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Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Novel Operating Mode for DC-to-DC Converters in PHEVs

2013-04-08
2013-01-1761
The demand on the DC-to-DC converters is increasing and more capable units are required. In this paper we will introduce a third mode of operation that will allow the Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle (PHEV) to meet the LV load demand without weight or cost increase. This mode operation will utilize the DC-to-DC converters of the on-board charger to compensate for the increase in load demand.
Journal Article

Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1007
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution.
Technical Paper

Charge Capacity Versus Charge Time in CC-CV and Pulse Charging of Li-Ion Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-1546
Due to their high energy density and low self-discharge rates, lithium-ion batteries are becoming the favored solution for portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Lithium-Ion batteries require special charging methods that must conform to the battery cells' power limits. Many different charging methods are currently used, some of these methods yield shorter charging times while others yield more charge capacity. This paper compares the constant-current constant-voltage charging method against the time pulsed charging method. Charge capacity, charge time, and cell temperature variations are contrasted. The results allow designers to choose between these two methods and select their parameters to meet the charging needs of various applications.
Technical Paper

Buckling of Structures Subject to Multiple Forces

2013-04-08
2013-01-1370
Frames are important structures found in many transportation applications such as automotive bodies and train cars. They are also widely employed in buildings, bridges, and other load bearing designs. When a frame is carrying multiple loads, it can potentially risk a catastrophic buckling failure. The loads on the frame may be non-proportional in that one force stays constant while the other is increased until buckling occurs. In this study the buckling problem is formulated as a constrained eigenvalue problem (CEVP). As opposed to other CEVP in which the eigenvectors are forced to comply with a number of the constraints, the eigenvalues in the current CEVP are subject to some equality constraints. A numerical algorithm for solving the constrained eigenvalue problem is presented. The algorithm is a simple trapping scheme in which the computation starts with an initial guess and a window containing the potential target for the eigenvalue is identified.
Technical Paper

Validation Study for the Introduction of an Aerodynamic Development Process of Heavy Trucks

2014-09-30
2014-01-2444
A challenge for the aerodynamic optimization of trucks is the limited availability of wind tunnels for testing full scale trucks. FAW wants to introduce a development process which is mainly based on CFD simulation in combination with some limited amount of wind tunnel testing. While maturity of CFD simulation for truck aerodynamics has been demonstrated in recent years, a complete validation is still required before committing to a particular process. A 70% scale model is built for testing in the Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center (SAWTC). Drag and surface pressures are measured for providing a good basis for comparison to the simulation results. The simulations are performed for the truck in the open road driving condition as well as in an initial digital model of the aerodynamic wind tunnel of SAWTC. A full size truck is also simulated in the open road driving condition to understand the scaling effect.
Journal Article

New Metrics to Assess Reliability and Functionality of Repairable Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-0606
The classical definition of reliability may not be readily applicable for repairable systems. Commonly used concepts such as the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) and availability can be misleading because they only report limited information about the system functionality. In this paper, we discuss a set of metrics that can help with the design of repairable systems. Based on a set of desirable properties for these metrics, we select a minimal set of metrics (MSOM) which provides the most information about a system, with the smallest number of metrics. The metric of Minimum Failure Free Period (MFFP) with a given probability generalizes MTBF because the latter is simply the MFFP with a 0.5 probability. It also generalizes availability because coupled with repair times it provides a clearer picture of the length of the expected uninterrupted service. Two forms of MFFP are used: transient and steady state.
Journal Article

Design under Uncertainty using a Combination of Evidence Theory and a Bayesian Approach

2008-04-14
2008-01-0377
Early in the engineering design cycle, it is difficult to quantify product reliability due to insufficient data or information to model uncertainties. Probability theory can not be therefore, used. Design decisions are usually based on fuzzy information which is imprecise and incomplete. Various design methods such as Possibility-Based Design Optimization (PBDO) and Evidence-Based Design Optimization (EBDO) have been developed to systematically treat design with non-probabilistic uncertainties. In practical engineering applications, information regarding the uncertain variables and parameters may exist in the form of sample points, and uncertainties with sufficient and insufficient information may exist simultaneously. Most of the existing optimal design methods under uncertainty can not handle this form of incomplete information. They have to either discard some valuable information or postulate the existence of additional information.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization and Reliability Estimation with Incomplete Uncertainty Information

2006-04-03
2006-01-0962
Existing methods for design optimization under uncertainty assume that a high level of information is available, typically in the form of data. In reality, however, insufficient data prevents correct inference of probability distributions, membership functions, or interval ranges. In this article we use an engine design example to show that optimal design decisions and reliability estimations depend strongly on uncertainty characterization. We contrast the reliability-based optimal designs to the ones obtained using worst-case optimization, and ask the question of how to obtain non-conservative designs with incomplete uncertainty information. We propose an answer to this question through the use of Bayesian statistics. We estimate the truck's engine reliability based only on available samples, and demonstrate that the accuracy of our estimates increases as more samples become available.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Autoignition on the Heat Release Histories of a Knocking SI Engine Using Wiebe Functions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1088
In this paper, we develop a methodology to enable the isolation of the heat release contribution of knocking combustion from flame-propagation combustion. We first address the empirical modeling of individual non-autoigniting combustion history using the Wiebe function, and subsequently apply this methodology to investigate the effect of autoignition on the heat release history of knocking cycles in a spark ignition (SI) engine. We start by re-visiting the Wiebe function, which is widely used to model empirically mass burned histories in SI engines. We propose a method to tune the parameters of the Wiebe function on a cycle-by-cycle basis, i.e., generating a different Wiebe to suitably fit the heat release history of each cycle. Using non-autoigniting cycles, we show that the Wiebe function can reliably simulate the heat release history of an entire cycle, if only data from the first portion of the cycle is used in the tuning process.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Thermal Residual Strain Induced During the Hardening of a Sheet Metal and Reinforced Composite by Digital Shearography

2005-04-11
2005-01-0895
Shearography is an interferometric, non-contact and full field method for direct measurement of first derivatives of deformation (strain). It is relatively insensitive to environmental disturbances and has been proven to be a practical measuring tool for nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE). In this paper it has been employed to study the thermal residual strains produced during the reinforcement of a composite to a sheet metal. The reinforced composite is used as an additive to provide extra strength to the sheet metal. The reinforcement process involves gradual heating of the glued composite to a temperature of around 175°C - 180°C and then allowing it cool down to room temperature. During the heating process both the composite and the sheet metal are strained, but during the cooling process some amount of strain is left behind in the sheet metal and it has a key role to play when the product is used for critical parts in automobile and aircraft industries.
Technical Paper

“The Creation, Development and Implementation of a Lean Systems Course at Oakland University, Rochester, MI”

2005-04-11
2005-01-1798
Countless articles and publications3,4,5 have documented and proven the efficacy, benefits and value of operating within a lean system. Furthermore, there exists common agreement amongst leading organizations successfully implementing a lean system that in order to do so it must take into consideration the entire enterprise, that is, from supplier to customer and everything in between6. One of the core issues this paper addresses is when the optimal time is to train and educate the people who currently have, or will have, influence over the ‘enterprise’.
Technical Paper

Tensile Test for Polymer Plastics with Extreme Large Elongation Using Quad-Camera Digital Image Correlation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0418
Polymer plastics are widely used in automotive light weight design. Tensile tests are generally used to obtain material stress-strain curves. Due to the natural of the plastic materials, it could be elongated more than several hundred percent of its original length before breaking. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Analysis is a precise, full field, optical measurement method. It has been accepted as a practical in-field testing method by the industry. However, with the traditional single-camera or dual-camera DIC system, it is nearly impossible to measure the extreme large strain. This paper introduces a unique experimental procedure for large elongation measurement. By utilization of quad-camera DIC system and data stitch technique, the strain history for plastic material under hundreds percent of elongation can be measured. With a quad-camera DIC system, the correlation was conducted between two adjacent cameras.
Journal Article

A Methodology for Fatigue Life Estimation of Linear Vibratory Systems under Non-Gaussian Loads

2017-03-28
2017-01-0197
Fatigue life estimation, reliability and durability are important in acquisition, maintenance and operation of vehicle systems. Fatigue life is random because of the stochastic load, the inherent variability of material properties, and the uncertainty in the definition of the S-N curve. The commonly used fatigue life estimation methods calculate the mean (not the distribution) of fatigue life under Gaussian loads using the potentially restrictive narrow-band assumption. In this paper, a general methodology is presented to calculate the statistics of fatigue life for a linear vibratory system under stationary, non-Gaussian loads considering the effects of skewness and kurtosis. The input loads are first characterized using their first four moments (mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis) and a correlation structure equivalent to a given Power Spectral Density (PSD).
Technical Paper

Reliability and Resiliency Definitions for Smart Microgrids Based on Utility Theory

2017-03-28
2017-01-0205
Reliability and resiliency (R&R) definitions differ depending on the system under consideration. Generally, each engineering sector defines relevant R&R metrics pertinent to their system. While this can impede cross-disciplinary engineering projects as well as research, it is a necessary strategy to capture all the relevant system characteristics. This paper highlights the difficulties associated with defining performance of such systems while using smart microgrids as an example. Further, it develops metrics and definitions that are useful in assessing their performance, based on utility theory. A microgrid must not only anticipate load conditions but also tolerate partial failures and remain optimally operating. Many of these failures happen infrequently but unexpectedly and therefore are hard to plan for. We discuss real life failure scenarios and show how the proposed definitions and metrics are beneficial.
Technical Paper

GPU Implementation for Automatic Lane Tracking in Self-Driving Cars

2019-04-02
2019-01-0680
The development of efficient algorithms has been the focus of automobile engineers since self-driving cars become popular. This is due to the potential benefits we can get from self-driving cars and how they can improve safety on our roads. Despite the good promises that come with self-driving cars development, it is way behind being a perfect system because of the complexity of our environment. A self-driving car must understand its environment before it makes decisions on how to navigate, and this might be difficult because the changes in our environment is non-deterministic. With the development of computer vision, some key problems in intelligent driving have been active research areas. The advances made in the field of artificial intelligence made it possible for researchers to try solving these problems with artificial intelligence. Lane detection and tracking is one of the critical problems that need to be effectively implemented.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Trajectory Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0487
Autonomous vehicles might one day be able to implement privacy preserving driving patterns which humans may find too difficult to implement. In order to measure the difference between location privacy achieved by humans versus location privacy achieved by autonomous vehicles, this paper measures privacy as trajectory anonymity, as opposed to single location privacy or continuous privacy. This paper evaluates how trajectory privacy for randomized driving patterns could be twice as effective for autonomous vehicles using diverted paths compared to Google Map API generated shortest paths. The result shows vehicles mobility patterns could impact trajectory and location privacy. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric outperforms both K-anonymity and KDT-anonymity.
Technical Paper

A Decision Analytic Approach to Incorporating Value of Information in Autonomous Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0799
Selecting the right transportation platform is challenging, whether it is at a personal level or at an organizational level. In settings where predominantly the functional aspects rule the decision making process, defining the mobility of a vehicle is critical for comparing different offerings and making acquisition decisions. With the advent of intelligent vehicles, exhibiting partial to full autonomy, this challenge is exacerbated. The same vehicle may traverse independently and with greater tolerance for acceleration than human occupied vehicles, while, at the same time struggle with obstacle avoidance. The problem presents itself at the individual vehicle sensing level and also at the vehicle/fleet level. At the sensing and information level, one can be looking at issues of latency, bandwidth and optimal information fusion from multiple sources including privileged sensing. At the overall vehicle level, one focuses more on the ability to complete missions.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0835
Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Technical Paper

Reconciling Simultaneous Evolution of Ground Vehicle Capabilities and Operator Preferences

2020-04-14
2020-01-0172
An objective evaluation of ground vehicle performance is a challenging task. This is further exacerbated by the increasing level of autonomy, dynamically changing the roles and capabilities of these vehicles. In the context of decision making involving these vehicles, as the capabilities of the vehicles improve, there is a concurrent change in the preferences of the decision makers operating the vehicles that must be accounted for. Decision based methods are a natural choice when multiple conflicting attributes are present, however, most of the literature focuses on static preferences. In this paper, we provide a sequential Bayesian framework to accommodate time varying preferences. The utility function is considered a stochastic function with the shape parameters themselves being random variables. In the proposed approach, initially the shape parameters model either uncertain preferences or variation in the preferences because of the presence of multiple decision makers.
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