to predict by conventional forming limit curve (FLC). The material edge stretchability is mainly evaluated using the hole expansion test. In this study, digital Image Correlation (DIC) is applied for strain measurement. DIC is a non-contact, full field, high accuracy and direct measurement technique that provides more detailed information for the evolution of strains on the sheet surface. Tests were conducted for five AHSS and nine cases. This paper will explain in detail the DIC technique and its results.
Journal Article

Scanning Frequency Ranges of Harmonic Response for a Spot-Welded Copper-Aluminum Plate Using Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-1076
In this paper, a finite element methodology is given in which finite element models of a three-weld Al-Cu plate is created with support and loading conditions emulating those seen in an optical lab. Harmonic response is sought for the models under the presumption that various defective welds are present. The numerical results are carefully examined to determine the guideline frequency range so the actual optical experiment can be carried out more efficiently.
Technical Paper

Effect of Material Microstructure on Scuffing Behavior of Ferrous Alloys

2011-04-12
2011-01-1091
Scuffing is one of the major problems that influence the life cycle and reliability of several auto components, including engine cylinder kits, flywheels, camshafts, crankshafts, and gears. Ferrous casting materials, such as gray cast iron, ductile cast iron and austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) are widely applied in these components due to their self-lubricating characteristics. The purpose of this research is to determine the scuffing behavior of these three types of cast iron materials and compare them with 1050 steel. Rotational ball-on-disc tests were conducted with white mineral oil as the lubricant under variable sliding speeds and loads. The results indicate that the scuffing initiation is due to either crack propagation or plastic deformation. It is found that ADI exhibits the highest scuffing resistance among these materials.
Technical Paper

An Application of Variation Simulation - Predicting Interior Driveline Vibration Based on Production Variation of Imbalance and Runout

2011-05-17
2011-01-1543
An application of variation simulation for predicting vehicle interior driveline vibration is presented. The model, based on a “Monte Carlo”-style approach, predicts the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) response of the vehicle driveline based on distributions of imbalance and runout derived from manufacturing production variation (the forcing function) and the vehicle's sensitivity to the forcing function. The model is used to illustrate the change in vehicle interior vibration that results when changes are made to production variation for runout and imbalance of driveline components, and how those same changes result in different responses based on vehicle sensitivity.
Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Novel Operating Mode for DC-to-DC Converters in PHEVs

2013-04-08
2013-01-1761
The demand on the DC-to-DC converters is increasing and more capable units are required. In this paper we will introduce a third mode of operation that will allow the Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle (PHEV) to meet the LV load demand without weight or cost increase. This mode operation will utilize the DC-to-DC converters of the on-board charger to compensate for the increase in load demand.
Journal Article

Managing the Computational Cost of Monte Carlo Simulation with Importance Sampling by Considering the Value of Information

2013-04-08
2013-01-0943
Importance Sampling is a popular method for reliability assessment. Although it is significantly more efficient than standard Monte Carlo simulation if a suitable sampling distribution is used, in many design problems it is too expensive. The authors have previously proposed a method to manage the computational cost in standard Monte Carlo simulation that views design as a choice among alternatives with uncertain reliabilities. Information from simulation has value only if it helps the designer make a better choice among the alternatives. This paper extends their method to Importance Sampling. First, the designer estimates the prior probability density functions of the reliabilities of the alternative designs and calculates the expected utility of the choice of the best design. Subsequently, the designer estimates the likelihood function of the probability of failure by performing an initial simulation with Importance Sampling.
Journal Article

A Methodology for Design Decisions using Block Diagrams

2013-04-08
2013-01-0947
Our recent work has shown that representation of systems using a reliability block diagram can be used as a decision making tool. In decision making, we called these block diagrams decision topologies. In this paper, we generalize the results and show that decision topologies can be used to make many engineering decisions and can in fact replace decision analysis for most decisions. We also provide a meta-proof that the proposed method using decision topologies is entirely consistent with decision analysis at the limit. The main advantages of the method are that (1) it provides a visual representation of a decision situation, (2) it can easily model tradeoffs, (3) it can incorporate binary attributes, (4) it can model preferences with limited information, and (5) it can be used in a low-fidelity sense to quickly make a decision.
Journal Article

Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1007
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution.
Technical Paper

A Cost-Driven Method for Design Optimization Using Validated Local Domains

2013-04-08
2013-01-1385
Design optimization often relies on computational models, which are subjected to a validation process to ensure their accuracy. Because validation of computer models in the entire design space can be costly, we have previously proposed an approach where design optimization and model validation, are concurrently performed using a sequential approach with variable-size local domains. We used test data and statistical bootstrap methods to size each local domain where the prediction model is considered validated and where design optimization is performed. The method proceeds iteratively until the optimum design is obtained. This method however, requires test data to be available in each local domain along the optimization path. In this paper, we refine our methodology by using polynomial regression to predict the size and shape of a local domain at some steps along the optimization process without using test data.
Journal Article

Determination of Weld Nugget Size Using an Inverse Engineering Technique

2013-04-08
2013-01-1374
In today's light-weight vehicles, the strength of spot welds plays an important role in overall product integrity, reliability and customer satisfaction. Naturally, there is a need for a quick and reliable technique to inspect the quality of the welds. In the past, the primary quality control tests for detecting weld defects are the destructive chisel test and peel test [1]. The non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method currently used in industry is based on ultrasonic inspection [2, 3, 4]. The technique is not always successful in evaluating the nugget size, nor is it effective in detecting the so-called “cold” or “stick” welds. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a precise and reliable noncontact NDE method for spot welds. There have been numerous studies in predicting the weld nugget size by considering the spot-weld process [5, 6].
Technical Paper

The Selection of Window in Spatial Phase Shift ESPI

2013-04-08
2013-01-1420
Shearography is a laser based optical method that is similar to holographic interferometry and ESPI. It is a full-field, non-contacting and non-destructive measurement method for the surface deformation. It overcomes some of the disadvantages of holography; it does not need a reference beam, so that it obtains vibration isolation and simplifies the setup. These advantages grant shearography the ability to be a practical measurement tool and it has already gotten many industrial acceptances for non-destructive testing The embedment of the phase shift technique improves dramatically the measuring sensitivity and accuracy of the shearography. It uses the piezoelectric as the carrier to generate a known phase gap and takes multiple images with the phase before and after the sample is loaded, so that the phase map is calculated. And for each pixel the phase is accurate. However, the disadvantage of the phase shift technique is the time consumption.
Technical Paper

Forming Limit Measurement Using a Multi-Sensor Digital Image Correlation System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1423
A multi-sensor Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is employed to measure the deformation of metal specimens during tensile tests. The multi-sensor DIC system is capable of providing high quality contour and deformation data of a 3D object. Methodology and advantages of the multi-sensor DIC system is introduced. Tests have been done on steel and aluminum specimens to prove the performance of the system. With the help of the multi-sensor DIC system, we proposed our approaches to determine the forming limit based on shape change around the necking area instead of calculate the FLD based on the in-plane strains. With the employed system, all measurements are done post-deformation, no testing controlling mechanism, such as load force control or touching control, is required. The extracted data is analyzed and the result shows a possibility that we may be able to improve current technique for Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) measurement.
Technical Paper

Improving Material Property Measurement by Using Multi-Camera Digital Image Correlation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1428
In this work, a multi-camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is applied to measure the material properties of aluminum (5754) specimens. Such tests are usually done using 2D (one-camera) or 3D (two-camera) DIC systems. A multi-camera DIC system includes three or more cameras and inherits all the advantages of a conventional 3D DIC system (with two cameras) such as, full-field measurement, high accuracy and high speed. In addition, this system further improves the measured results by including redundant data. In this work, we will show the potential of this system to measure a variety of material properties at one time.
Technical Paper

Charge Capacity Versus Charge Time in CC-CV and Pulse Charging of Li-Ion Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-1546
Due to their high energy density and low self-discharge rates, lithium-ion batteries are becoming the favored solution for portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Lithium-Ion batteries require special charging methods that must conform to the battery cells' power limits. Many different charging methods are currently used, some of these methods yield shorter charging times while others yield more charge capacity. This paper compares the constant-current constant-voltage charging method against the time pulsed charging method. Charge capacity, charge time, and cell temperature variations are contrasted. The results allow designers to choose between these two methods and select their parameters to meet the charging needs of various applications.
Technical Paper

Kinematic Modeling and Analysis of a Cam Based CVT

2013-04-08
2013-01-1371
Continuously variable transmission (CVT) offers many advantages to vehicle performance over traditional transmission technologies. A novel cam based CVT was proposed in US patent # 4,603,240, by J. Klovstad and J. Fortune [1], which has a cam input to drive an angle dependent, clutch actuated output shaft. Based on the patented CVT, a kinematic simulation, utilizing three dimensional CAD software was performed, creating a visualization and analysis model to ascertain system performance and feasibility. This article describes the mechanism created, limitation of the modeling software and the approach utilized to overcome these limitations. The resultant motion is then analyzed to ascertain the performance of the mechanism and determine the viability of the design concept. Key improvements to the system are proposed to the design, based on system performance through this analysis.
Technical Paper

Buckling of Structures Subject to Multiple Forces

2013-04-08
2013-01-1370
Frames are important structures found in many transportation applications such as automotive bodies and train cars. They are also widely employed in buildings, bridges, and other load bearing designs. When a frame is carrying multiple loads, it can potentially risk a catastrophic buckling failure. The loads on the frame may be non-proportional in that one force stays constant while the other is increased until buckling occurs. In this study the buckling problem is formulated as a constrained eigenvalue problem (CEVP). As opposed to other CEVP in which the eigenvectors are forced to comply with a number of the constraints, the eigenvalues in the current CEVP are subject to some equality constraints. A numerical algorithm for solving the constrained eigenvalue problem is presented. The algorithm is a simple trapping scheme in which the computation starts with an initial guess and a window containing the potential target for the eigenvalue is identified.
Journal Article

Microstructural Contact Mechanics Finite Element Modeling Used to Study the Effect of Coating Induced Residual Stresses on Bearing Failure Mechanisms

2014-04-01
2014-01-1018
Coatings have the potential to improve bearing tribological performance. However, every coating application process and material combination may create different residual stresses and coating microstructures, and their effect on bearing fatigue and wear performance is unclear. The aim of this work is to investigate coating induced residual stress effects on bearing failure indicators using a microstructural contact mechanics (MSCM) finite element (FE) model. The MSCM FE model consists of a two-dimensional FE model of a coated bearing surface under sliding contact where individual grains are represented by FE domains. Interactions between FE domains are represented using contact element pairs. Unique to this layered rolling contact FE model is the use of polycrystalline material models to represent realistic bearing and coating microstructural behavior. The MSCM FE model was compared to a second non-microstructural contact mechanics (non-MSCM) model.
Technical Paper

Design Approach for Online Measuring the Distance of the Gap between the Contactors of Electric Relay Switch

2014-04-01
2014-01-0831
The assembling accuracy of two contactors during the relay switch production is an important factor affecting the quality of relay. An embedded machine vision quality Inspection system has been developed for electric relay production line inspection. The proposed system can provide online feedback on the quality of the relays by measuring the distance of the gap between the contacts of them. Two CMOS imaging sensors are operated for image acquisition and the parallel working mode is realized under dual-channel mode. A red light illumination system has been adopted to eliminate the imaging noise from the reflection of the surfaces of copper sheet. Before the test, the features areas in the image of same type relay is selected as template and saved in the computer. During the inspection procedure, a rotation invariance detection scheme based on circular projection matching algorithm has been used for fast recognizing and locating detected object with the help of these feature areas.
Technical Paper

Research on Shear Test of New Style Automotive Structural Adhesive

2014-04-01
2014-01-0828
In this paper, Digital Image Correlation Method (DICM) is employed to measure the shear mechanical property of the new style automotive structural adhesive specimens and traditional spot welded specimens under quasi static uniaxial shear tensile test. This experiment adopts a non-contact measuring method to measure the strain of specimens. A CCD and a computer image processing system are used to capture and record the real-time surface images of the specimens before and after deformation. Digital correlation software is used to process the imagines before and after deformation to obtain the specimen's strain of the moment. And then both the force-displacement curve and the stress-strain curve during the tensile process could be obtained. The test and analysis results show that the new style structural adhesive specimens have a great advantage with the spot welded specimens. It provides experimental evidence for further improvement of this structural adhesive.
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