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Technical Paper

Probabilistic Analysis for the Performance Characteristics of Engine Bearings due to Variability in Bearing Properties

This paper presents the development of surrogate models (metamodels) for evaluating the bearing performance in an internal combustion engine without performing time consuming analyses. The metamodels are developed based on results from actual simulation solvers computed at a limited number of sample points, which sample the design space. A finite difference bearing solver is employed in this paper for generating information necessary to construct the metamodels. An optimal symmetric Latin hypercube algorithm is utilized for identifying the sampling points based on the number and the range of the variables that are considered to vary in the design space. The development of the metamodels is validated by comparing results from the metamodels with results from the actual bearing performance solver over a large number of evaluation points. Once the metamodels are established they are employed for performing probabilistic analyses.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Engine Block and a Rotating Crankshaft Coupled Through Elastohydrodynamic Bearings

A comprehensive formulation is presented for the dynamics of a rotating flexible crankshaft coupled with the dynamics of an engine block through a finite difference elastohydrodynamic main bearing lubrication algorithm. The coupling is based on detailed equilibrium conditions at the bearings. The component mode synthesis is employed for modeling the crankshaft and block dynamic behavior. A specialized algorithm for coupling the rigid and flexible body dynamics of the crankshaft within the framework of the component mode synthesis has been developed. A finite difference lubrication algorithm is used for computing the oil film elastohydrodynamic characteristics. A computationally accurate and efficient mapping algorithm has been developed for transferring information between a high - density computational grid for the elastohydrodynamic bearing solver and a low - density structural grid utilized in computing the crankshaft and block structural dynamic response.
Technical Paper

Oil Film Dynamic Characteristics for Journal Bearing Elastohydrodynamic Analysis Based on a Finite Difference Formulation

A fast and accurate journal bearing elastohydrodynamic analysis is presented based on a finite difference formulation. The governing equations for the oil film pressure, stiffness and damping are solved using a finite difference approach. The oil film domain is discretized using a rectangular two-dimensional finite difference mesh. In this new formulation, it is not necessary to generate a global fluidity matrix similar to a finite element based solution. The finite difference equations are solved using a successive over relaxation (SOR) algorithm. The concept of “Influence Zone,” for computing the dynamic characteristics is introduced. The SOR algorithm and the “Influence Zone” concept significantly improve the computational efficiency without loss of accuracy. The new algorithms are validated with numerical results from the literature and their numerical efficiency is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Optimal Water Jacket Flow Distribution Using a New Group-Based Space-Filling Design of Experiments Algorithm

The availability of computational resources has enabled an increased utilization of Design of Experiments (DoE) and metamodeling (response surface generation) for large-scale optimization problems. Despite algorithmic advances however, the analysis of systems such as water jackets of an automotive engine, can be computationally demanding in part due to the required accuracy of metamodels. Because the metamodels may have many inputs, their accuracy depends on the number of training points and how well they cover the entire design (input) space. For this reason, the space-filling properties of the DoE are very important. This paper utilizes a new group-based DoE algorithm with space-filling groups of points to construct a metamodel. Points are added sequentially so that the space-filling properties of the entire group of points is preserved. The addition of points is continuous until a specified metamodel accuracy is met.
Technical Paper

Effect of Material Microstructure on Scuffing Behavior of Ferrous Alloys

Scuffing is one of the major problems that influence the life cycle and reliability of several auto components, including engine cylinder kits, flywheels, camshafts, crankshafts, and gears. Ferrous casting materials, such as gray cast iron, ductile cast iron and austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) are widely applied in these components due to their self-lubricating characteristics. The purpose of this research is to determine the scuffing behavior of these three types of cast iron materials and compare them with 1050 steel. Rotational ball-on-disc tests were conducted with white mineral oil as the lubricant under variable sliding speeds and loads. The results indicate that the scuffing initiation is due to either crack propagation or plastic deformation. It is found that ADI exhibits the highest scuffing resistance among these materials.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Autoignition on the Heat Release Histories of a Knocking SI Engine Using Wiebe Functions

In this paper, we develop a methodology to enable the isolation of the heat release contribution of knocking combustion from flame-propagation combustion. We first address the empirical modeling of individual non-autoigniting combustion history using the Wiebe function, and subsequently apply this methodology to investigate the effect of autoignition on the heat release history of knocking cycles in a spark ignition (SI) engine. We start by re-visiting the Wiebe function, which is widely used to model empirically mass burned histories in SI engines. We propose a method to tune the parameters of the Wiebe function on a cycle-by-cycle basis, i.e., generating a different Wiebe to suitably fit the heat release history of each cycle. Using non-autoigniting cycles, we show that the Wiebe function can reliably simulate the heat release history of an entire cycle, if only data from the first portion of the cycle is used in the tuning process.
Technical Paper

A 1-D Platform to Simulate the Effects of Dedicated EGR on SI Engine Combustion

The thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engines can be enhanced by increasing the rate of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) such that the low temperature combustion regime could be achieved. However, there is an upper limit on the amount of EGR rate, beyond which flame speed becomes slow and unstable, and local quenching starts to hurt the combustion stability, efficiency, and emission. To resolve this issue, the concept of dedicated EGR has been proposed previously to be an effective way to enhance flame propagation under lean burn condition with even higher levels of EGR with reformate hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In this study, the effects of thermochemical fuel reforming on the reformate composition under rich conditions (1.0 < ϕ < 2.0) have been studied using detailed chemistry for iso-octane, as the representative component for gasoline.
Technical Paper

Design and Validation of a GT Power Model of the CFR Engine towards the Development of a Boosted Octane Number

Developments in modern spark ignition (SI) engines such as intake boosting, direct-injection, and engine downsizing techniques have demonstrated improved performance and thermal efficiency, however, these strategies induce significant deviation in end-gas pressure/temperature histories from those of the traditional Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) standards. Attempting to extrapolate the anti-knock performance of fuels tested under the traditional RON/MON conditions to boosted operation has yielded mixed results in both SI and advanced compression ignition (ACI) engines. This consideration motivates the present work with seeks to establish a pathway towards the development of the test conditions of a boosted octane number, which would better correlate to fuel performance at high intake pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Tuner Parameters on Hydraulic Noise and Vibration

Passengers' frequent requests are for less Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) in the vehicle compartment. This and the reduction of noise and vibration levels from major sources like the engine necessitate better performance of other sources of noise and vibrations in a vehicle. Some of these sources are the hydraulic circuits including the power steering system. Fluid pulses or pressure ripples, generated typically by a pump, become excitation forces to the structure of a vehicle or the steering gear and represent a considerable source of discomfort to the vehicle passengers. Current power steering technology attenuates this ripple along the pressure line connecting the pump to the steering gear. Finding the optimum design configuration for the components (hose, tuner, tube, and others) has been a matter of experience-based trial and error. This paper is a part of a program to simulate and optimize fluid borne noise in hydraulic circuits.
Technical Paper

Piston Secondary Dynamics Considering Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model including elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication at the bore-skirt interface. A piston EHD analysis is used based on a finite-difference formulation. The oil film is discretized using a two-dimensional mesh. For improved computational efficiency without loss of accuracy, the Reynolds’ equation is solved using a perturbation approach which utilizes an “influence zone” concept, and a successive over-relaxation solver. The analysis includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading and piston barrelity and ovality. A Newmark-Beta time integration scheme combined with a Newton-Raphson linearization, calculates the piston secondary motion.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Engine Lubrication System

The quality of engine lubrication depends upon how much oil is supplied and how the lubricant is pressurized to the lubricated components. These variables strongly affect the safe operation and lifespan of an engine. During the conceptual design stage of an engine, its lubrication system cannot be verified experimentally. It is highly desirable for design engineers to utilize computer simulations and robust design methodology in order to achieve their goal of optimizing the engine lubrication system. The heuristic design principle is a relatively routine resource for design engineers to pursue although it is time consuming and sacrifices valuable developing time. This paper introduces an unusual design methodology in which design engineers were involved in analyzing their own designs along with lubrication system analyst to establish a link between two sophisticated software packages.
Technical Paper

Optimal Engine Torque Management for Reducing Driveline Clunk Using Time - Dependent Metamodels

Quality and performance are two important customer requirements in vehicle design. Driveline clunk negatively affects the perceived quality and must be therefore, minimized. This is usually achieved using engine torque management, which is part of engine calibration. During a tip-in event, the engine torque rate of rise is limited until all the driveline lash is taken up. However, the engine torque rise, and its rate can negatively affect the vehicle throttle response. Therefore, the engine torque management must be balanced against throttle response. In practice, the engine torque rate of rise is calibrated manually. This paper describes a methodology for calibrating the engine torque in order to minimize the clunk disturbance, while still meeting throttle response constraints. A set of predetermined engine torque profiles are calibrated in a vehicle and the transmission turbine speed is measured for each profile. The latter is used to quantify the clunk disturbance.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Averaged Heat Flux Measurements in a Straight-Pipe Extension of the Exhaust Port of an SI Engine

This paper presents an experimental study of the cycle-averaged, local surface heat transfer, from the exhaust gases to a straight pipe extension of the exhaust port of a four-cylinder spark-ignition (SI) engine, over a wide range of engine operating conditions, from 1000 rpm, light load, through 4000 rpm, full load. The local steady-state heat flux was well correlated by a Nusselt-Reynolds number relationship that included entrance effects. These effects were found to be the major contributor to the local heat transfer augmentation. The Convective Augmentation Factor (CAF), which is defined as the ratio of the measured heat flux to the corresponding heat flux for fully-developed turbulent pipe flow, was found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number and increasing axial distance from the entrance of the test section.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Method for Piston Secondary Dynamics and Piston-Bore Contact

Low vibration and noise level in internal combustion engines has become an essential part of the design process. It is well known that the piston assembly can be a major source of engine mechanical friction and cold start noise, if not designed properly. The piston secondary motion and piston-bore contact pattern are critical in piston design because they affect the skirt-to-bore impact force and therefore, how the piston impact excitation energy is damped, transmitted and eventually radiated from the engine structure as noise. An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model. The method includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading, piston barrelity and ovality, piston flexibility and skirt-to-bore clearance. The method accounts for piston kinematics, rigid-body dynamics and flexibility.
Technical Paper

Relative Contributions of Intake and Exhaust Tuning on SI Engine Breathing - A Computational Study

This study examines the contributions and interactions of intake and exhaust tuning on a 4-stroke single-cylinder engine for various engine speeds and valve timings. The parametric study was performed using a 1-D engine simulation model, the combustion sub-model of which was calibrated based on experimental pressure data. Mechanisms by which tuning changes the volumetric efficiency of an engine were studied. Simulation results are compared with established empirical correlations which predict pipe lengths for maximum volumetric efficiency. It was found that intake tuning has a more dominant role in the breathing capability of the engine compared to exhaust tuning and that both are independent from each other. Valve timing was found to have no effect on intake tuning characteristics but to affect exhaust tuning.
Technical Paper

System Reliability-Based Design using a Single-Loop Method

An efficient approach for series system reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is presented. The key idea is to apportion optimally the system reliability among the failure modes by considering the target values of the failure probabilities of the modes as design variables. Critical failure modes that contribute the most to the overall system reliability are identified. This paper proposes a computationally efficient, system RBDO approach using a single-loop method where the searches for the optimum design and for the most probable failure points proceed simultaneously. Specifically, at each iteration the optimizer uses approximated most probable failure points from the previous iteration to search for the optimum. A second-order Ditlevsen upper bound is used for the joint failure probability of failure modes. Also, an easy to implement active strategy set is employed to improve algorithmic stability.
Technical Paper

Balance between Reliability and Robustness in Engine Cooling System Optimal Design

This paper explores the trade-off between reliability-based design and robustness for an automotive under-hood thermal system using the iSIGHT-FD environment. The interaction between the engine cooling system and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is described. The engine cooling system performance is modeled using Flowmaster and a metamodel is developed in iSIGHT. The actual HVAC system performance is characterized using test bench data. A design of experiment procedure determines the dominant factors and the statistics of the HVAC performance is obtained using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The MCS results are used to build an overall system response metamodel in order to reduce the computational effort. A multi-objective optimization in iSIGHT maximizes the system mean performance and simultaneously minimizes its standard deviation subject to probabilistic constraints.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Local Heat Flux Measurements in a Straight Pipe Extension of an Exhaust Port of a Spark Ignition Engine

Experiments were carried out on a straight pipe extension of an exhaust port of a multi-cylinder, spark-ignition engine to investigate the axial variation of the steady-state surface heat transfer. Local, steady-state, surface heat flux measurements were made at five different stations on the test section. Based on an optimization procedure developed in this study, the heat-flux measurements obtained for axial distances x / D > 2, were found to be correlated very well (R2 = 0.95) by an equation in the form of an entrance length correction, which is a function solely of x / D, multiplied by the Sieder-Tate convective heat transfer correlation; a correlation valid for fully-developed, steady-state, turbulent, pipe flows. Most importantly, this paper provides strong evidence that the observed heat transfer augmentation in the engine exhaust system is due solely to entrance effects and not due to flow fluctuations, which was the accepted cause.
Technical Paper

Optical Measurement of Residual Stress at the Deep-Rolled Crankshaft Fillet

Crankshaft fillet is subjected to a cyclic bending stress during operation. Fatigue cracks are observed at the fillet during the fatigue test. Compressive stresses are generated by deep-rolling process in order to increase the surface hardness and improve the fatigue strength. To examine the deep-rolling effect, the residual stresses at the fillet need to be investigated. Incremental hole drilling and ISSR (interferometric strain/slope rosette) method is applied to measure the residual stresses at the bottom of the fillet. Incremental hole drilling process is to gradually remove material and mill a hole on the specimen surface in order to relax stress. The ISSR is composed of three micro-indentations, which are indented near the hole and would generate interferometric fringe patterns upon incident laser beam. With incremental drilling, stress relaxation causes the relieved strains, which in turn cause the shifts of interferometric patterns.
Technical Paper

Offset Algorithm for Compound Angle Machining of Cummins Cylinder Heads

Proper valve angles and concentric valve seats are critical to performance of an engine. If the valve seat were not right, the valve is not going to seat properly resulting in reduced power output. Although the performance of CNC machines is accurate, unavoidable human errors at the part loading position have serious repercussions on engine performance. A solution algorithm presented in this paper employs the principles of inverse kinematics wherein a faulty compound-hole angle axis in space caused by the translational and rotational errors at the part loading position is identified with an imaginary true axis in space by enforcing identity through a modified machine axes.