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Technical Paper

Power Thermal Management System Design for Enhanced Performance in an Aircraft Vehicle

2010-11-02
2010-01-1805
The thermal management of modern aircraft has become more challenging as aircraft capabilities have increased. The use of thermally resistant composite skins and the desire for low observability, reduced ram inlet size and number, have reduced the ability to transfer heat generated by the aircraft to the environment. As the ability to remove heat from modern aircraft has decreased, the heat loads associated with the aircraft have increased. Early in the aircraft design cycle uncertainty exists in both aircraft requirements and simulation predictions. In order to mitigate the uncertainty, it is advantageous to design thermal management systems that are insensitive to design cycle uncertainty. The risk associated with design uncertainty can be reduced through robust optimization. In the robust optimization of the thermal management system, three noise factors were selected: 1) engine fan air temperature, 2) avionics thermal load, and 3) engine thrust.
Technical Paper

Integrated Aircraft Electrical Power System Modeling and Simulation Analysis

2010-11-02
2010-01-1804
Advancements in electrical, mechanical, and structural design onboard modern more electric aircraft have added significant stress to the electrical systems. An electrical system level analysis tool has been created in MATLAB/Simulink to facilitate rapid system analysis and optimization to meet the growing demands of modern aircraft. An integratated model of segment level models of an electrical system including a generator, electrical accumulator unit, electrical distribution unit and electromechanical actuators has been developed. Included in the model are mission level models of an engine and aircraft to provide relevant boundary conditions. It is anticipated that the tracking of the electrical distribution through numerical integration of these various subsystems will lead to more accurate predictions of the bus power quality. In this paper the tool is used to evaluate two architectures using two different load profiles.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Electric Drive Stand Issues for Jet Engine Simulation

2010-11-02
2010-01-1810
Next generation aircraft will require more electrical power, more thermal cooling, and better versatility. To attain these improvements, technologies will need to be integrated and optimized at a system-level. The complexity of these integrated systems will require considerable analysis. In order to characterize and understand the implications of highly-integrated aircraft systems, the effects of pulsed-power, highly-transient loads, and the technologies that drive system-stability and behavior, an approach will be taken utilizing integrated modeling and simulation with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). Such experiments can save time and cost and increase the general understanding of electrical and thermal phenomena as it pertains to aircraft systems before completing an integrated ground demonstration. As a first step toward completing an integrated analysis, a dynamometer “drive stand” was characterized to assess its performance.
Technical Paper

Development and Performance of a Reduced Order Dynamic Aircraft Model

2015-09-15
2015-01-2415
A reduced order dynamic aircraft model has been created for the purpose of enabling constructive simulation studies involving integrated thermal management subsystems. Such studies are motivated by the increasing impact of on-board power and thermal subsystems to the overall performance and mission effectiveness of modern aircraft. Previous higher-order models that have been used for this purpose have the drawbacks of much higher development time, along with much higher execution times in the simulation studies. The new formulation allows for climbs, accelerations and turns without incurring computationally expensive stability considerations; a dynamic inversion control law provides tracking of user-specified mission data. To assess the trade-off of improved run-time performance against model capability, the reduced order formulation is compared to a traditional six degree-of-freedom model of the same air vehicle.
Technical Paper

Developing Analysis for Large Displacement Stability for Aircraft Electrical Power Systems

2014-09-16
2014-01-2115
Future more electric aircraft (MEA) architectures that improve electrical power system's (EPS's) source and load utilization will require advance stability analysis capabilities. Systems are becoming more complex with bidirectional flows from power regeneration, multiple sources per channel and higher peak to average power ratios. Unknown load profiles with large transients complicate common stability analysis techniques. Advancements in analysis are critical for providing useful feedback to the system integrator and designers of multi-source, multi-load power systems. Overall, a framework for evaluating stability with large displacement events has been developed. Within this framework, voltage transient bounds are obtained by identifying the worst case load profile. The results can be used by system designers or integrators to provide specifications or limits to suppliers. Subsystem suppliers can test and evaluate their design prior to integration and hardware development.
Technical Paper

Enhancements to Software Tools and Progress in Model-Based Design of EOA on the INVENT Program

2014-09-16
2014-01-2118
The diverse and complex requirements of next-generation energy optimized aircraft (EOA) demand detailed transient and dynamic model-based design (MBD) to ensure the proper operation of numerous interconnected and interacting subsystems across multiple disciplines. In support of the U.S. Air Force's Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology (INVENT) program, several MBD-derived software tools, including models of EOA technologies, have been developed. To validate these models and demonstrate the performance of EOA technologies, a series of Integrated Ground Demonstration (IGD) hardware tests are planned. Several of the numerous EOA software tools and MBD-based processes have been updated and adapted to support this activity.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Brushless Synchronous Machines for Efficient Model-Base System Engineering

2016-09-20
2016-01-2027
Detailed machine models are, and will continue to be, a critical component of both the design and validation processes for engineering future aircraft, which will undoubtedly continue to push the boundaries for the demand of electric power. This paper presents a survey of experimental testing procedures for typical synchronous machines that are applied to brushless synchronous machines with rotating rectifiers to characterize their operational impedances. The relevance and limitations of these procedures are discussed, which include steady-state drive stand tests, sudden short-circuit transient (SSC) tests, and standstill frequency response (SSFR) tests. Then, results captured in laboratory of the aforementioned tests are presented.
Journal Article

Transient Engine Emulation within a Laboratory Testbed for Aircraft Power Systems

2014-09-16
2014-01-2170
This paper presents the details of an engine emulation system utilized within a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) test environment for aircraft power systems. The paper focuses on the software and hardware interfaces that enable the coupling of the engine model and the generator hardware. In particular, the rotor dynamics model that provides the critical link between the modeled dynamics of the engine and the measured dynamics of the generator is described in detail. Careful consideration for the measured torque is included since the measurement contains inertial effects as well as torsional resonances. In addition, the rotor model is equipped with the ability to apply power and speed scaling between the engine and generator.
Journal Article

The Utility of Wide-Bandwidth Emulation to Evaluate Aircraft Power System Performance

2016-09-20
2016-01-1982
The cost and complexity of aircraft power systems limit the number of integrated system evaluations that can be performed in hardware. As a result, evaluations are often performed using emulators to mimic components or subsystems. As an example, aircraft generation systems are often tested using an emulator that consists of a bank of resistors that are switched to represent the power draw of one or more actuators. In this research, consideration is given to modern wide bandwidth emulators (WBEs) that use power electronics and digital controls to obtain wide bandwidth control of power, current, or voltage. Specifically, this paper first looks at how well a WBE can emulate the impedance of a load when coupled to a real-time model. Capturing the impedance of loads and sources is important for accurately assessing the small-signal stability of a system.
Journal Article

A Specification Analysis Framework for Aircraft Systems

2016-09-20
2016-01-2023
Future aircraft systems are projected to have order of magnitude greater power and thermal demands, along with tighter constraints on the performance of the power and thermal management subsystems. This trend has led to the need for a fully integrated design process where power and thermal systems, and their interactions, are considered simultaneously. To support this new design paradigm, a general framework for codifying and checking specifications and requirements is presented. This framework is domain independent and can be used to translate requirement language into a structured definition that can be quickly queried and applied to simulation and measurement data. It is constructed by generalizing a previously developed power quality analysis framework. The application of this framework is demonstrated through the translation of thermal specifications for airborne electrical equipment, into the SPecification And Requirement Evaluation (SPARE) Tool.
Journal Article

A Hybrid Economy Bleed, Electric Drive Adaptive Power and Thermal Management System for More Electric Aircraft

2010-11-02
2010-01-1786
Minimizing energy use on more electric aircraft (MEA) requires examining in detail the important decision of whether and when to use engine bleed air, ram air, electric, hydraulic, or other sources of power. Further, due to the large variance in mission segments, it is unlikely that a single energy source is the most efficient over an entire mission. Thus, hybrid combinations of sources must be considered. An important system in an advanced MEA is the adaptive power and thermal management system (APTMS), which is designed to provide main engine start, auxiliary and emergency power, and vehicle thermal management including environmental cooling. Additionally, peak and regenerative power management capabilities can be achieved with appropriate control. The APTMS is intended to be adaptive, adjusting its operation in order to serve its function in the most efficient and least costly way to the aircraft as a whole.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Domain Component Based Modeling Toolset for Dynamic Integrated Power and Thermal System Modeling

2019-03-19
2019-01-1385
Design of modern aircraft relies heavily on modeling and simulation for reducing cost and improving performance. However, the complexity of aircraft architectures requires accurate modeling of dynamic components across many subsystems. Integrated power and thermal modeling necessitates dynamic simulations of liquid, air, and two-phase fluids within vapor cycle system components, air cycle machine and propulsion components, hydraulic components, and more while heat generation of many on-board electrical components must also be precisely calculated as well. Integration of these highly complex subsystems may result in simulations which are too computationally expensive for quickly modeling extensive variations of aircraft architecture, or will require simulations with reduced accuracy in order to provide computationally inexpensive models.
Technical Paper

Risk Assessment of Fuel Property Variability Using Quasi-Random Sampling/Design of Experiments Methodologies

2019-03-19
2019-01-1387
Increases in on-board heat generation in modern military aircraft have led to a reliance on thermal management techniques using fuel as a primary heat sink. However, recent studies have found that fuel properties, such as specific heat, can vary greatly between batches, affecting the amount of heat delivered to the fuel. With modern aircraft systems utilizing the majority of available heat sink capacity, an improved understanding of the effects of fuel property variability on overall system response is important. One way to determine whether property variability inside a thermal system causes failure is to perform uncertainty analyses on fuel thermophysical properties and compare results to a risk assessment metric. A sensitivity analysis can be performed on any properties that cause inherent system variability to determine which properties contribute the most significant impact.
Technical Paper

Automated 6DOF Model Generation and Actuator Sizing within AFSIM

2019-03-19
2019-01-1336
The Air Force Research Laboratory has interest in automatically generating the extensive aerodynamic databases essential for six degree of freedom (6DOF) models and the use of 6DOF models for design. To be most useful, automation must include all aspects of producing the database including meshing, control surface deflections, running the CFD solution, and storage of the results. This effort applies newly-developed software to produce the desired results. Firstly, AFRL software called Computational Aircraft Prototype Syntheses (CAPS) allows automated meshing using the Advancing Front Local Reconnection (AFLR) software from Mississippi State University1 and automated control surface deflection using Engineering Sketch Pad (ESP) software from MIT/Syracuse. CAPS includes the ability to run the NASA CFD code FUN3D and interpret the FUN3D results via an Application Interface Module (AIM). This may sound like a complicated process.
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