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Technical Paper

Development of a CFD Approach to Model Fuel-Air Mixing in Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

Direct-injection represents a consolidated technology to increase performance and efficiency in spark-ignition engines. It reduces the knock tendency and makes engine downsizing possible through the use of turbocharging. Better control of CO and HC emissions at cold-start is also ensured since there is no wall-impingement in the intake port. However, to take advantages of all the theoretical benefits derived from GDI technology, detailed investigations of both fuel-air mixing and combustion processes are necessary to extend the stratified charge operations in the engine map and to reduce soot emissions, that are now severely regulated by emission standards. In this work, the authors developed a CFD methodology to investigate and optimize the fuel-air mixing process in direct-injection, spark-ignition engines. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is used to model the evolution of the fuel spray emerging from a multi-hole injector.
Technical Paper

Application of the CTC Model to Predict Combustion and Pollutant Emissions in a Common-Rail Diesel Engine Operating with Multiple Injections and High EGR

Multiple injections and high EGR rates are now widely adopted for combustion and emissions control in passenger car diesel engines. In a wide range of operating conditions, fuel is provided through one to five separated injection events, and recirculated gas fractions between 0 to 30% are used. Within this context, fast and reliable multi-dimensional models are necessary to define suitable injection strategies for different operating points and reduce both the costs and time required for engine design and development. In this work, the authors have applied a modified version of the characteristic time-scale combustion model (CTC) to predict combustion and pollutant emissions in diesel engines using advanced injection strategies. The Shell auto-ignition model is used to predict auto-ignition, with a suitable set of coefficients that were tuned for diesel fuel.