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Technical Paper

Effect of Spray-Wall Interaction on Air Entrainment in a Transient Diesel Spray

1993-03-01
930920
The influence of spray-wall interaction on air entrainment in an unsteady non-evaporating diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry. The spray was injected into confined quiescent air at ambient pressure and temperature and made to impact on a flat wall. The air velocity component normal to a cylindrical surface surrounding the spray was measured during the entire injection period, allowing to evaluate the time history of the entrained air mass flow rate. The influence of wall distance and spray impingement angle on air entrainment characteristics has been investigated and the results indicate that the presence of a wall increases the entrained mass flow rate in the region close to the surface, during the main injection period. Normal impingement appears to produce stronger effects than oblique incidence at 30 and 45 deg. A qualitative explanation of the results is also proposed, based on the drop-gas momentum exchange mechanism.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pressure Wave Reflection from Open-Ends in I.C.E. Duct Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1051
In the most elementary treatment of plane-wave reflection at the open end of a duct system, it is often assumed that the ends are pressure nodes. This implies that pressure is assumed as a constant at the open end termination and that steady flow boundary condition is supposed as instantaneously established. While this simplifying assumption seems reasonable, it does not consider any radiation of acoustic energy from the duct into the surrounding free space; hence, an error in the estimation of the effects of the flow on the acoustical response of an open-end duct occurs. If radiation is accounted, a complicated three-dimensional wave pattern near the duct end is established, which tends to readjust the exit pressure to its steady-flow level. This adjustment process is continually modified by further incident waves, so that the effective instantaneous boundary conditions which determine the reflected waves depend on the flow history.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Model to Predict the Initial Stage of Combustion in SI Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1087
A correct prediction of the initial stages of the combustion process in SI engines is of great importance to understand how local flow conditions, fuel properties, mixture stratification and ignition affect the in-cylinder pressure development and pollutant formation. However, flame kernel growth is governed by many interacting processes including energy transfer from the electrical circuit to the gas phase, interaction between the plasma channel and the flow field, transition between different combustion regimes and gas expansion at very high temperatures. In this work, the authors intend to present a comprehensive, multi-dimensional model that can be used to predict the initial combustion stages in SI engines. In particular, the spark channel is represented by a set of Lagrangian particles where each one of them acts as a single flame kernel.
Technical Paper

A 2D Model for Tractor Tire-Soil Interaction: Evaluation of the Maximum Traction Force and Comparison with Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0191
The paper investigates the interaction between soil and tractor tires through a 2D numerical model. The tire is schematized as a rigid ring presenting a series of rigid tread bars on the external circumference. The outer profile of the tire is divided into a series of elements, each one able to exchange a normal and a tangential contact force with the ground. A 2D soil model was developed to compute the forces at the ground-tire interface: the normal force is determined on the basis of the compression of the soil generated by the sinking of the tire. The soil is modeled through a layer of springs characterized by two different stiffness for the loading (lower stiffness) and unloading (higher stiffness) condition. This scheme allows to introduce a memory effect on the soil which results stiffer and keeps a residual sinking after the passage of the tire. The normal contact force determines the maximum value of tangential force provided before the soil fails.
Technical Paper

Oxygen and Propellant Extraction from Martian Atmosphere: Feasibility Study of a Small Technological Demonstration Plant

2008-06-29
2008-01-1984
The sustainability of Martian outposts development is strongly based on the capability of achieving a high level of autonomy both in terms of operations management and of resources availability. In situ production of consumables is a key point to allow humans to work and live on Mars avoiding or limiting the need for re-supplies of materials from Earth. Required consumables can be produced in situ exploiting the locally available resources, but also by means of green-houses and waste recycle systems. Dedicated robotic missions for in situ demonstration of this type of technologies are a fundamental step of the Martian In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) development roadmap. This paper is focused on the extraction of oxygen and fuels (e.g. methane) from the Martian atmosphere, and presents a feasibility study for a small technological demonstration plant.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of a Bio-Regenerative ECLSS Technological Demo Plant for Air and Water Management

2008-06-29
2008-01-2013
Future human exploration roadmaps involve the development of temporary or permanent outposts on Moon and Mars. The capability of providing astronauts with proper conditions for living and working in extraterrestrial environments is therefore a key issue for the sustainability of those roadmaps, and closed-loop Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSSs) and bio-regenerative plants represent the necessary evolution of current technologies for complying with the challenging requirements imposed. This paper presents the architectural design of a terrestrial plant to be exploited to test and validate air and water management technologies for a biological life support system in a closed environment. The plant includes a crew area and a plant growth area. These two spaces can be considered as either a unique volume or two separated environments with reduced contact, e.g. for plant harvesting or other up-keeping activities.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Vertical Dynamics of an Agricultural Vehicle Operating on Deformable Soil

2012-04-16
2012-01-0764
This work focuses on the analysis of the vertical dynamics of an agricultural tractor, investigating the influence of suspensions' parameters on riding comfort and contact forces. The use of lugged tires coupled with the operation over banked, irregular and deformable tracks, determines significant levels of vertical acceleration over several components of the tractor. These operating conditions have a direct effect on the driver, whose alertness and efficiency are undermined by the exposure to high levels of acceleration for a long time. Secondly, variations of the normal and traction forces provided by the tires affect the quality of tillage and other operations. The paper presents a multi-body vehicle model of a tractor interfaced with a tire-soil contact model allowing to take into account soil's deformation and tread pattern design.
Technical Paper

Development of a CFD Approach to Model Fuel-Air Mixing in Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-0146
Direct-injection represents a consolidated technology to increase performance and efficiency in spark-ignition engines. It reduces the knock tendency and makes engine downsizing possible through the use of turbocharging. Better control of CO and HC emissions at cold-start is also ensured since there is no wall-impingement in the intake port. However, to take advantages of all the theoretical benefits derived from GDI technology, detailed investigations of both fuel-air mixing and combustion processes are necessary to extend the stratified charge operations in the engine map and to reduce soot emissions, that are now severely regulated by emission standards. In this work, the authors developed a CFD methodology to investigate and optimize the fuel-air mixing process in direct-injection, spark-ignition engines. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is used to model the evolution of the fuel spray emerging from a multi-hole injector.
Technical Paper

Application of the CTC Model to Predict Combustion and Pollutant Emissions in a Common-Rail Diesel Engine Operating with Multiple Injections and High EGR

2012-04-16
2012-01-0154
Multiple injections and high EGR rates are now widely adopted for combustion and emissions control in passenger car diesel engines. In a wide range of operating conditions, fuel is provided through one to five separated injection events, and recirculated gas fractions between 0 to 30% are used. Within this context, fast and reliable multi-dimensional models are necessary to define suitable injection strategies for different operating points and reduce both the costs and time required for engine design and development. In this work, the authors have applied a modified version of the characteristic time-scale combustion model (CTC) to predict combustion and pollutant emissions in diesel engines using advanced injection strategies. The Shell auto-ignition model is used to predict auto-ignition, with a suitable set of coefficients that were tuned for diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-3D Model for the Simulation of the Unsteady Flows in I.C. Engine Pipe Systems

2012-04-16
2012-01-0675
Increasing demands on the capabilities of engine simulation and the ability to accurately predict both performance and acoustics has lead to the development of several numerical tools to help engine manufacturers during the prototyping stage. The aid of CFD tools (3D and 1D) can remarkably reduce the duration and the costs of this stage. The need of achieving good accuracy, along with acceptable computational runtime, has given the spur to the development of a geometry based quasi-3D approach. This is designed to model the acoustics and the fluid dynamics of both intake and exhaust system components used in internal combustion engines. Models of components are built using a network of quasi-3D cells based primarily on the geometry of the system. The solution procedure is based on an explicitly time marching staggered grid approach making use of a flux limiter to prevent numerical instabilities.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of Soot and De-NOx Reaction Phenomena in SCRF Systems

2011-06-09
2011-37-0031
The development of thermally durable zeolite NH3/Urea-SCR formulations coupled with that of high porosity filters substrates has opened the way to integrate PM and NOx control into a single device, namely an SCR-coated Diesel Particulate Filter (SCRF). A few experimental works are already present in the literature regarding SCRF systems, mainly addressing the DeNOx performances of the system (in both presence and absence of soot) under both steady state and transient conditions. The purpose of the present work is to perform a simulation study focused on phenomena which are expected to play key roles in SCRF systems, such as coupling of reaction and diffusion phenomena, soot effect on DeNOx activity, SCR coating effect on soot regeneration and filtration efficiency and competition between soot oxidation and DeNOx processes involving NO2.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Injection Adaptation by Input Shaping for Low NOx Emissions during Transients

2014-04-01
2014-01-1161
Especially in view of more and more stringent emission legislation in passenger cars it is required to reduce the amount of pollutants. In the case of Diesel engines mainly NOx and PM are emitted during engine operation. The main influence factors for these pollutants are the in-cylinder oxygen concentration and the injected fuel amount. Typically the engine control task can be divided into two separate main parts, the fuel and the air system. Commonly air system control, consisting of a turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation control, is used to provide the required amount of oxygen and address the emission targets, whereas the fuel is used to provide the desired torque. Especially in transient maneuvers the different time scales of both systems can lead to emission peaks which are not desired. Against this background in this work instead of the common way to address the air system, the fuel system is considered to reduce emission peaks during transients.
Technical Paper

LES of Flow Processes in an SI Engine Using Two Approaches: OpenFoam and PsiPhi

2014-04-01
2014-01-1121
In this study two different simulation approaches to large eddy simulation of spark-ignition engines are compared. Additionally, some of the simulation results are compared to experimentally obtained in-cylinder velocity measurements. The first approach applies unstructured grids with an automated meshing procedure, using OpenFoam and Lib-ICE with a mapping approach. The second approach applies the efficient in-house code PsiPhi on equidistant, Cartesian grids, representing walls by immersed boundaries, where the moving piston and valves are described as topologically connected groups of Lagrangian particles. In the experiments, two-dimensional two-component particle image velocimetry is applied in the central tumble plane of the cylinder of an optically accessible engine. Good agreement between numerical results and experiment are obtained by both approaches.
Technical Paper

Identification of Agricultural Tyres' Handling Characteristics from Full Vehicle Experimental Tests

2014-04-01
2014-01-0874
For passenger cars, individual tyre model parameters, used in vehicle models able to simulate vehicle handling behavior, are traditionally derived from expensive component indoor laboratory tests as a result of an identification procedure minimizing the error with respect to force and slip measurements. Indoor experiments on agricultural tyres are instead more challenging and thus generally not performed due to tyre size and applied forces. However, the knowledge of their handling characteristics is becoming more and more important since in the next few years, all agricultural vehicles are expected to run on ordinary asphalt roads at a speed of 80km/h. The present paper presents a methodology to identify agricultural tyres' handling characteristics based only on the measurements carried out on board vehicle (vehicle sideslip angle, yaw rate, lateral acceleration, speed and steer angle) during standard handling maneuvers (step-steers, J-turns, etc.), instead than during indoor tests.
Technical Paper

Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms for Diesel Spray Combustion Simulations

2013-09-08
2013-24-0014
Detailed chemistry represents a fundamental pre-requisite for a realistic simulation of combustion process in Diesel engines to properly reproduce ignition delay and flame structure (lift-off and soot precursors) in a wide range of operating conditions. In this work, the authors developed reduced mechanisms for n-dodecane starting from the comprehensive kinetic mechanism developed at Politecnico di Milano, well validated and tested in a wide range of operating conditions [1]. An algorithm combining Sensitivity and Flux Analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The size of the mechanisms can be limited to less than 100 species and incorporates the most important details of low-temperature kinetics for a proper prediction of the ignition delay. Furthermore, the high-temperature chemistry is also properly described both in terms of reactivity and species formation, including unsaturated compounds such as acetylene, whose concentration controls soot formation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of PPCI Combustion at Low and High Charge Stratification Levels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0739
Partially premixed compression ignition combustion is one of the low temperature combustion techniques which is being actively investigated. This approach provides a significant reduction of both soot and NOx emissions. Comparing to the homogeneous charge compression ignition mode, PPCI combustion provides better control on ignition timing and noise reduction through air-fuel mixture stratification which lowers heat release rate compared to other advanced combustion modes. In this work, CFD simulations were conducted for a low and a high air-fuel mixture stratification cases on a light-duty optical engine operating in PPCI mode. Such conditions for PRF70 as fuel were experimentally achieved by injection timing and spray targeting at similar thermodynamic conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling n-dodecane Spray Combustion with a Representative Interactive Linear Eddy Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0571
Many new combustion concepts are currently being investigated to further improve engines in terms of both efficiency and emissions. Examples include homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), lean stratified premixed combustion, stratified charge compression ignition (SCCI), and high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines, known as low temperature combustion (LTC). All of these combustion concepts have in common that the temperatures are lower than in traditional spark ignition or diesel engines. To further improve and develop combustion concepts for clean and highly efficient engines, it is necessary to develop new computational tools that can be used to describe and optimize processes in nonstandard conditions, such as low temperature combustion.
Technical Paper

Modeling Ignition and Premixed Combustion Including Flame Stretch Effects

2017-03-28
2017-01-0553
Objective of this work is the incorporation of the flame stretch effects in an Eulerian-Lagrangian model for premixed SI combustion in order to describe ignition and flame propagation under highly inhomogeneous flow conditions. To this end, effects of energy transfer from electrical circuit and turbulent flame propagation were fully decoupled. The first ones are taken into account by Lagrangian particles whose main purpose is to generate an initial burned field in the computational domain. Turbulent flame development is instead considered only in the Eulerian gas phase for a better description of the local flow effects. To improve the model predictive capabilities, flame stretch effects were introduced in the turbulent combustion model by using formulations coming from the asymptotic theory and recently verified by means of DNS studies. Experiments carried out at Michigan Tech University in a pressurized, constant-volume vessel were used to validate the proposed approach.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Sensitivity of Soot and NOx Formation to the Operating Conditions in Heavy Duty Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0177
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are employed to describe the effect of flow parameters on the formation of soot and NOx in a heavy duty engine under low load and high load. The complexity of diesel combustion, specially when soot, NOx and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution. In this work, Multiple Representative Interactive Flamelets (MRIF) method is employed to describe the chemical reactions, ignition, flame propagation and emissions in the engine. A phenomenological model for soot formation, including soot nucleation, coagulation and oxidation with O2 and OH is incorporated into the flamelet combustion model. Different strategies for modelling NOx are chosen to take into account the longer time scale for NOx formation. The numerical results are compared with experimental data to show the validity of the model for the cases under study.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Characterization of Off-Road Terrain Severity

2006-10-31
2006-01-3498
Highway and roadway surface measurement is a practice that has been ongoing for decades now. This sort of measurement is intended to ensure a safe level of road perturbances. The measurement may be conducted by a slow moving apparatus directly measuring the elevation of the road, at varying distance intervals, to obtain a road profile, with varying degrees of resolution. An alternate means is to measure the surface roughness at highway speeds using accelerometers coupled with high speed distance measurements, such as laser sensors. Vehicles out rigged with such a system are termed inertial profilers. This type of inertial measurement provides a sort of filtered roadway profile. Much research has been conducted on the analysis of highway roughness, and the associated metrics involved. In many instances, it is desirable to maintain an off-road course such that the course will provide sufficient challenges to a vehicle during durability testing.
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