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Technical Paper

A Low Temperature Pathway Operating the Reduction of Stored Nitrates in Pt-Ba/Al2O3 Lean NOx Trap Systems

In this paper the low temperature reduction process of nitrates stored at high temperatures over model Pt-Ba/Al2O3 LNT catalysts using both H2 and C3H6 is analyzed. The results indicate that over the Pt-Ba/Al2O3 catalyst the reduction of stored NOx with both H2 and C3H6 occurs at temperature below those corresponding to their thermal stability. Accordingly, the reduction process occurs through a Pt-catalyzed surface reaction, which does not involve, as a preliminary step, the thermal decomposition of the adsorbed NOx species. The occurrence of such a pathway also requires the co-presence of the storage element and of the noble metal on the same support.
Journal Article

The NH3 Inhibition Effect in the Standard SCR Reaction over a Commercial Fe-zeolite Catalyst for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment: An Experimental and Modeling Study

Transient and steady-state kinetic data are herein presented to analyze the inhibiting effect of ammonia on the NH₃-SCR of NO at low temperatures over a Fe-zeolite commercial catalyst for vehicles. It is shown that in SCR converter models a rate expression accounting for NH₃ inhibition of the Standard SCR reaction is needed in order to predict the specific dynamics observed both in lab-scale and in engine test bench runs upon switching on and off the ammonia feed. Two redox, dual site kinetic models are developed which ascribe such inhibition to the spill-over of ammonia from its adsorption sites, associated with the zeolite, to the redox sites, associated with the Fe promoter. Better agreement both with lab-scale intrinsic kinetic runs and with engine test-bench data, particularly during transients associated with dosing of ammonia to the SCR catalyst, is obtained assuming slow migration of NH₃ between the two sites.
Journal Article

Cold Start Effect Phenomena over Zeolite SCR Catalysts for Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

NH₃/urea SCR is a very effective and widely used technology for the abatement of NOx from diesel exhaust. The SCR mechanism is well understood and the catalyst behavior can be predicted by mathematical models - as long as operation above the temperature limit for AdBlue® injection is considered. The behavior below this level is less understood. During the first seconds up to minutes after cold start, complete NOx abatement can be observed over an SCR catalyst in test bench experiments, together with a significant increase in temperature after the converter (ca. 100 K). In this work these effects have been investigated over a monolith Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst. Concentration step experiments varying NO, NO₂ and H₂O have been carried out in lab scale, starting from room temperature. Further, the interaction of C₃H₆ and CO with NOx over the SCR has been investigated.
Journal Article

Removal of NOx from Diesel Exhausts: The New “Enhanced NH3-SCR” Reaction

Ammonia/urea-SCR is a mature technology, applied worldwide for the control of NOx emissions in combustion exhausts from thermal power plants, cogeneration units, incinerators and stationary diesel engines and more recently also from mobile sources. However a greater DeNOx activity at low temperatures is desired in order to meet more and more restrictive legislations. In this paper we report transient and steady state data collected over commercial Fe-ZSM-5 and V₂O₅-WO₃/TiO₂ catalysts showing high NOx reduction efficiencies in the 200 - 350°C T-range when NO and ammonia react with nitrates, e.g., in the form of an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate. Under such conditions a new reaction occurs, the so-called "Enhanced SCR" reaction, 2 NH₃ + 2 NO + NH₄NO₃ → 3 N₂ + 5 H₂O.