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Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of Low Pressure-Driven Spray Mass Distribution and Liquid Entrainment for SCR Application through a Mechanical Patternator

The application of liquid aqueous Urea Solution (AUS) as reductant in SCR exhaust after-treatment systems is now a commonly accepted industry standard. Unfortunately, less acceptable are the associated difficulties caused by incomplete decomposition of the liquid, resulting in solid deposits which accumulate in the exhaust pipe downstream of the dosing components. The correct prediction of the spray pattern and, therefore, the spray impact on the walls is a key feature for the system optimization. A mechanical patternator, designed on the basis of CFD performance assessment, involving a Lagrangian representation of the dispersed liquid fully coupled with a 3D Eulerian description of the carrier phase, has been built and used to measure the spray mass distribution.
Journal Article

Fluid Dynamic Comparison of AdBlue Injectors for SCR Applications

The injection process of urea-water solution (AdBlue) determines initial conditions for reactions and catalysis and is fundamentally responsible for optimal operation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. The spray characteristics of four, commercially available, injectors (one air-assisted and three pressure-driven with different nozzle-hole configurations) are investigated with non-intrusive measuring techniques. Injection occurred in the crossflow of a channel blowing preheated air in an exhaust duct similar configuration. The effect of several gas temperatures and flows on the spray propagation and entrainment has been extensively studied by shadow imaging. Shadow images, in addition, show that the spray of the pressure-driven injectors is only marginally affected by the gas crossflow. In contrast, the air assisted spray is strongly deflected by the gas, the effect increasing with increasing gas flow.
Technical Paper

1D-3D Coupled Simulation of the Fuel Spray Propagation Inside the Air-Box of a Moto3 Motorbike: Analysis of Spray Targeting and Injection Timing

In this work an integration between a 1D code (Gasdyn) with a CFD code (OpenFOAM®) has been applied to improve the performance of a Moto3 engine. The four-stroke, single cylinder S.I. engine was modeled, in order to predict the wave motion in the intake and exhaust systems and to study how it affects the cylinder gas exchange process. The engine considered was characterized by having an air induction system with integrated filter cartridge, air-box and intake runner, including two fuel injectors, resulting in a complex air-path from the intake mouth to the intake valves, which presents critical aspects when a 1D modeling is addressed. The exhaust and intake systems have been optimized form the point of view of the wave action. However, due to the high revolution speed reached by this type of engine, the interaction between the gas stream and the fuel spray becomes a key aspect to be addressed in order to achieve the best performance at the desired operating condition.
Technical Paper

Low Pressure-Driven Injection Characterization for SCR Applications

Aqueous Urea is a non-toxic and stable ammonia carrier and its injection and mixing represent the basis for the most common de-NOx technology for mobile applications. The reactant feed preparation process is defined by evaporation, thermolysis and hydrolysis of the liquid mixture upstream the Selective Catalytic Reduction reactor, and it is strongly dependent on the interaction between spray and gaseous flow. Low-pressure driven injectors are the common industrial standard for these applications, and their behavior in almost-ambient pressure cross flows is significantly different from any in-cylinder application. For this reason, two substantially different injectors in terms of geometry and design are experimentally studied, characterizing drop sizes and velocities through Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and liquid mass spatial distribution through Shadow Imaging (SI).