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Technical Paper

CFD Modelling of Gasoline Sprays

A comprehensive model for sprays emerging from high pressure swirl injectors for GDI engine application has been developed. The primary and secondary atomization mechanism as well as the evaporation process both in standard and superheated conditions are taken into account. The spray modelling after the injection is based on the Liquid Instability Sheet Atomization (LISA) approach, modified to correctly predict the liquid sheet thickness at the breakup length. The effect of different values of the superheat degree on evaporation and impact on the spray distribution and fuel-air mixing is analyzed. Comparisons with experimental data show good agreements under atmospheric conditions and with different superheated degrees, while some discrepancies occur under higher ambient pressures.
Technical Paper

Integrated Vehicle and Driveline Modeling

In the last years automotive industry has shown a growing interest in exploring the field of vehicle dynamic control, improving handling performances and safety of the vehicle, and actuating devices able to optimize the driving torque distribution to the wheels. These techniques are defined as torque vectoring. The potentiality of these systems relies on the strong coupling between longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics established by tires and powertrain. Due to this fact the detailed (and correct) simulation of the dynamic behaviour of the driveline has a strong importance in the development of these control systems, which aim is to optimize the contact forces distribution. The aim of this work is to build an integrated vehicle and powertrain model in order to provide a proper instrument to be used in the development of such systems, able to reproduce the dynamic interaction between vehicle and driveline and its effects on the handling performances.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of the Impact of Electrical Heating on the Light-off of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

In the last years, as a response to the more and more restrictive emission legislation, new devices (SRC, DOC, NOx-trap, DPF) have been progressively introduced as standard components of modern after-treatment system for Diesel engines. In addition, the adoption of electrical heating is nowadays regarded with interest as an effective solution to promote the light-off of the catalyst at low temperature, especially at the start-up of the engine and during the low load operation of the engine typical of the urban drive. In this work, a state-of-the-art 48 V electrical heated catalyst is considered, in order to investigate its effect in increasing the abatement efficiency of a standard DOC. The electrical heating device considered is based on a metallic support, arranged in a spiral layout, and it is heated by the Joule effect due to the passage of the electrical current.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Non-Reacting and Reacting Diesel Sprays in Constant-Volume Vessels

A numerical investigation on a series of Diesel spray experiments in constant-volume vessels is proposed. Non reacting conditions were used to assess the spray models and to determine the grid size required to correctly predict the fuel-air mixture formation process. To this end, not only computed liquid and vapor penetrations were compared with experimental data, but also a detailed comparison between computed and experimental mixture fraction distributions was performed at different distances from the injector. Grid dependency was reduced by introducing an Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement technique (ALMR) with an arbitrary level of refinement. Once the capabilities of the current implemented spray models have been assessed, reacting conditions at different ambient densities and temperatures were considered. A Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) combustion model, based on a direct integration of complex chemistry mechanisms over a homogenous cell, was adopted.