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Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Spray Combustion Processes: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

A contemporary approach for improving and developing the understanding of heavy-duty Diesel engine combustion processes is to use a concerted effort between experiments at well-characterized boundary conditions and detailed, high-fidelity models. In this paper, combustion processes of n-dodecane fuel sprays under heavy-duty Diesel engine conditions are investigated using this approach. Reacting fuel sprays are studied in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel at an ambient temperature of 900 K with three reference cases having specific combinations of injection pressure, ambient density and ambient oxygen concentration (80, 150 & 160 MPa - 22.8 & 40 kg/m3-15 & 20.5% O2). In addition to a free jet, two different walls were placed inside the combustion vessel to study flame-wall interaction.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Using Detailed Chemistry and Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction

Diesel combustion is a very complex process, involving a reacting, turbulent and multi-phase flow. Furthermore, heavy duty engines operate mainly at medium and high loads, where injection durations are very long and cylinder pressure is high. Within such context, proper CFD tools are necessary to predict mixing controlled combustion, heat transfer and, eventually, flame wall interaction which might result from long injection durations and high injection pressures. In particular, detailed chemistry seems to be necessary to estimate correctly ignition under a wide range of operating conditions and formation of rich combustion products which might lead to soot formation. This work is dedicated to the identification of suitable methodologies to predict combustion in heavy-duty diesel engines using detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Combustion Models for Diesel Engines Based on Tabulated Kinetics in a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

Computational fluid dynamics represents a useful tool to support the design and development of Heavy Duty Engines, making possible to test the effects of injection strategies and combustion chamber design for a wide range of operating conditions. Predictive models are required to ensure accurate estimations of heat release and the main pollutant emissions within a limited amount of time. For this reason, both detailed chemistry and turbulence chemistry interaction need to be included. In this work, the authors intend to apply combustion models based on tabulated kinetics for the prediction of Diesel combustion in Heavy Duty Engines. Four different approaches were considered: well-mixed model, presumed PDF, representative interactive flamelets and flamelet progress variable. Tabulated kinetics was also used for the estimation of NOx emissions.
Journal Article

Modeling Non-Premixed Combustion Using Tabulated Kinetics and Different Fame Structure Assumptions

Nowadays, detailed kinetics is necessary for a proper estimation of both flame structure and pollutant formation in compression ignition engines. However, large mechanisms and the need to include turbulence/chemistry interaction introduce significant computational overheads. For this reason, tabulated kinetics is employed as a possible solution to reduce the CPU time even if table discretization is generally limited by memory occupation. In this work the authors applied tabulated homogeneous reactors (HR) in combination with different turbulent-chemistry interaction approaches to model non-premixed turbulent combustion. The proposed methodologies represent good compromises between accuracy, required memory and computational time. The experimental validation was carried out by considering both constant-volume vessel and Diesel engine experiments.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Liquid and Spray Penetration under Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Conditions

The modeling of fuel sprays under well-characterized conditions relevant for heavy-duty Diesel engine applications, allows for detailed analyses of individual phenomena aimed at improving emission formation and fuel consumption. However, the complexity of a reacting fuel spray under heavy-duty conditions currently prohibits direct simulation. Using a systematic approach, we extrapolate available spray models to the desired conditions without inclusion of chemical reactions. For validation, experimental techniques are utilized to characterize inert sprays of n-dodecane in a high-pressure, high-temperature (900 K) constant volume vessel with full optical access. The liquid fuel spray is studied using high-speed diffused back-illumination for conditions with different densities (22.8 and 40 kg/m3) and injection pressures (150, 80 and 160 MPa), using a 0.205-mm orifice diameter nozzle.