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Technical Paper

Effects of Turbulence Modulation Addition in OpenFOAM® Toolkit on High Pressure Fuel Sprays

2011-04-12
2011-01-0820
The OpenFOAM® CFD methodology is nowadays employed for simulation in internal combustion engines and a lot of work has been done for an appropriate description of all complex phenomena. At the moment in the RANS turbulence models available in the OpenFOAM® toolbox the turbulence modulation is not yet included, and the present work analyzes the predictive capabilities of the code in simulating high injection pressure fuel sprays after modeling the influence of the dispersed phase on the turbulence structure. Different experiments were employed for the validation. At first, non-evaporating diesel spray was considered in a constant volume and quiescent vessel. The validation was performed via the available experimental spray evolution in terms of penetrations and spatial/temporal fuel distributions. Then the Sandia combustion chamber was chosen for diesel spray simulation in non-reacting conditions.
Technical Paper

Comparison and Standardization of Numerical Approaches for the Prediction of Non-reacting and Reacting Diesel Sprays

2012-04-16
2012-01-1263
The primary objective of the research discussed here was to compare the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, CONVERGE, and a prevalent open-source code, OpenFOAM, with regard to their ability to predict spray and combustion characteristics. The high-fidelity data were obtained from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) at Sandia National Laboratory in a constant-volume combustion vessel under well-defined, controlled conditions. The experiments and simulations were performed by using two diesel surrogate fuels (i.e., n-heptane and n-dodecane) under both non-reacting and reacting conditions. Specifically, ECN data on spray penetration, liquid length, vapor penetration, mixture fraction, ignition delay, and flame lift-off length (LOL) were used to validate both codes. Results indicate that both codes can predict the above experimental characteristics very well.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Gas Exchange and Fuel-Air Mixing Processes in a Direct-Injection, Gas Fueled Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0036
Direct-injection technology represents today a very interesting solution to the typical problems that are generally encountered in SI, gas-fueled engines such as reduced volumetric efficiency, backfire and knock. However, development of suitable injection systems and combustion chamber geometry is necessary to optimize the fuel-air mixing and combustion processes. To this end, CFD models are widely applied even if the influence of the mesh structure, numerical and turbulence models on the computed results are still matter of investigation. In this work, a numerical methodology for the simulation of the gas exchange and injection processes in gas-fueled engines was developed within the Lib-ICE framework, which is a set of libraries and applications for IC engine modeling developed using the OpenFOAM® technology. The gas exchange and fuel injection processes were simulated into a four-valve, pent-roof hydrogen-fueled engine with optical access.
Technical Paper

An Extension of the Dynamic Mesh Handling with Topological Changes for LES of ICE in OpenFOAM®

2015-04-14
2015-01-0384
The paper focuses on the development of a mesh moving method based on non-conformal topologically changing grids applied to the simulation of IC engines, where the prescribed motion of piston and valves is accomplished by rigidly translating the sub-domain representing the moving component. With respect to authors previous work, a more robust and efficient algorithm to handle the connectivity of non-conformal interfaces and a mesh-motion solver supporting multiple layer addition/removal of cells, to decouple the time-step constraints of the mesh motion and of the fluid dynamics, has been implemented as a C++ library to extend the already existing classes for dynamic mesh handling of the finite-volume, open-source CFD code OpenFOAM®. Other new features include automatic decomposition of large multiple region domains to preserve processors load balance with topological changes for parallel computations and additional tools for automatic preprocessing and case setup.
Journal Article

Dynamic Response of Vehicle-Driver Couple to the Aerodynamic Loads due to the Crossing of a Bridge Tower Wake

2012-04-16
2012-01-0214
In the paper, a procedure to assess the quality of the shielding effect of wind barriers to protect large sided vehicles crossing the wake of a bridge pylon under cross wind conditions is proposed. The methodology is based on Multi-Body simulations of the response of the vehicle-driver system when it is subjected to the sudden change of the aerodynamic forces due to the wind-tower interaction. The aerodynamic forces that are instantaneously acting on the vehicle are computed according to a force distribution approach that relies on wind tunnel tests that may be performed on still scaled models. From the knowledge of the aerodynamic force distribution along the vehicle at different yaw angles and of the mean wind profile across the tower wake, the aerodynamic force, acting on the moving vehicle, is reconstructed at each time step taking into consideration the actual vehicle-driver dynamics.
Journal Article

Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Vehicles in Platoon

2012-04-16
2012-01-0175
Many studies have been carried out to optimize the aerodynamic performances of a single car or a single vehicle. In present days the traffic increases and sophisticated technologies are developing to guarantee the drivers safety, to minimize the fuel consumption and be more environmentally friendly. Within this research area a new technique that is being studied is Platooning: this means that different vehicles travel in a configuration that minimizes the aerodynamic drag and therefore the fuel consumption and the longitudinal space. In the present study platoons with different vehicles and configurations are taken into account, to analyze the influence of car shape and relative distance between the vehicles. The research has been carried out using CFD techniques to investigate the different flow fields around different platoons, while wind tunnel tests have been used to validate the results of the CFD simulations.
Journal Article

Geometric and Fluid-Dynamic Characterization of Actual Open Cell Foam Samples by a Novel Imaging Analysis Based Algorithm

2017-10-05
2017-01-9288
Metallic open-cell foams have proven to be valuable for many engineering applications. Their success is mainly related to mechanical strength, low density, high specific surface, good thermal exchange, low flow resistance and sound absorption properties. The present work aims to investigate three principal aspects of real foams: the geometrical characterization, the flow regime characterization, the effects of the pore size and the porosity on the pressure drop. The first aspect is very important, since the geometrical properties depend on other parameters, such as porosity, cell/pore size and specific surface. A statistical evaluation of the cell size of a foam sample is necessary to define both its geometrical characteristics and the flow pattern at a given input velocity. To this purpose, a procedure which statistically computes the number of cells and pores with a given size has been implemented in order to obtain the diameter distribution.
Journal Article

A Scale Adaptive Filtering Technique for Turbulence Modeling of Unsteady Flows in IC Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0395
Swirling flows are very dominant in applied technical problems, especially in IC engines, and their prediction requires rather sophisticated modeling. An adaptive low-pass filtering procedure for the modeled turbulent length and time scales is derived and applied to Menter' original k - ω SST turbulence model. The modeled length and time scales are compared to what can potentially be resolved by the computational grid and time step. If the modeled scales are larger than the resolvable scales, the resolvable scales will replace the modeled scales in the formulation of the eddy viscosity; therefore, the filtering technique helps the turbulence model to adapt in accordance with the mesh resolution and the scales to capture.
Technical Paper

Hybrid URANS/LES Turbulence Modeling for Spray Simulation: A Computational Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-0270
Turbulence modeling for fuel spray simulation plays a prominent role in the understanding of the flow behavior in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Currently, a lot of research work is actively spent on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence modeling as a replacement option of standard Reynolds averaged approaches in the Eulerian-Lagrangian spray modeling framework, due to its capability to accurately describe flow-induced spray variability and to the lower dependence of the results on the specific turbulence model and/or modeling coefficients. The introduction of LES poses, however, additional questions related to the implementation/adaptation of spray-related turbulence sources and to the rise of conflicting numerics and grid requirements between the Lagrangian and Eulerian parts of the simulated flow.
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